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Über dieses Buch

The sixteen-volume set comprising the LNCS volumes 11205-11220 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Computer Vision, ECCV 2018, held in Munich, Germany, in September 2018.The 776 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 2439 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on learning for vision; computational photography; human analysis; human sensing; stereo and reconstruction; optimization; matching and recognition; video attention; and poster sessions.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Learning for Vision

Frontmatter

Group Normalization

Batch Normalization (BN) is a milestone technique in the development of deep learning, enabling various networks to train. However, normalizing along the batch dimension introduces problems—BN’s error increases rapidly when the batch size becomes smaller, caused by inaccurate batch statistics estimation. This limits BN’s usage for training larger models and transferring features to computer vision tasks including detection, segmentation, and video, which require small batches constrained by memory consumption. In this paper, we present Group Normalization (GN) as a simple alternative to BN. GN divides the channels into groups and computes within each group the mean and variance for normalization. GN’s computation is independent of batch sizes, and its accuracy is stable in a wide range of batch sizes. On ResNet-50 trained in ImageNet, GN has 10.6% lower error than its BN counterpart when using a batch size of 2; when using typical batch sizes, GN is comparably good with BN and outperforms other normalization variants. Moreover, GN can be naturally transferred from pre-training to fine-tuning. GN can outperform its BN-based counterparts for object detection and segmentation in COCO, and for video classification in Kinetics, showing that GN can effectively replace the powerful BN in a variety of tasks. GN can be easily implemented by a few lines of code.

Yuxin Wu, Kaiming He

Deep Expander Networks: Efficient Deep Networks from Graph Theory

Efficient CNN designs like ResNets and DenseNet were proposed to improve accuracy vs efficiency trade-offs. They essentially increased the connectivity, allowing efficient information flow across layers. Inspired by these techniques, we propose to model connections between filters of a CNN using graphs which are simultaneously sparse and well connected. Sparsity results in efficiency while well connectedness can preserve the expressive power of the CNNs. We use a well-studied class of graphs from theoretical computer science that satisfies these properties known as Expander graphs. Expander graphs are used to model connections between filters in CNNs to design networks called X-Nets. We present two guarantees on the connectivity of X-Nets: Each node influences every node in a layer in logarithmic steps, and the number of paths between two sets of nodes is proportional to the product of their sizes. We also propose efficient training and inference algorithms, making it possible to train deeper and wider X-Nets effectively.Expander based models give a $$4\%$$ 4 % improvement in accuracy on MobileNet over grouped convolutions, a popular technique, which has the same sparsity but worse connectivity. X-Nets give better performance trade-offs than the original ResNet and DenseNet-BC architectures. We achieve model sizes comparable to state-of-the-art pruning techniques using our simple architecture design, without any pruning. We hope that this work motivates other approaches to utilize results from graph theory to develop efficient network architectures.

Ameya Prabhu, Girish Varma, Anoop Namboodiri

Towards Realistic Predictors

A new class of predictors, denoted realistic predictors, is defined. These are predictors that, like humans, assess the difficulty of examples, reject to work on those that are deemed too hard, but guarantee good performance on the ones they operate on. In this paper, we talk about a particular case of it, realistic classifiers. The central problem in realistic classification, the design of an inductive predictor of hardness scores, is considered. It is argued that this should be a predictor independent of the classifier itself, but tuned to it, and learned without explicit supervision, so as to learn from its mistakes. A new architecture is proposed to accomplish these goals by complementing the classifier with an auxiliary hardness prediction network (HP-Net). Sharing the same inputs as classifiers, the HP-Net outputs the hardness scores to be fed to the classifier as loss weights. Alternatively, the output of classifiers is also fed to HP-Net in a new defined loss, variant of cross entropy loss. The two networks are trained jointly in an adversarial way where, as the classifier learns to improve its predictions, the HP-Net refines its hardness scores. Given the learned hardness predictor, a simple implementation of realistic classifiers is proposed by rejecting examples with large scores. Experimental results not only provide evidence in support of the effectiveness of the proposed architecture and the learned hardness predictor, but also show that the realistic classifier always improves performance on the examples that it accepts to classify, performing better on these examples than an equivalent nonrealistic classifier. All of these make it possible for realistic classifiers to guarantee a good performance.

Pei Wang, Nuno Vasconcelos

Learning SO(3) Equivariant Representations with Spherical CNNs

We address the problem of 3D rotation equivariance in convolutional neural networks. 3D rotations have been a challenging nuisance in 3D classification tasks requiring higher capacity and extended data augmentation in order to tackle it. We model 3D data with multi-valued spherical functions and we propose a novel spherical convolutional network that implements exact convolutions on the sphere by realizing them in the spherical harmonic domain. Resulting filters have local symmetry and are localized by enforcing smooth spectra. We apply a novel pooling on the spectral domain and our operations are independent of the underlying spherical resolution throughout the network. We show that networks with much lower capacity and without requiring data augmentation can exhibit performance comparable to the state of the art in standard retrieval and classification benchmarks.

Carlos Esteves, Christine Allen-Blanchette, Ameesh Makadia, Kostas Daniilidis

Poster Session

Frontmatter

Learnable PINs: Cross-modal Embeddings for Person Identity

We propose and investigate an identity sensitive joint embedding of face and voice. Such an embedding enables cross-modal retrieval from voice to face and from face to voice.We make the following four contributions: first, we show that the embedding can be learnt from videos of talking faces, without requiring any identity labels, using a form of cross-modal self-supervision; second, we develop a curriculum learning schedule for hard negative mining targeted to this task that is essential for learning to proceed successfully; third, we demonstrate and evaluate cross-modal retrieval for identities unseen and unheard during training over a number of scenarios and establish a benchmark for this novel task; finally, we show an application of using the joint embedding for automatically retrieving and labelling characters in TV dramas.

Arsha Nagrani, Samuel Albanie, Andrew Zisserman

Separating Reflection and Transmission Images in the Wild

The reflections caused by common semi-reflectors, such as glass windows, can impact the performance of computer vision algorithms. State-of-the-art methods can remove reflections on synthetic data and in controlled scenarios. However, they are based on strong assumptions and do not generalize well to real-world images. Contrary to a common misconception, real-world images are challenging even when polarization information is used. We present a deep learning approach to separate the reflected and the transmitted components of the recorded irradiance, which explicitly uses the polarization properties of light. To train it, we introduce an accurate synthetic data generation pipeline, which simulates realistic reflections, including those generated by curved and non-ideal surfaces, non-static scenes, and high-dynamic-range scenes.

