Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
The complexity of contaminated sediment sites and the potentially enormous costs if remedies are not implemented effectively and efficiently drives a need for continued research and continuous improvement of technologies and practices for design, implementation and monitoring. The costs at contaminated sediment sites are largely driven by their size (both in terms of area of potentially impacted sediments and the volume of soil and water diluents) and the difficulties of working in the water environment. Research into methods to optimize removal technologies can provide incremental benefits by reducing the volume of the contaminated sediments that must be treated or disposed of. Research that can minimize the managed volume by accurate assessment of areas likely to exhibit significant risk can be extremely effective at containing costs. In addition, any methods that can lead to management of sediments in situ without the costs and complexity of removal and the incumbent onshore processing of sediments also provide effective cost containment. Finally, technologies that can aid assessment of the risks posed by contaminated sediments and aid prioritization of areas by risk can help contain costs at sediment sites. Moreover, these assessment technologies can also help assess the performance of remedies, demonstrating the successful achievement of remedial objectives and allowing closure of the remedial efforts.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Admiraal DM, Garcia MH, Rodriguez JF. 2000. Entrainment response of bed sediment to time varying flows. Water Resour Res 36:335–348. CrossRef
Beachler MM, Hill DF. 2003. Stirring up trouble? Resuspension of bottom sediments by recreational watercraft. Lake Reserv Manag 19:15–25. CrossRef
Bridges TS, Nadeau SC, McCulloch MC. 2011a. Accelerating program at contaminated sediment sites: Moving from guidance to practice. Integr Environ Assess Manag 8:331–338. CrossRef
Bridges TS, Gustavson KE, Schroeder P, Ells SJ, Hayes D, Nadeau SC, Palermo MR, Patmont C. 2011b. Dredging processes and remedy effectiveness: Relationship to the 4Rs of environmental dredging. Integr Environl Assess Manag 6:619–630. CrossRef
Burnett WC, Aggarwal PK, Aureli A, Bokuniewicz H, Cable JE, Charette MA, Kontar E, Krupa S, Kulkarni KM, Loveless A, Moore WS, Oberdorfer JA, Oliveira J, Ozyurt N, Povinec P, Privitera AMG, Rajar R, Ramessur RT, Scholten J, Stieglitz T, Taniguchi M, Turner JV. 2006. Quantifying, submarine groundwater discharge in the coastal zone via multiple methods. Sci Total Environ 367:498–543. CrossRef
Cetco. 2007. Organoclay Cap Performance Evaluation. McCormick and Baxter, Technical Report 834. Hoffman Estates, IL 60192 USA.
Coumou D, Rahmstorf S. 2012. A decade of weather extremes. Nat Clim Chang 2:491–496.
Einstein HA, Krone RB. 1962. Experiments to determine modes of cohesive sediment transport in salt water. J Geophys Res 67:1451–1464. CrossRef
Ghosh U, Luthy RG, Cornelissen G, Werner D, Menzie CA. 2011. In-situ sorbent amendments: A new direction in contaminated sediment management. Environ Sci Technol 45:1163–1168. CrossRef
Gschwend PM, MacFarlane JK, Reible DD, Lu X, Hawthorne SB, Nakles DV, Thompson T. 2011. Comparison of polymeric samplers for accurately assessing PCBs in porewaters. Environ Toxicol Chem 30:1288–1296. CrossRef
Hanzawa H, Kishida T. 1981. Fundamental considerations of undrained strength characteristics of alluvial marine clays. Soils Found 21:39–50. CrossRef
Irvine KN, Perrelli MF, McCorkhill G, Caruso J. 2005. Sampling and modeling approaches to assess water quality impacts of combined sewer overflows: The importance of a watershed perspective. J Great Lakes Res 31:105–115. CrossRef
Johnson N, Reible DD, Katz L. 2010. Biogeochemical changes and mercury methylation beneath an in-situ sediment cap. Environ Sci Technol 44:7280–7286. CrossRef
Kostylev VE, Todd BJ, Fader GBJ, Courtney RC, Cameron GDM, Pickrill RA. 2001. Benthic habitat mapping on the Scotian Shelf based on multibeam bathymetry, surficial geology and sea floor photographs. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 219:121–137. CrossRef
Kirtay VJ. 2008. Rapid Sediment Characterization Tools. Technical Report 1970. SPAWAR Systems Center, San Diego, CA, USA. 45 p.
Kraaij R, Mayer P, Busser FJM, Bolscher MVH, Seinen W, Tolls J. 2003. Measured pore-water concentrations make equilibrium partitioning work-a data analysis. Environ Sci Technol 37:268–274. CrossRef
Lampert DJ, Sarchet WV, Reible DD. 2011. Assessing the effectiveness of thin-layer sand caps for contaminated sediment management through passive sampling. Environ Sci Technol 45:8437–8443. CrossRef
Li N, Wania F, Lei YD, Daly GL. 2003. A comprehensive and critical compilation, evaluation, and selection of physical-chemical property data for selected polychlorinated biphenyls. J Phys Chem Ref Data 32:1545–1590. CrossRef
Lu XX, Skwarski A, Drake B, Reible DD. 2011. Predicting bioavailability of PAHS and PCBS with porewater concentrations measured by solid-phase micro-extraction fibers. Environ Toxicol Chem 30:1009–1116. CrossRef
Magar VS, Chadwick DB, Bridges TS, Fuchsman PC, Conder JM, Dekker TJ, Steevens JA, Gustavson KE, Mills MA. 2009. Technical Guide: Monitored Natural Recovery at Contaminated Sediment Sites. ESTCP-ER-0622. Published by the Environmental Security Technology Testing and Certification Program (ESTCP), Arlington, VA, USA. 276 p.
