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2023 | Buch

Digital Transformation in Policing: The Promise, Perils and Solutions


Über dieses Buch

This book shares essential insights into how the social sciences and technology could foster new advances in managing the complexity inherent to the criminal and digital policing landscape. Said landscape is both dynamic and intricate, emanating as it does from crimes that are both persistent and transnational. Globalization, human and drug trafficking, cybercrime, terrorism, and other forms of transnational crime can have significant impacts on societies around the world. This necessitates a reassessment of what crime, national security and policing mean. Recent global events such as human and drug trafficking, the COVID-19 pandemic, violent protests, cyber threats and terrorist activities underscore the vulnerabilities of our current security and digital policing posture.

This book presents concepts, theories and digital policing applications, offering a comprehensive analysis of current and emerging trends in digital policing. Pursuing an evidence-based approach, it offers an extraordinarily perceptive and detailed view of issues and solutions regarding the crime and digital policing landscape. To this end, it highlights current technological and methodological solutions as well as advances concerning integrated computational and analytical solutions deployed in digital policing. It also provides a comprehensive analysis of the technical, ethical, legal, privacy and civil liberty challenges stemming from the aforementioned advances in the field of digital policing; and accordingly, offers detailed recommendations supporting the design and implementation of best practices including technical, ethical and legal approaches when conducting digital policing.

The research gathered here fits well into the larger body of work on various aspects of AI, cybersecurity, national security, digital forensics, cyberterrorism, ethics, human rights, cybercrime and law. It provides a valuable reference for law enforcement, policymakers, cybersecurity experts, digital forensic practitioners, researchers, graduates and advanced undergraduates, and other stakeholders with an interest in counter-terrorism. In addition to this target audience, it offers a valuable tool for lawyers, criminologist and technology enthusiasts.