Patrick Wieschollek, Orazio Gallo, Jinwei Gu, Jan Kautz

Object Level Visual Reasoning in Videos

Human activity recognition is typically addressed by detecting key concepts like global and local motion, features related to object classes present in the scene, as well as features related to the global context. The next open challenges in activity recognition require a level of understanding that pushes beyond this and call for models with capabilities for fine distinction and detailed comprehension of interactions between actors and objects in a scene. We propose a model capable of learning to reason about semantically meaningful spatio-temporal interactions in videos. The key to our approach is a choice of performing this reasoning at the object level through the integration of state of the art object detection networks. This allows the model to learn detailed spatial interactions that exist at a semantic, object-interaction relevant level. We evaluate our method on three standard datasets (Twenty-BN Something-Something, VLOG and EPIC Kitchens) and achieve state of the art results on all of them. Finally, we show visualizations of the interactions learned by the model, which illustrate object classes and their interactions corresponding to different activity classes.

Fabien Baradel, Natalia Neverova, Christian Wolf, Julien Mille, Greg Mori

Maximum Margin Metric Learning over Discriminative Nullspace for Person Re-identification

In this paper we propose a novel metric learning framework called Nullspace Kernel Maximum Margin Metric Learning (NK3ML) which efficiently addresses the small sample size (SSS) problem inherent in person re-identification and offers a significant performance gain over existing state-of-the-art methods. Taking advantage of the very high dimensionality of the feature space, the metric is learned using a maximum margin criterion (MMC) over a discriminative nullspace where all training sample points of a given class map onto a single point, minimizing the within class scatter. A kernel version of MMC is used to obtain a better between class separation. Extensive experiments on four challenging benchmark datasets for person re-identification demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms all existing methods. We obtain 99.8% rank-1 accuracy on the most widely accepted and challenging dataset VIPeR, compared to the previous state of the art being only 63.92%.

T. M. Feroz Ali, Subhasis Chaudhuri

Incremental Multi-graph Matching via Diversity and Randomness Based Graph Clustering

Multi-graph matching refers to finding correspondences across graphs, which are traditionally solved by matching all the graphs in a single batch. However in real-world applications, graphs are often collected incrementally, rather than once for all. In this paper, we present an incremental multi-graph matching approach, which deals with the arriving graph utilizing the previous matching results under the global consistency constraint. When a new graph arrives, rather than re-optimizing over all graphs, we propose to partition graphs into subsets with certain topological structure and conduct optimization within each subset. The partitioning procedure is guided by the diversity within partitions and randomness over iterations, and we present an interpretation showing why these two factors are essential. The final matching results are calculated over all subsets via an intersection graph. Extensive experimental results on synthetic and real image datasets show that our algorithm notably improves the efficiency without sacrificing the accuracy.

Tianshu Yu, Junchi Yan, Wei Liu, Baoxin Li

Visual Text Correction

This paper introduces a new problem, called Visual Text Correction (VTC), i.e., finding and replacing an inaccurate word in the textual description of a video. We propose a deep network that can simultaneously detect an inaccuracy in a sentence, and fix it by replacing the inaccurate word(s). Our method leverages the semantic interdependence of videos and words, as well as the short-term and long-term relations of the words in a sentence. Our proposed formulation can solve the VTC problem employing an End-to-End network in two steps: (1) Inaccuracy detection, and (2) correct word prediction. In detection step, each word of a sentence is reconstructed such that the reconstruction for the inaccurate word is maximized. We exploit both Short Term and Long Term Dependencies employing respectively Convolutional N-Grams and LSTMs to reconstruct the word vectors. For the correction step, the basic idea is to simply substitute the word with the maximum reconstruction error for a better one. The second step is essentially a classification problem where the classes are the words in the dictionary as replacement options. Furthermore, to train and evaluate our model, we propose an approach to automatically construct a large dataset for the VTC problem. Our experiments and performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed method provides very good results and also highlights the general challenges in solving the VTC problem. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first of its kind for the Visual Text Correction task.

Amir Mazaheri, Mubarak Shah

Generalizing a Person Retrieval Model Hetero- and Homogeneously

Person re-identification (re-ID) poses unique challenges for unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA) in that classes in the source and target sets (domains) are entirely different and that image variations are largely caused by cameras. Given a labeled source training set and an unlabeled target training set, we aim to improve the generalization ability of re-ID models on the target testing set. To this end, we introduce a Hetero-Homogeneous Learning (HHL) method. Our method enforces two properties simultaneously: (1) camera invariance, learned via positive pairs formed by unlabeled target images and their camera style transferred counterparts; (2) domain connectedness, by regarding source/target images as negative matching pairs to the target/source images. The first property is implemented by homogeneous learning because training pairs are collected from the same domain. The second property is achieved by heterogeneous learning because we sample training pairs from both the source and target domains. On Market-1501, DukeMTMC-reID and CUHK03, we show that the two properties contribute indispensably and that very competitive re-ID UDA accuracy is achieved. Code is available at: https://github.com/zhunzhong07/HHL .

Zhun Zhong, Liang Zheng, Shaozi Li, Yi Yang

Domain Adaptation Through Synthesis for Unsupervised Person Re-identification

Drastic variations in illumination across surveillance cameras make the person re-identification problem extremely challenging. Current large scale re-identification datasets have a significant number of training subjects, but lack diversity in lighting conditions. As a result, a trained model requires fine-tuning to become effective under an unseen illumination condition. To alleviate this problem, we introduce a new synthetic dataset that contains hundreds of illumination conditions. Specifically, we use 100 virtual humans illuminated with multiple HDR environment maps which accurately model realistic indoor and outdoor lighting. To achieve better accuracy in unseen illumination conditions we propose a novel domain adaptation technique that takes advantage of our synthetic data and performs fine-tuning in a completely unsupervised way. Our approach yields significantly higher accuracy than semi-supervised and unsupervised state-of-the-art methods, and is very competitive with supervised techniques.

Sławomir Bąk, Peter Carr, Jean-François Lalonde

SOD-MTGAN: Small Object Detection via Multi-Task Generative Adversarial Network

Object detection is a fundamental and important problem in computer vision. Although impressive results have been achieved on large/medium sized objects in large-scale detection benchmarks (e.g. the COCO dataset), the performance on small objects is far from satisfactory. The reason is that small objects lack sufficient detailed appearance information, which can distinguish them from the background or similar objects. To deal with the small object detection problem, we propose an end-to-end multi-task generative adversarial network (MTGAN). In the MTGAN, the generator is a super-resolution network, which can up-sample small blurred images into fine-scale ones and recover detailed information for more accurate detection. The discriminator is a multi-task network, which describes each super-resolved image patch with a real/fake score, object category scores, and bounding box regression offsets. Furthermore, to make the generator recover more details for easier detection, the classification and regression losses in the discriminator are back-propagated into the generator during training. Extensive experiments on the challenging COCO dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in restoring a clear super-resolved image from a blurred small one, and show that the detection performance, especially for small sized objects, improves over state-of-the-art methods.

Yancheng Bai, Yongqiang Zhang, Mingli Ding, Bernard Ghanem

Facial Expression Recognition with Inconsistently Annotated Datasets

Annotation errors and bias are inevitable among different facial expression datasets due to the subjectiveness of annotating facial expressions. Ascribe to the inconsistent annotations, performance of existing facial expression recognition (FER) methods cannot keep improving when the training set is enlarged by merging multiple datasets. To address the inconsistency, we propose an Inconsistent Pseudo Annotations to Latent Truth (IPA2LT) framework to train a FER model from multiple inconsistently labeled datasets and large scale unlabeled data. In IPA2LT, we assign each sample more than one labels with human annotations or model predictions. Then, we propose an end-to-end LTNet with a scheme of discovering the latent truth from the inconsistent pseudo labels and the input face images. To our knowledge, IPA2LT serves as the first work to solve the training problem with inconsistently labeled FER datasets. Experiments on synthetic data validate the effectiveness of the proposed method in learning from inconsistent labels. We also conduct extensive experiments in FER and show that our method outperforms other state-of-the-art and optional methods under a rigorous evaluation protocol involving 7 FER datasets.

Jiabei Zeng, Shiguang Shan, Xilin Chen

Stroke Controllable Fast Style Transfer with Adaptive Receptive Fields

The Fast Style Transfer methods have been recently proposed to transfer a photograph to an artistic style in real-time. This task involves controlling the stroke size in the stylized results, which remains an open challenge. In this paper, we present a stroke controllable style transfer network that can achieve continuous and spatial stroke size control. By analyzing the factors that influence the stroke size, we propose to explicitly account for the receptive field and the style image scales. We propose a StrokePyramid module to endow the network with adaptive receptive fields, and two training strategies to achieve faster convergence and augment new stroke sizes upon a trained model respectively. By combining the proposed runtime control strategies, our network can achieve continuous changes in stroke sizes and produce distinct stroke sizes in different spatial regions within the same output image.

Yongcheng Jing, Yang Liu, Yezhou Yang, Zunlei Feng, Yizhou Yu, Dacheng Tao, Mingli Song

Towards End-to-End License Plate Detection and Recognition: A Large Dataset and Baseline

Most current license plate (LP) detection and recognition approaches are evaluated on a small and usually unrepresentative dataset since there are no publicly available large diverse datasets. In this paper, we introduce CCPD, a large and comprehensive LP dataset. All images are taken manually by workers of a roadside parking management company and are annotated carefully. To our best knowledge, CCPD is the largest publicly available LP dataset to date with over 250k unique car images, and the only one provides vertices location annotations. With CCPD, we present a novel network model which can predict the bounding box and recognize the corresponding LP number simultaneously with high speed and accuracy. Through comparative experiments, we demonstrate our model outperforms current object detection and recognition approaches in both accuracy and speed. In real-world applications, our model recognizes LP numbers directly from relatively high-resolution images at over 61 fps and 98.5% accuracy.

Zhenbo Xu, Wei Yang, Ajin Meng, Nanxue Lu, Huan Huang, Changchun Ying, Liusheng Huang

Learning Warped Guidance for Blind Face Restoration

This paper studies the problem of blind face restoration from an unconstrained blurry, noisy, low-resolution, or compressed image (i.e., degraded observation). For better recovery of fine facial details, we modify the problem setting by taking both the degraded observation and a high-quality guided image of the same identity as input to our guided face restoration network (GFRNet). However, the degraded observation and guided image generally are different in pose, illumination and expression, thereby making plain CNNs (e.g., U-Net) fail to recover fine and identity-aware facial details. To tackle this issue, our GFRNet model includes both a warping subnetwork (WarpNet) and a reconstruction subnetwork (RecNet). The WarpNet is introduced to predict flow field for warping the guided image to correct pose and expression (i.e., warped guidance), while the RecNet takes the degraded observation and warped guidance as input to produce the restoration result. Due to that the ground-truth flow field is unavailable, landmark loss together with total variation regularization are incorporated to guide the learning of WarpNet. Furthermore, to make the model applicable to blind restoration, our GFRNet is trained on the synthetic data with versatile settings on blur kernel, noise level, downsampling scale factor, and JPEG quality factor. Experiments show that our GFRNet not only performs favorably against the state-of-the-art image and face restoration methods, but also generates visually photo-realistic results on real degraded facial images.

Xiaoming Li, Ming Liu, Yuting Ye, Wangmeng Zuo, Liang Lin, Ruigang Yang

Face De-spoofing: Anti-spoofing via Noise Modeling

Many prior face anti-spoofing works develop discriminative models for recognizing the subtle differences between live and spoof faces. Those approaches often regard the image as an indivisible unit, and process it holistically, without explicit modeling of the spoofing process. In this work, motivated by the noise modeling and denoising algorithms, we identify a new problem of face de-spoofing, for the purpose of anti-spoofing: inversely decomposing a spoof face into a spoof noise and a live face, and then utilizing the spoof noise for classification. A CNN architecture with proper constraints and supervisions is proposed to overcome the problem of having no ground truth for the decomposition. We evaluate the proposed method on multiple face anti-spoofing databases. The results show promising improvements due to our spoof noise modeling. Moreover, the estimated spoof noise provides a visualization which helps to understand the added spoof noise by each spoof medium.

Amin Jourabloo, Yaojie Liu, Xiaoming Liu

Unsupervised Hard Example Mining from Videos for Improved Object Detection

Important gains have recently been obtained in object detection by using training objectives that focus on hard negative examples, i.e., negative examples that are currently rated as positive or ambiguous by the detector. These examples can strongly influence parameters when the network is trained to correct them. Unfortunately, they are often sparse in the training data, and are expensive to obtain. In this work, we show how large numbers of hard negatives can be obtained automatically by analyzing the output of a trained detector on video sequences. In particular, detections that are isolated in time, i.e., that have no associated preceding or following detections, are likely to be hard negatives. We describe simple procedures for mining large numbers of such hard negatives (and also hard positives) from unlabeled video data. Our experiments show that retraining detectors on these automatically obtained examples often significantly improves performance. We present experiments on multiple architectures and multiple data sets, including face detection, pedestrian detection and other object categories.

SouYoung Jin, Aruni RoyChowdhury, Huaizu Jiang, Ashish Singh, Aditya Prasad, Deep Chakraborty, Erik Learned-Miller

BiSeNet: Bilateral Segmentation Network for Real-Time Semantic Segmentation

Semantic segmentation requires both rich spatial information and sizeable receptive field. However, modern approaches usually compromise spatial resolution to achieve real-time inference speed, which leads to poor performance. In this paper, we address this dilemma with a novel Bilateral Segmentation Network (BiSeNet). We first design a Spatial Path with a small stride to preserve the spatial information and generate high-resolution features. Meanwhile, a Context Path with a fast downsampling strategy is employed to obtain sufficient receptive field. On top of the two paths, we introduce a new Feature Fusion Module to combine features efficiently. The proposed architecture makes a right balance between the speed and segmentation performance on Cityscapes, CamVid, and COCO-Stuff datasets. Specifically, for a 2048 $$\times $$ × 1024 input, we achieve 68.4% Mean IOU on the Cityscapes test dataset with speed of 105 FPS on one NVIDIA Titan XP card, which is significantly faster than the existing methods with comparable performance.

Changqian Yu, Jingbo Wang, Chao Peng, Changxin Gao, Gang Yu, Nong Sang

Pose Proposal Networks

We propose a novel method to detect an unknown number of articulated 2D poses in real time. To decouple the runtime complexity of pixel-wise body part detectors from their convolutional neural network (CNN) feature map resolutions, our approach, called pose proposal networks, introduces a state-of-the-art single-shot object detection paradigm using grid-wise image feature maps in a bottom-up pose detection scenario. Body part proposals, which are represented as region proposals, and limbs are detected directly via a single-shot CNN. Specialized to such detections, a bottom-up greedy parsing step is probabilistically redesigned to take into account the global context. Experimental results on the MPII Multi-Person benchmark confirm that our method achieves 72.8% mAP comparable to state-of-the-art bottom-up approaches while its total runtime using a GeForce GTX1080Ti card reaches up to 5.6 ms (180 FPS), which exceeds the bottleneck runtimes that are observed in state-of-the-art approaches.

Taiki Sekii

Less Is More: Picking Informative Frames for Video Captioning

In video captioning task, the best practice has been achieved by attention-based models which associate salient visual components with sentences in the video. However, existing study follows a common procedure which includes a frame-level appearance modeling and motion modeling on equal interval frame sampling, which may bring about redundant visual information, sensitivity to content noise and unnecessary computation cost. We propose a plug-and-play PickNet to perform informative frame picking in video captioning. Based on a standard encoder-decoder framework, we develop a reinforcement-learning-based procedure to train the network sequentially, where the reward of each frame picking action is designed by maximizing visual diversity and minimizing discrepancy between generated caption and the ground-truth. The rewarded candidate will be selected and the corresponding latent representation of encoder-decoder will be updated for future trials. This procedure goes on until the end of the video sequence. Consequently, a compact frame subset can be selected to represent the visual information and perform video captioning without performance degradation. Experiment results show that our model can achieve competitive performance across popular benchmarks while only 6–8 frames are used.

Yangyu Chen, Shuhui Wang, Weigang Zhang, Qingming Huang

Cross-Modal and Hierarchical Modeling of Video and Text

Visual data and text data are composed of information at multiple granularities. A video can describe a complex scene that is composed of multiple clips or shots, where each depicts a semantically coherent event or action. Similarly, a paragraph may contain sentences with different topics, which collectively conveys a coherent message or story. In this paper, we investigate the modeling techniques for such hierarchical sequential data where there are correspondences across multiple modalities. Specifically, we introduce hierarchical sequence embedding (hse), a generic model for embedding sequential data of different modalities into hierarchically semantic spaces, with either explicit or implicit correspondence information. We perform empirical studies on large-scale video and paragraph retrieval datasets and demonstrated superior performance by the proposed methods. Furthermore, we examine the effectiveness of our learned embeddings when applied to downstream tasks. We show its utility in zero-shot action recognition and video captioning.

Bowen Zhang, Hexiang Hu, Fei Sha

Tracking Emerges by Colorizing Videos

We use large amounts of unlabeled video to learn models for visual tracking without manual human supervision. We leverage the natural temporal coherency of color to create a model that learns to colorize gray-scale videos by copying colors from a reference frame. Quantitative and qualitative experiments suggest that this task causes the model to automatically learn to track visual regions. Although the model is trained without any ground-truth labels, our method learns to track well enough to outperform the latest methods based on optical flow. Moreover, our results suggest that failures to track are correlated with failures to colorize, indicating that advancing video colorization may further improve self-supervised visual tracking.

Carl Vondrick, Abhinav Shrivastava, Alireza Fathi, Sergio Guadarrama, Kevin Murphy

SkipNet: Learning Dynamic Routing in Convolutional Networks

While deeper convolutional networks are needed to achieve maximum accuracy in visual perception tasks, for many inputs shallower networks are sufficient. We exploit this observation by learning to skip convolutional layers on a per-input basis. We introduce SkipNet, a modified residual network, that uses a gating network to selectively skip convolutional blocks based on the activations of the previous layer. We formulate the dynamic skipping problem in the context of sequential decision making and propose a hybrid learning algorithm that combines supervised learning and reinforcement learning to address the challenges of non-differentiable skipping decisions. We show SkipNet reduces computation by $$30-90\%$$ 30 - 90 % while preserving the accuracy of the original model on four benchmark datasets and outperforms the state-of-the-art dynamic networks and static compression methods. We also qualitatively evaluate the gating policy to reveal a relationship between image scale and saliency and the number of layers skipped.

Xin Wang, Fisher Yu, Zi-Yi Dou, Trevor Darrell, Joseph E. Gonzalez

Person Search in Videos with One Portrait Through Visual and Temporal Links

In real-world applications, e.g. law enforcement and video retrieval, one often needs to search a certain person in long videos with just one portrait. This is much more challenging than the conventional settings for person re-identification, as the search may need to be carried out in the environments different from where the portrait was taken. In this paper, we aim to tackle this challenge and propose a novel framework, which takes into account the identity invariance along a tracklet, thus allowing person identities to be propagated via both the visual and the temporal links. We also develop a novel scheme called Progressive Propagation via Competitive Consensus, which significantly improves the reliability of the propagation process. To promote the study of person search, we construct a large-scale benchmark, which contains 127K manually annotated tracklets from 192 movies. Experiments show that our approach remarkably outperforms mainstream person re-id methods, raising the mAP from $$42.16\%$$ 42.16 % to $$62.27\%$$ 62.27 % (Code at https://github.com/hqqasw/person-search-PPCC ).

Qingqiu Huang, Wentao Liu, Dahua Lin

Decouple Learning for Parameterized Image Operators

Many different deep networks have been used to approximate, accelerate or improve traditional image operators, such as image smoothing, super-resolution and denoising. Among these traditional operators, many contain parameters which need to be tweaked to obtain the satisfactory results, which we refer to as “parameterized image operators”. However, most existing deep networks trained for these operators are only designed for one specific parameter configuration, which does not meet the needs of real scenarios that usually require flexible parameters settings. To overcome this limitation, we propose a new decouple learning algorithm to learn from the operator parameters to dynamically adjust the weights of a deep network for image operators, denoted as the base network. The learned algorithm is formed as another network, namely the weight learning network, which can be end-to-end jointly trained with the base network. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed framework can be successfully applied to many traditional parameterized image operators. We provide more analysis to better understand the proposed framework, which may inspire more promising research in this direction. Our codes and models have been released in https://github.com/fqnchina/DecoupleLearning .

Qingnan Fan, Dongdong Chen, Lu Yuan, Gang Hua, Nenghai Yu, Baoquan Chen

Triplet Loss in Siamese Network for Object Tracking

Object tracking is still a critical and challenging problem with many applications in computer vision. For this challenge, more and more researchers pay attention to applying deep learning to get powerful feature for better tracking accuracy. In this paper, a novel triplet loss is proposed to extract expressive deep feature for object tracking by adding it into Siamese network framework instead of pairwise loss for training. Without adding any inputs, our approach is able to utilize more elements for training to achieve more powerful feature via the combination of original samples. Furthermore, we propose a theoretical analysis by combining comparison of gradients and back-propagation, to prove the effectiveness of our method. In experiments, we apply the proposed triplet loss for three real-time trackers based on Siamese network. And the results on several popular tracking benchmarks show our variants operate at almost the same frame-rate with baseline trackers and achieve superior tracking performance than them, as well as the comparable accuracy with recent state-of-the-art real-time trackers.

Xingping Dong, Jianbing Shen

Point-to-Point Regression PointNet for 3D Hand Pose Estimation

Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs)-based methods for 3D hand pose estimation with depth cameras usually take 2D depth images as input and directly regress holistic 3D hand pose. Different from these methods, our proposed Point-to-Point Regression PointNet directly takes the 3D point cloud as input and outputs point-wise estimations, i.e., heat-maps and unit vector fields on the point cloud, representing the closeness and direction from every point in the point cloud to the hand joint. The point-wise estimations are used to infer 3D joint locations with weighted fusion. To better capture 3D spatial information in the point cloud, we apply a stacked network architecture for PointNet with intermediate supervision, which is trained end-to-end. Experiments show that our method can achieve outstanding results when compared with state-of-the-art methods on three challenging hand pose datasets.

Liuhao Ge, Zhou Ren, Junsong Yuan

DOCK: Detecting Objects by Transferring Common-Sense Knowledge

We present a scalable approach for Detecting Objects by transferring Common-sense Knowledge (DOCK) from source to target categories. In our setting, the training data for the source categories have bounding box annotations, while those for the target categories only have image-level annotations. Current state-of-the-art approaches focus on image-level visual or semantic similarity to adapt a detector trained on the source categories to the new target categories. In contrast, our key idea is to (i) use similarity not at the image-level, but rather at the region-level, and (ii) leverage richer common-sense (based on attribute, spatial, etc.) to guide the algorithm towards learning the correct detections. We acquire such common-sense cues automatically from readily-available knowledge bases without any extra human effort. On the challenging MS COCO dataset, we find that common-sense knowledge can substantially improve detection performance over existing transfer-learning baselines.

Krishna Kumar Singh, Santosh Divvala, Ali Farhadi, Yong Jae Lee

Multi-scale Spatially-Asymmetric Recalibration for Image Classification

Convolution is spatially-symmetric, i.e., the visual features are independent of its position in the image, which limits its ability to utilize contextual cues for visual recognition. This paper addresses this issue by introducing a recalibration process, which refers to the surrounding region of each neuron, computes an importance value and multiplies it to the original neural response. Our approach is named multi-scale spatially-asymmetric recalibration (MS-SAR), which extracts visual cues from surrounding regions at multiple scales, and designs a weighting scheme which is asymmetric in the spatial domain. MS-SAR is implemented in an efficient way, so that only small fractions of extra parameters and computations are required. We apply MS-SAR to several popular building blocks, including the residual block and the densely-connected block, and demonstrate its superior performance in both CIFAR and ILSVRC2012 classification tasks.