Maruya KA, Landrum PF, Burgess RM, Shine JP. 2010. Incorporating contaminant bioavailability into sediment quality frameworks. Integr Environ Assess Remediat 8:659–673. CrossRef
McCauley DJ, DeGraeve GM, Linton TK. 2000. Sediment quality guidelines and assessment: Overview and research needs. Environ Sci Policy 3:S133–144. CrossRef
McDonough KM, Fairey JL, Lowry GV. 2007. Adsorption of polychlorinated biphenyls to activated carbon: Equilibrium isotherms and a preliminary assessment of the effect of dissolved organic matter and biofilm loadings. Water Res 42:575–584. CrossRef
McLinn EL, Stolzenburg TR. 2009. Ebullition-facilitated transport of manufactured gas plant tar from contaminated sediment. Environ Toxicol Chem 28:2298–2306. CrossRef
Nadeau SC, Skaggs MM. 2007. Analysis of recontamination of completed sediment projects. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Remediation of Contaminanted Sediments, Savannah, GA, USA, January.
NRC (National Research Council). 2001. A Risk Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments. National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA. 432 p.
NRC. 2003. Environmental Cleanup at Navy Facilities: Adaptive Site Management National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA. 376 p.
NRC. 2007. Assessing the Effectiveness of Dredging at Superfund Megasites. National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA. 294 p.
Palermo MR, Maynord S, Miller J, Reible DD. 1998. Guidance for In-Situ Subaqueous Capping of Contaminated Sediments. USEPA 905-B96-004. Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) Program, USEPA Great Lakes National Program Office.
Patmont C, Palermo M. 2007. Case studies of environmental dredging residuals and management implications. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Remediation of Contaminated Sediments, Savannah, GA, USA, January. Battelle Press, Columbus, OH, USA.
Rakowska MI, Kupryianchyk D, Harmsen J, Grotenhuis T, Koelmans AA. 2012. In situ remediation of contaminated sediments using carbonaceous materials: A critical review. Environ Toxicol Chem 31:693–704. CrossRef
Reible DD, Lampert DJ, Constant D, Mutch Jr RD, Zhu Y. 2006. Active capping demonstration in the Anacostia River, Washington, DC. Remediat J 17:39–53. CrossRef
Rodriguez JF, Admiraal DM, Lopez D, Garcia MH. 2002. Unsteady bed shear stresses induced by navigation: Laboratory observations. J Hydraul Eng 128:515–526. CrossRef
Shear NM, Schmidt CW, Huntley SL, Crawford DW, Finley BL. 1996. Evaluation of the factors relating combined sewer overflows with sediment contamination of the lower Passaic River. Mar Pollut Bull 32:288–304. CrossRef
Sun M, Yan F, Zhang RL, Reible DD, Lowry GV and Gregory KB. 2010. Redox control and hydrogen production in sediment caps using carbon cloth electrodes. Environ Sci Technol 44:8209–8215. CrossRef
USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Procedures for the Derivation of Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks (ESBs) for the Protection of Benthic Organisms: Metal Mixtures(Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Nickel, Silver and Zinc). EPA-600-R-02-011.USEPA, Washington, DC, USA.
Van der War L, Jager T, Fleuren RHLJ, Barendregt A, Sinnige TL, van Gestel CAM, Hermens JLM. 2004. Solid phase microextraction as a tool to predict internal concentrations of soil contaminants in terrestrial organisms after exposure to a field-contaminated soil. Environ Sci Technol 38:4842–4848. CrossRef
Wilson J, Rocha C. 2012. Regional scale assessment of submarine groundwater discharge in Ireland combining medium resolution satellite imagery and geochemical tracing techniques. Remote Sens Environ 119:21–34. CrossRef
Yan F, Reible DD. 2012. PAH degradation and redox control in an electrode enhanced sediment cap. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 87:1222–1228. CrossRef
You J, Landrum PF, Trimble TA, Lydy MJ. 2009. Availability of polychlorinated biphenyls in field-contaminated sediment. Environ Toxicol Chem 26:1940–1948. CrossRef
Zhang T, Gannon SM, Nevin KP, Franks AE, Lovley DR. 2010. Stimulating the anaerobic degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated sediments by providing an electrode as the electron acceptor. Environ Microbiol 12:1011–1020. CrossRef
- Contaminated Sediment Research and Development Needs
Danny D. Reible
Alicia J. Shepard
- Springer New York
- Chapter 15
Systemische Notwendigkeit zur Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen