Borders are barriers and bridges. Borders continue to define the front line of nation states, their will and their ability to defend one’s own territory. Borders gain meaning only in combination with those factors which define life outside and inside a border. Within borders, the authority of domestic rules and regulations is essential. Outside borders, the ability to protect is of primary importance. Illegal migration and transnational forms of organized crimes are involuntary transgressions of boundaries drawn by countries with the purpose to protect those living behind the border. Borders can become empty shells if state authority does not turn formal sovereignty into applied control of what comes in and what gets out. Borders can become prisons if they prevent people from leaving and living a life of their own choice elsewhere—or they can become spaces of deterrence for those who need shelter, protection and a new beginning elsewhere but cannot cross the boundaries of the preferred land. Emigration, immigration and the sad situation of enforced migration of refugees, touch on the complexity of borders. Borders are about orders. Borders do not design cultures nor do they prevent cultures and civilizations from thriving on either side. Borders are legal instruments, yet are often understood as defining national identity.
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Australia, Barbados, Belgium, Bangladesh, Canada, Cyprus, United States, United Kingdom, Switzerland, South Korea, South Africa (requires permission), Egypt (requires prior permission), Greece, France, Finland, Germany (requires prior permission), Iraq, Italy, Israel, Ireland, Hungary, Iceland, Sweden, Slovenia, Syria, Serbia, Armenia, Lebanon, Malta, Spain (allowed only with certain Latin American countries), Tonga, Philippines, Romania, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka (by retention), Pakistan (only accepted with 16 countries), Portugal, Turkey (requires permission), according to: List of countries allowing dual citizenship: Best Citizenships, online at: www.best-citizenships.com/dual-citizenship-countries.htm. Accessed January 31, 2017.
UNHCR High Commissioner for Refugees, António Guterres, admitted in late 2015 that the Syrian authorities had issued passports to all Syrians living in Lebanon and Jordan, knowing that as a consequence these people—supporters or opponents of the Assad government—could travel visa free to Turkey and then try to be smuggled into Europe; see: Stahnke (2015).
Treaty of Lisbon (Treaty on European Union), Article 42(7) reads as follows: “If a Member State is the victim of armed aggression on its territory, the other Member States shall have towards it an obligation of aid and assistance by all the means in their power, in accordance with Article 51 of the United Nations Charter.” Online at: www.eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A12012M%2FTXT. Treaty of Lisbon (Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union), Article 222(2) and 222(3) reads as follows: “2. Should a Member State be the object of a terrorist attack or the victim of a natural or man-made disaster, the other Member States shall assist it at the request of its political authorities. To that end, the Member States shall coordinate between themselves in the Council. 3. The arrangements for the implementation by the Union of the solidarity clause shall be defined by a decision adopted by the Council acting on a joint proposal by the Commission and the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.” Online at: www.eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex%3A12012E%2FTXT Accessed January 31, 2017.
Goal 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere; Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture; Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages; Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all; Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls; Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all; Goal 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all; Goal 8: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all; Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation; Goal 10: Reduce inequality within and among countries; Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable; Goal 12: Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns; Goal 13:Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts; Goal 14: Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development; Goal 15: Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss; Goal 16: Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels; Goal 17: Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development. For further details see: United Nations Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform, online at: www.sustainabledevelopment.un.org/. Accessed January 31, 2017.
According to estimates by RAND researcher Seth G. Jones the number of jihadi fighters had increased by 2013 to any number between 45,000 and 105,000, organized in 49 different jihadist groups: see Jones (2014).
A list would include: Haiti, Venezuela, Mali, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Mali, Nigeria, Algeria, Libya, Egypt, Yemen, South Sudan, Burundi, Syria, Iraq, Palestine, Yemen, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Eritrea, Central African Republic, Somalia, North Korea.
In reaction to the self-perception of being treated as secondary citizens, Muslims in Europe might begin to organize themselves not only in a religious sense but also politically as indicated by the establishment of Denk, the first political party of immigrants in the Netherlands in 2015. See: Euro-Islam (2015).