Yan Wang, Lingxi Xie, Siyuan Qiao, Ya Zhang, Wenjun Zhang, Alan L. Yuille

Choose Your Neuron: Incorporating Domain Knowledge Through Neuron-Importance

Individual neurons in convolutional neural networks supervised for image-level classification tasks have been shown to implicitly learn semantically meaningful concepts ranging from simple textures and shapes to whole or partial objects – forming a “dictionary” of concepts acquired through the learning process. In this work we introduce a simple, efficient zero-shot learning approach based on this observation. Our approach, which we call Neuron Importance-Aware Weight Transfer (NIWT), learns to map domain knowledge about novel “unseen” classes onto this dictionary of learned concepts and then optimizes for network parameters that can effectively combine these concepts – essentially learning classifiers by discovering and composing learned semantic concepts in deep networks. Our approach shows improvements over previous approaches on the CUBirds and AWA2 generalized zero-shot learning benchmarks. We demonstrate our approach on a diverse set of semantic inputs as external domain knowledge including attributes and natural language captions. Moreover by learning inverse mappings, NIWT can provide visual and textual explanations for the predictions made by the newly learned classifiers and provide neuron names. Our code is available at https://github.com/ramprs/neuron-importance-zsl .

Ramprasaath R. Selvaraju, Prithvijit Chattopadhyay, Mohamed Elhoseiny, Tilak Sharma, Dhruv Batra, Devi Parikh, Stefan Lee

Fully Motion-Aware Network for Video Object Detection

Video objection detection is challenging in the presence of appearance deterioration in certain video frames. One of typical solutions is to enhance per-frame features through aggregating neighboring frames. But the features of objects are usually not spatially calibrated across frames due to motion from object and camera. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end model called fully motion-aware network (MANet), which jointly calibrates the features of objects on both pixel-level and instance-level in a unified framework. The pixel-level calibration is flexible in modeling detailed motion while the instance-level calibration captures more global motion cues in order to be robust to occlusion. To our best knowledge, MANet is the first work that can jointly train the two modules and dynamically combine them according to the motion patterns. It achieves leading performance on the large-scale ImageNet VID dataset.

Shiyao Wang, Yucong Zhou, Junjie Yan, Zhidong Deng

Generative Semantic Manipulation with Mask-Contrasting GAN

Despite the promising results on paired/unpaired image-to-image translation achieved by Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs), prior works often only transfer the low-level information (e.g. color or texture changes), but fail to manipulate high-level semantic meanings (e.g., geometric structure or content) of different object regions. On the other hand, while some researches can synthesize compelling real-world images given a class label or caption, they cannot condition on arbitrary shapes or structures, which largely limits their application scenarios and interpretive capability of model results. In this work, we focus on a more challenging semantic manipulation task, aiming at modifying the semantic meaning of an object while preserving its own characteristics (e.g. viewpoints and shapes), such as cow $$\rightarrow $$ → sheep, motor $$\rightarrow $$ → bicycle, cat $$\rightarrow $$ → dog. To tackle such large semantic changes, we introduce a contrasting GAN (contrast-GAN) with a novel adversarial contrasting objective which is able to perform all types of semantic translations with one category-conditional generator. Instead of directly making the synthesized samples close to target data as previous GANs did, our adversarial contrasting objective optimizes over the distance comparisons between samples, that is, enforcing the manipulated data be semantically closer to the real data with target category than the input data. Equipped with the new contrasting objective, a novel mask-conditional contrast-GAN architecture is proposed to enable disentangle image background with object semantic changes. Extensive qualitative and quantitative experiments on several semantic manipulation tasks on ImageNet and MSCOCO dataset show considerable performance gain by our contrast-GAN over other conditional GANs.

Xiaodan Liang, Hao Zhang, Liang Lin, Eric Xing

Interpolating Convolutional Neural Networks Using Batch Normalization

Perceiving a visual concept as a mixture of learned ones is natural for humans, aiding them to grasp new concepts and strengthening old ones. For all their power and recent success, deep convolutional networks do not have this ability. Inspired by recent work on universal representations for neural networks, we propose a simple emulation of this mechanism by purposing batch normalization layers to discriminate visual classes, and formulating a way to combine them to solve new tasks. We show that this can be applied for 2-way few-shot learning where we obtain between 4% and 17% better accuracy compared to straightforward full fine-tuning, and demonstrate that it can also be extended to the orthogonal application of style transfer.

Gratianus Wesley Putra Data, Kirjon Ngu, David William Murray, Victor Adrian Prisacariu

Toward Characteristic-Preserving Image-Based Virtual Try-On Network

Image-based virtual try-on systems for fitting a new in-shop clothes into a person image have attracted increasing research attention, yet is still challenging. A desirable pipeline should not only transform the target clothes into the most fitting shape seamlessly but also preserve well the clothes identity in the generated image, that is, the key characteristics (e.g. texture, logo, embroidery) that depict the original clothes. However, previous image-conditioned generation works fail to meet these critical requirements towards the plausible virtual try-on performance since they fail to handle large spatial misalignment between the input image and target clothes. Prior work explicitly tackled spatial deformation using shape context matching, but failed to preserve clothing details due to its coarse-to-fine strategy. In this work, we propose a new fully-learnable Characteristic-Preserving Virtual Try-On Network (CP-VTON) for addressing all real-world challenges in this task. First, CP-VTON learns a thin-plate spline transformation for transforming the in-shop clothes into fitting the body shape of the target person via a new Geometric Matching Module (GMM) rather than computing correspondences of interest points as prior works did. Second, to alleviate boundary artifacts of warped clothes and make the results more realistic, we employ a Try-On Module that learns a composition mask to integrate the warped clothes and the rendered image to ensure smoothness. Extensive experiments on a fashion dataset demonstrate our CP-VTON achieves the state-of-the-art virtual try-on performance both qualitatively and quantitatively.

Bochao Wang, Huabin Zheng, Xiaodan Liang, Yimin Chen, Liang Lin, Meng Yang

Deep Cross-Modality Adaptation via Semantics Preserving Adversarial Learning for Sketch-Based 3D Shape Retrieval

Due to the large cross-modality discrepancy between 2D sketches and 3D shapes, retrieving 3D shapes by sketches is a significantly challenging task. To address this problem, we propose a novel framework to learn a discriminative deep cross-modality adaptation model in this paper. Specifically, we first separately adopt two metric networks, following two deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs), to learn modality-specific discriminative features based on an importance-aware metric learning method. Subsequently, we explicitly introduce a cross-modality transformation network to compensate for the divergence between two modalities, which can transfer features of 2D sketches to the feature space of 3D shapes. We develop an adversarial learning based method to train the transformation model, by simultaneously enhancing the holistic correlations between data distributions of two modalities, and mitigating the local semantic divergences through minimizing a cross-modality mean discrepancy term. Experimental results on the SHREC 2013 and SHREC 2014 datasets clearly show the superior retrieval performance of our proposed model, compared to the state-of-the-art approaches.

Jiaxin Chen, Yi Fang

RIDI: Robust IMU Double Integration

This paper proposes a novel data-driven approach for inertial navigation, which learns to estimate trajectories of natural human motions just from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) in every smartphone. The key observation is that human motions are repetitive and consist of a few major modes (e.g., standing, walking, or turning). Our algorithm regresses a velocity vector from the history of linear accelerations and angular velocities, then corrects low-frequency bias in the linear accelerations, which are integrated twice to estimate positions. We have acquired training data with ground truth motion trajectories across multiple human subjects and multiple phone placements (e.g., in a bag or a hand). The qualitatively and quantitatively evaluations have demonstrated that our simple algorithm outperforms existing heuristic-based approaches and is even comparable to full Visual Inertial navigation to our surprise. As far as we know, this paper is the first to introduce supervised training for inertial navigation, potentially opening up a new line of research in the domain of data-driven inertial navigation. We will publicly share our code and data to facilitate further research (Project website: https://yanhangpublic.github.io/ridi ).

Hang Yan, Qi Shan, Yasutaka Furukawa

Training Binary Weight Networks via Semi-Binary Decomposition

Recently binary weight networks have attracted lots of attentions due to their high computational efficiency and small parameter size. Yet they still suffer from large accuracy drops because of their limited representation capacity. In this paper, we propose a novel semi-binary decomposition method which decomposes a matrix into two binary matrices and a diagonal matrix. Since the matrix product of binary matrices has more numerical values than binary matrix, the proposed semi-binary decomposition has more representation capacity. Besides, we propose an alternating optimization method to solve the semi-binary decomposition problem while keeping binary constraints. Extensive experiments on AlexNet, ResNet-18, and ResNet-50 demonstrate that our method outperforms state-of-the-art methods by a large margin (5% higher in top1 accuracy). We also implement binary weight AlexNet on FPGA platform, which shows that our proposed method can achieve $$\sim $$ ∼ 9 $$\times $$ × speed-ups while reducing the consumption of on-chip memory and dedicated multipliers significantly.

Qinghao Hu, Gang Li, Peisong Wang, Yifan Zhang, Jian Cheng

Focus, Segment and Erase: An Efficient Network for Multi-label Brain Tumor Segmentation

In multi-label brain tumor segmentation, class imbalance and inter-class interference are common and challenging problems. In this paper, we propose a novel end-to-end trainable network named FSENet to address the aforementioned issues. The proposed FSENet has a tumor region pooling component to restrict the prediction within the tumor region (“focus”), thus mitigating the influence of the dominant non-tumor region. Furthermore, the network decomposes the more challenging multi-label brain tumor segmentation problem into several simpler binary segmentation tasks (“segment”), where each task focuses on a specific tumor tissue. To alleviate inter-class interference, we adopt a simple yet effective idea in our work: we erase the segmented regions before proceeding to further segmentation of tumor tissue (“erase”), thus reduces competition among different tumor classes. Our single-model FSENet ranks $$3^{rd}$$ 3 rd on the multi-modal brain tumor segmentation benchmark 2015 (BraTS 2015) without relying on ensembles or complicated post-processing steps.

Xuan Chen, Jun Hao Liew, Wei Xiong, Chee-Kong Chui, Sim-Heng Ong

X2Face: A Network for Controlling Face Generation Using Images, Audio, and Pose Codes

The objective of this paper is a neural network model that controls the pose and expression of a given face, using another face or modality (e.g. audio). This model can then be used for lightweight, sophisticated video and image editing.We make the following three contributions. First, we introduce a network, X2Face, that can control a source face (specified by one or more frames) using another face in a driving frame to produce a generated frame with the identity of the source frame but the pose and expression of the face in the driving frame. Second, we propose a method for training the network fully self-supervised using a large collection of video data. Third, we show that the generation process can be driven by other modalities, such as audio or pose codes, without any further training of the network.The generation results for driving a face with another face are compared to state-of-the-art self-supervised/supervised methods. We show that our approach is more robust than other methods, as it makes fewer assumptions about the input data. We also show examples of using our framework for video face editing.

Olivia Wiles, A. Sophia Koepke, Andrew Zisserman

Model Adaptation with Synthetic and Real Data for Semantic Dense Foggy Scene Understanding

This work addresses the problem of semantic scene understanding under dense fog. Although considerable progress has been made in semantic scene understanding, it is mainly related to clear-weather scenes. Extending recognition methods to adverse weather conditions such as fog is crucial for outdoor applications. In this paper, we propose a novel method, named Curriculum Model Adaptation (CMAda), which gradually adapts a semantic segmentation model from light synthetic fog to dense real fog in multiple steps, using both synthetic and real foggy data. In addition, we present three other main stand-alone contributions: (1) a novel method to add synthetic fog to real, clear-weather scenes using semantic input; (2) a new fog density estimator; (3) the Foggy Zurich dataset comprising 3808 real foggy images, with pixel-level semantic annotations for 16 images with dense fog. Our experiments show that (1) our fog simulation slightly outperforms a state-of-the-art competing simulation with respect to the task of semantic foggy scene understanding (SFSU); (2) CMAda improves the performance of state-of-the-art models for SFSU significantly by leveraging unlabeled real foggy data. The datasets and code will be made publicly available.

Christos Sakaridis, Dengxin Dai, Simon Hecker, Luc Van Gool

Deep Adaptive Attention for Joint Facial Action Unit Detection and Face Alignment

Facial action unit (AU) detection and face alignment are two highly correlated tasks since facial landmarks can provide precise AU locations to facilitate the extraction of meaningful local features for AU detection. Most existing AU detection works often treat face alignment as a preprocessing and handle the two tasks independently. In this paper, we propose a novel end-to-end deep learning framework for joint AU detection and face alignment, which has not been explored before. In particular, multi-scale shared features are learned firstly, and high-level features of face alignment are fed into AU detection. Moreover, to extract precise local features, we propose an adaptive attention learning module to refine the attention map of each AU adaptively. Finally, the assembled local features are integrated with face alignment features and global features for AU detection. Experiments on BP4D and DISFA benchmarks demonstrate that our framework significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods for AU detection.

