Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Since the dawn of the renaissance scientific inquiry has been guided by a mechanistic view of the world. Accordingly, the understanding of scientific theories, natural environments and human interactions under this paradigm has always aimed to simplify complex ideas as a means to facilitate greater understanding and innovation. Although this paradigm has undoubtedly served humanity well, there is an increasing realisation that a mechanistic view of the world does not provide a complete understanding of phenomena that are subject to dynamic change. This is especially true of human-environmental systems such as disaster resilience that are constantly altered through their mutual interaction between humans and their specific disaster risk contexts. This chapter argues that in spite of this reality, the mechanistic paradigm, and the linear reasoning associated with it, still dominates the theories and policies aimed at understanding and building disaster resilience and reducing disaster risks. It is argued that the presence of this type of reasoning places a lesser importance on understanding contextually specific variables and their effect on resilience profiles as well as the dynamic interaction that subsume disaster resilience. This often leads to very shallow and oversimplified understandings of disaster resilience.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Adger, W. N. (2006). Vulnerability. Global Environmental Change, 16, 268–281.
Ahmed, E., Elgazzar, A. S., & Hegazi, A. S. (2005). An overview of complex adaptive systems. http://www.arxiv.org/pdf/nlin/0506059. Accessed 12 Mar 2015.
Alexander, D. (2013). Resilience and disaster risk reduction: An etymological journey. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 13(11), 2707–2716.
Anderson, P. (1999). Complexity theory and organization science. Organization Science, 10(3), 216–232.
Begun, J. W., Zimmerman, B., & Dooley, K. (2003). Health care organizations as complex adaptive systems. In S. M. Mick & M. Wyttenbach (Eds.), Advances in health care organization theory (pp. 253–288). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Birkmann, J. (2006). Measuring vulnerability to promote disaster-resilient societies: Conceptual frameworks and definitions. In J. Birkmann (Ed.), Measuring vulnerability to natural hazards: Towards disaster resilient societies (p. 527). New Delhi: TERI Press.
Blaikie, P., Cannon, T., Davis, I., & Wisner, B. (2004). At risk: Natural hazards, people’s vulnerability and disasters. Routledge.
Boal, K. B., & Schultz, P. L. (2007). Storytelling, time, and evolution: The role of strategic leadership in complex adaptive systems. The Leadership Quarterly, 18(1), 411–428.
Cardona, O. D. (2004). The need for rethinking the concepts of vulnerability and risk from a holistic perspective: A necessary review and criticism for effective risk management, Chapter 3. In G. Bankoff, G. Ferk, & Hilhorst (Eds.),. 2003 Mapping vulnerability: Disasters, development and people. London: Earthscan.
Cimellaro, G., Reinhorn, A., & Bruneau, M. (2010). Framework for analytical quantification of disaster resilience. Engineering Structures, 32(11), 3639–3649.
Coetzee, C., & Van Niekerk, D. (2018). Should all disaster risks be reduced? A perspective from the systems concept of the edge of chaos. In Environmental Hazards (pp. 1–12).
Colding, J., Elmqvist, T., & Olsson, P. (2003). Living with disturbance: Building resilience in social-ecological systems. In F. Berkes, J. Colding, & C. Folke (Eds.), Navigating social-ecological systems: Building resilience for complexity and change (pp. 163–185). Cambridge University Press.
Comfort, L. K., Dunn, M., Johnson, D., Skertich, R., & Zagorecki, A. (2004). Coordination in complex systems: Increasing efficiency in disaster mitigation and response. International Journal of Emergency Management, 2(1–2), 62–80.
Costanza, R., Wainger, L., Folke, C., & Mäler, K. G. (1993). Modeling complex ecological economic systems. Bioscience, 43(8), 545–555.
Cutter, S. L., Barnes, L., Berry, M., Burton, C., Evan, E., Tate, E., & Webb, J. (2008). A place-based model for understanding community resilience to natural disasters. Global Environmental Change, 18, 598–606.
Dahlberg, R. (2015). Resilience and complexity: Conjoining the discourses of two contested concepts? Culture Unbound, 7(2015), 541–557.
Fjord, L., & Manderson, L. (2009). Anthropological perspectives on disasters and disability: An introduction. Human Organization, 68(1), 64–72.
Fraser, E. D. (2003). Social vulnerability and ecological fragility: Building bridges between social and natural sciences using the Irish potato famine as a case study. Conservation Ecology, 7(2), 1–9.
Gaillard, J. (2010). Vulnerability, capacity and resilience: Perspectives for climate and development policy. Journal of International Development, 22(2), 218–232.
Hartvigsen, G., Kinzig, A., & Peterson, G. (1998). Complex adaptive systems: Use and analysis of complex adaptive systems in ecosystem science: overview of special section. Ecosystems, 1(5), 427–430.
Hawking, S. W. (1988). A brief history of time. London: Bantam Press.
Heijmans, A. (2001, June 29–30). Vulnerability: A matter of perception. Paper presented at International Work-Conference on ‘Vulnerability in Disaster Theory and Practice. Wageningen.
Holden, L. (2005). Complex adaptive systems: Concept analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 52(6), 651–657.
Holland, J. (1992). Complex adaptive system theory. Daedalus, 121(1), 17–30.
Holland, J. H. (1999). Emergence: From chaos to order. Cambridge: Perseus books.
Holling, C. (1973). Resilience and stability of ecological system. Annual Review of Ecological Systems, 4(1), 1–23.
Hufschmidt, G. (2011). A comparative analysis of several vulnerability concepts. Natural Hazards, 58(2), 621–643.
Innes, J., & Booher, D. (1999). Consensus building and complex adaptive systems: A framework for evaluating collaborative planning. Journal of the American Planning Association, 65(4), 412–423.
Kelman, I. (2011). Understanding vulnerability to understand disasters. Canadian Risk and Hazards Network, pp. 2–14.
Klein, R., Nicholls, R., & Thomalla, F. (2003). Resilience to natural hazards: How useful is this concept? Environmental Hazards, 5(1), 35–45.
Kuhlicke, C. (2010). Resilience: A capacity and a myth: Findings from an in-depth case study in disaster management research. Natural Hazards, 67(1), 61–76.
Lansing, S. (2003). Complex adaptive systems. Annual Review of Anthropology, 32, 183–204.
Levin, S. A. (1998). Ecosystems and the biospheres as complex adaptive systems. Ecosystems, 1, 431–436.
Lichtenstein, B. B., Uhl-Bien, Marion, R., Seers, A., & Orton, J. D. (2006). Complexity leadership theory: An interactive perspective on leading in complex adaptive systems. Emergence: Complexity and Organization, 8(4), 2–12.
Lorenz, E. N. (1963). Deterministic nonperiodic flow. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 20(2), 130–141.
Low, B., Ostrom, E., Simon, C., & Wilson, J. (2003). Redundancy and diversity: Do they influence optimal management. In F. Berkes, J. Colding, & C. Folke (Eds.), Navigating social-ecological systems: Building resilience for complexity and change (pp. 83–114). Cambridge University Press.
Manyena, S. B. (2006). The concept of resilience revisited. Disasters, 30(4), 434–450.
Mathews, K. M., White, M. C., & Long, R. G. (1999). Why study complexity in social sciences? Human Relations, 52(4), 440–462.
Mayunga, J. (2007). Understanding and applying the concept of community disaster resilience: A capital-based approach. Academy for social vulnerability and resilience building, Munich.
McCarthy, I. P., Tsinopoulos, C., Allen, P., & Rose-Anderssen, C. (2006). New product development as a complex adaptive system of decisions. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 23(5), 437–456.
Miller, F., Osbahr, H., Boyd, E., Thomalla, F., Bharwani, S., Ziervogel, G., Walker, B., Birkmann, J., Van der Leeuw, S., & Rockström, J. (2010). Resilience and vulnerability: Complementary or conflicting concepts. E&S, 15(3), 1–11.
Morrel, B., & Ramanujan, R. (1999). Through the looking glass of complexity: The dynamics of organizations as adaptive and evolving systems. Organization Science, 10(3), 278–293.
Norris, F. H., Stevens, S. P., Pfefferbaum, B., Wyche, K. F., & Pfefferbaum, R. L. (2008). Community resilience as a metaphor, theory, set of capacities, and strategy for disaster readiness. American journal of community psychology, 41(1–2), 127–150.