Zhiwen Shao, Zhilei Liu, Jianfei Cai, Lizhuang Ma

Deep Pictorial Gaze Estimation

Estimating human gaze from natural eye images only is a challenging task. Gaze direction can be defined by the pupil- and the eyeball center where the latter is unobservable in 2D images. Hence, achieving highly accurate gaze estimates is an ill-posed problem. In this paper, we introduce a novel deep neural network architecture specifically designed for the task of gaze estimation from single eye input. Instead of directly regressing two angles for the pitch and yaw of the eyeball, we regress to an intermediate pictorial representation which in turn simplifies the task of 3D gaze direction estimation. Our quantitative and qualitative results show that our approach achieves higher accuracies than the state-of-the-art and is robust to variation in gaze, head pose and image quality.

Seonwook Park, Adrian Spurr, Otmar Hilliges

Learning to Fuse Proposals from Multiple Scanline Optimizations in Semi-Global Matching

Semi-Global Matching (SGM) uses an aggregation scheme to combine costs from multiple 1D scanline optimizations that tends to hurt its accuracy in difficult scenarios. We propose replacing this aggregation scheme with a new learning-based method that fuses disparity proposals estimated using scanline optimization. Our proposed SGM-Forest algorithm solves this problem using per-pixel classification. SGM-Forest currently ranks 1st on the ETH3D stereo benchmark and is ranked competitively on the Middlebury 2014 and KITTI 2015 benchmarks. It consistently outperforms SGM in challenging settings and under difficult training protocols that demonstrate robust generalization, while adding only a small computational overhead to SGM.

Johannes L. Schönberger, Sudipta N. Sinha, Marc Pollefeys

Incremental Non-Rigid Structure-from-Motion with Unknown Focal Length

The perspective camera and the isometric surface prior have recently gathered increased attention for Non-Rigid Structure-from-Motion (NRSfM). Despite the recent progress, several challenges remain, particularly the computational complexity and the unknown camera focal length. In this paper we present a method for incremental Non-Rigid Structure-from-Motion (NRSfM) with the perspective camera model and the isometric surface prior with unknown focal length. In the template-based case, we provide a method to estimate four parameters of the camera intrinsics. For the template-less scenario of NRSfM, we propose a method to upgrade reconstructions obtained for one focal length to another based on local rigidity and the so-called Maximum Depth Heuristics (MDH). On its basis we propose a method to simultaneously recover the focal length and the non-rigid shapes. We further solve the problem of incorporating a large number of points and adding more views in MDH-based NRSfM and efficiently solve them with Second-Order Cone Programming (SOCP). This does not require any shape initialization and produces results orders of times faster than many methods. We provide evaluations on standard sequences with ground-truth and qualitative reconstructions on challenging YouTube videos. These evaluations show that our method performs better in both speed and accuracy than the state of the art.

Thomas Probst, Danda Pani Paudel, Ajad Chhatkuli, Luc Van Gool

r2p2: A ReparameteRized Pushforward Policy for Diverse, Precise Generative Path Forecasting

We propose a method to forecast a vehicle’s ego-motion as a distribution over spatiotemporal paths, conditioned on features (e.g., from LIDAR and images) embedded in an overhead map. The method learns a policy inducing a distribution over simulated trajectories that is both “diverse” (produces most of the likely paths) and “precise” (mostly produces likely paths). This balance is achieved through minimization of a symmetrized cross-entropy between the distribution and demonstration data. By viewing the simulated-outcome distribution as the pushforward of a simple distribution under a simulation operator, we obtain expressions for the cross-entropy metrics that can be efficiently evaluated and differentiated, enabling stochastic-gradient optimization. We propose concrete policy architectures for this model, discuss our evaluation metrics relative to previously-used degenerate metrics, and demonstrate the superiority of our method relative to state-of-the-art methods in both the Kitti dataset and a similar but novel and larger real-world dataset explicitly designed for the vehicle forecasting domain.

Nicholas Rhinehart, Kris M. Kitani, Paul Vernaza

Eliminating the Blind Spot: Adapting 3D Object Detection and Monocular Depth Estimation to 360 Panoramic Imagery

Recent automotive vision work has focused almost exclusively on processing forward-facing cameras. However, future autonomous vehicles will not be viable without a more comprehensive surround sensing, akin to a human driver, as can be provided by 360 $$^\circ $$ ∘ panoramic cameras. We present an approach to adapt contemporary deep network architectures developed on conventional rectilinear imagery to work on equirectangular 360 $$^\circ $$ ∘ panoramic imagery. To address the lack of annotated panoramic automotive datasets availability, we adapt contemporary automotive dataset, via style and projection transformations, to facilitate the cross-domain retraining of contemporary algorithms for panoramic imagery. Following this approach we retrain and adapt existing architectures to recover scene depth and 3D pose of vehicles from monocular panoramic imagery without any panoramic training labels or calibration parameters. Our approach is evaluated qualitatively on crowd-sourced panoramic images and quantitatively using an automotive environment simulator to provide the first benchmark for such techniques within panoramic imagery.

Grégoire Payen de La Garanderie, Amir Atapour Abarghouei, Toby P. Breckon

Cross-Modal Ranking with Soft Consistency and Noisy Labels for Robust RGB-T Tracking

Due to the complementary benefits of visible (RGB) and thermal infrared (T) data, RGB-T object tracking attracts more and more attention recently for boosting the performance under adverse illumination conditions. Existing RGB-T tracking methods usually localize a target object with a bounding box, in which the trackers or detectors is often affected by the inclusion of background clutter. To address this problem, this paper presents a novel approach to suppress background effects for RGB-T tracking. Our approach relies on a novel cross-modal manifold ranking algorithm. First, we integrate the soft cross-modality consistency into the ranking model which allows the sparse inconsistency to account for the different properties between these two modalities. Second, we propose an optimal query learning method to handle label noises of queries. In particular, we introduce an intermediate variable to represent the optimal labels, and formulate it as a $$l_1$$ l 1 -optimization based sparse learning problem. Moreover, we propose a single unified optimization algorithm to solve the proposed model with stable and efficient convergence behavior. Finally, the ranking results are incorporated into the patch-based object features to address the background effects, and the structured SVM is then adopted to perform RGB-T tracking. Extensive experiments suggest that the proposed approach performs well against the state-of-the-art methods on large-scale benchmark datasets.

Chenglong Li, Chengli Zhu, Yan Huang, Jin Tang, Liang Wang

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