Oxley, M. (2015). Review of the Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction 2015–2030. Global Network for Disaster Risk Reduction (GNDR). http://www.gndr.org/news/item/1490-critique-to-sfdrr.html. Date of Access: 21 Aug 2015.
Plsek, P. (2001). Redesigning health care with insights from the science of complex adaptive systems. In Committee on Quality of Health Care in America, Institute of Medicine (Ed.), Crossing the quality chasm: A new health system for the 21st century (pp. 309–359). Washington, DC: National Academy press.
Railsback, S. (2001). Concepts from complex adaptive systems as a framework for individual-based modelling. Ecological Modelling, 139(1), 47–62.
Rammel, C., Stagl, S., & Wilfing, H. (2007). Managing complex adaptive systems – A co-evolutionary perspective on natural resource management. Ecological Economics, 63(1), 9–21.
Renschler, C., Frazier, A., Arendt, L., Cimellaro, G., Reinhorn, A., & Bruneau, M. (2010). Developing the peoples resilience framework for defining and measuring disaster resilience at community scale. In 9Th U.S. national and 10Th Canadian conference on earthquake engineering, proceedings of conference in, Toronto, Canada, 2010, EERI, pp. 1–10.
Rihani, S., & Geyer, R. (2001). Complexity: An appropriate framework for development? Progress in Development Studies, 1(3), 237–245.
Rose, A. (2007). Economic resilience to natural and man-made disasters: Multidisciplinary origins and contextual dimensions. Environmental Hazards, 7(4), 383–398.
Sawyer, K. R. (2004). The mechanisms of emergence. Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 34(2), 260–282.
Schneider, M., & Somers, M. (2006). Organizations as complex adaptive systems: Implications of complexity theory for leadership research. The Leadership Quarterly, 17(1), 351–365.
Schoones, I. (1999). New ecology and the social sciences: What prospects for a fruitful engagement? Annual Review of Anthropology, 28, 479–507.
Turner, B. L., Kasperson, R. E., Matson, P. A., McCarthy, J. J., Corell, R. W., Christensen, L., Eckley, N., Kasperson, J. X., Luers, A., Martello, M. L., Polsky, C., Pulsipher, A., & Schiller, A. (2003). A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100(14), 8074–8079.
United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction. (2005). Hyogo framework for action 2005–2015: Building the resilience of nations and communities to disasters. Geneva: UNISDR.
United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction. (2015). Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction 2015–2030. Geneva: UNISDR.
Vallacher, R., Read, S. J., & Nowak, A. (2002). The dynamical perspective in personality and social psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 6(4), 264–273.
Von Bertalanffy, L. (1950). An outline for general systems theory. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 1(2), 134–165.
Von Bertalanffy, L. (1968). General system theory. New York: George Braziller, 277p.
Walker, B., Carpenter, S., Rockstrom, J., Crépin, A., & Peterson, G. (2012). Drivers, “Slow” variables, “Fast” variables, shocks, and resilience. Ecology and Society, 17(3), 30–34.
Wisner, B. (2015). Lies, damned lies and statistics. Global network for disaster reduction (GNDR). http://www.gndr.org/news/events/wcdrr2015/item/1370-lies-damned-lies-andstatistics.html. Accessed 21 Aug 2015.
Wisner, B., Blaikie, P., Cannon, T., & Davis, I. (2003). At risk: Natural hazards, people’s vulnerability and disasters. London: Routledge.
Wulun, J. (2007). Understanding complexity, challenging traditional ways of thinking. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 24(4), 393–402.
Wycisk, C., McKelvey, B., & Hülsmann, M. (2008). “Smart parts” supply networks as complex adaptive systems: Analysis and implications. International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, 38(2), 108–125.
Zhou, H., Wang, J., Wan, J., & Jia, H. (2010). Resilience to natural hazards: A geographic perspective. Natural Hazards, 53(1), 21–41.
Zobel, C. (2011). Representing perceived tradeoffs in defining disaster resilience. Decision Support Systems, 50(2), 394–403.
- Building Disaster Resilience on the Edge of Chaos: A Systems Critique on Mechanistic Global Disaster Reduction Policies, Frameworks and Models
Dewald van Niekerk