Digitizing Policing: From Disruption to Innovation Through Futures Thinking and Anticipatory Innovation
In today’s security landscape we find ourselves confronted with problems of dynamic complexity, uncertainty and ambiguity with disruptive technologies being exploited in the criminal domain. Such key technological developments such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), machine learning algorithms, quantum computing, 5G, Dark web networks and cryptocurrencies, the Internet of All Things, 3D printing, molecular biology and genetics are all influencing the criminal landscape and shaping the future digitalization of law enforcement capabilities. For policing, these strategic challenges require a strategic response that is rooted in innovation and agility. As described in Policing in the UK, ‘…policing will need to get better at anticipating emerging threats, think more innovatively about the best policies and interventions for addressing them and mobilise responses quickly to maximise chances of success (College of Policing in Policing in England and Wales future operating environment 2040. https://​paas-s3-broker-prod-lon-6453d964-1d1a-432a-9260-5e0ba7d2fc51.​s3.​eu-west-2.​amazonaws.​com/​s3fs-public/​2020-08/​Future-Operating-Environment-2040_​0.​pdf, 2020, p. 3). Moving towards the development of solutions to this complex problem space characterized by disruptive technologies for criminality depends on the lens we use to examine them and how we frame the problem. Futures thinking and foresight analysis figure prominently in shaping law enforcements ability to understand how emerging technologies and criminality intersect and thereby how law enforcement can position itself for the future through anticipatory innovation. This chapter introduces futures thinking and foresight as problem framing approaches that will inform the digitalization of the law enforcement domain.
Anthony J. Masys
The Use of Counter Narratives to Combat Violent Extremism Online
Due to recent rises in extremism across the globe (Dean et al. in J Polic Intell Count Terror 11:121–142, 2016; Le Roux in Responding to the rise in violent extremism in the Sahel. Africa Center For Strategic Studies, 2019, p. 26) and (Jones in Int Secur 32:7–40, 2008), governments and law enforcement organisations, such as the police, have looked to new strategies to counter violent extremism (Russell and Theodosiou in Counter-extremism: a decade on from 7/7. Quilliam Foundation, 2015). Specifically, there has been an expanse of the field now widely known as Countering Violent Extremism (CVE). CVE is a highly contested area; however, upon conducting a literature review, Inserra (Revisiting efforts to counter violent extremism: leadership needed. The Heritage Foundation, 2015, p. 2) helpfully reduced the term CVE down to descriptions of interventions intended to “stop individuals from radicalizing”. LaFree and Freilich (Annu Rev Criminol 2:383–404, 2019) distinguish counter-terrorism from CVE, they describe counter-terrorism as military responses (‘hard’) as opposed to non-military responses (‘soft’), referred to as countering violent extremism strategies. This chapter contends that, although counter narratives tend to lack academic standing, there does appear to be a widespread acceptance that narratives influence individuals’ beliefs. Therefore, in the absence of other more effective methods of CVE online, it is argued that counter-narratives (CN) should be used in informed ways by organisations such as the police (Monaghan in Crime Media Cult 18(1):21–39, 2020). This chapter will compare academic understandings of narrative and communication alongside examples of counter narratives issued against them. It will then assess the impact of such strategies and potential alternatives for CN.
Joseph Rees, Reza Montasari
Ethical Challenges in the Use of Digital Technologies: AI and Big Data
This chapter looks at the normative and applied ethical standpoint and application of real-world technology challenges, with regard to Big Data (BD) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) domains and use-cases. In particular, how ethical technology design and utility can aid government policy makers, senior-management, software developers, and academic researchers in the quest for new knowledge and effective solutions. We discuss how biases are introduced by design in the workplace through technology and policy decision-making, how legal protections can become ambiguous through lack of definition, thus enhancing cyber-criminality, and demonstrate weakness in how the General Data Protection Regulations (GDPR) may adapt in light of new social phenomena and cultural change. We then propose legal applications with technical solutions that benefit societies in the addressing of core social operational/organisational themes and objectives, such as equality, diversity, gender pay-gap, racism, and the encouragement in the recruitment of women. This is undertaken from a combination of BD and AI ethical application perspectives, with a set of amalgamated criteria, the findings of which help identify factors for utilising in the design of a more ethically sound User Interface (UI). Three additional key socially controversial use-cases are presented (i.e., cyberstalking, sharenting, and, recruitment bias) and assessed alongside the set criteria to highlight current techno-social challenges, metrics, and applications that augment swift action in the mitigation of individual user risk. Thus, an ethically based UI Data Pipeline (VDaaS) is proposed in ensuring ethical, legal, technical objectives, and operations are met from a user perspective.
Vinden Wylde, Edmond Prakash, Chaminda Hewage, Jon Platts
Law Enforcement and the Policing of Cyberspace
Today, people all around the globe rely on an internet connection to function in twenty-first century society. The evolution of technology along with society itself have led to having an online presence being an important aspect of life. Users of the internet can connect and interact with one another globally, with it being easily accessible and available. Cyberspace is a new crucial point for modernisms, social media and businesses, bringing efficiency and enjoyment to many. Juxtaposed to this is the opportunity this connectivity affords online criminality to take place. Cyberspace poses significant challenges for law enforcement, where generic policing strategies can not necessarily be applied. The ‘non-physical’ nature of cyberspace leads to issues when everyday police forces try to govern the digital world and units must steer away from their usual day-to-day operations, in this fast-developing arena. This chapter will analyse the different challenges that police, and law enforcement agencies face when attempting to police the cyber world and protect the public from the ever growing and evolving risk of cybercrime.
Alice Baraz, Reza Montasari
Contemporary Issues in Child Protection: Police Use of Artificial Intelligence for Online Child Protection in the UK
This chapter investigates Artificial Intelligence (AI) inspired approaches used by the police in protecting children online. The reviewed approaches are successful in most of the situations but have their own weaknesses. As such consideration is required for all stakeholders within the child protection arena. The utmost duty to protect children lies with all, irrespective of whether the abuse occurred on or offline. The reporting and intervention on child abuse cases were based on the community, as this was mostly offline perpetrated by parents or caregivers. However, with the advent of technology and the increasing use of the internet by children for several reasons, it has shifted most abuses from offline to online. The law enforcement authorities such as police plays a vital role in protecting children online and can apply different approaches compared to other agencies such as Social Services, Health, and Education. However, Government recommendations for a joint working response mean that all child-protected agencies need to work together in the process of protecting children (HM Government in Working together to safeguard children: a guide to inter-agency working to safeguard and promote the welfare of children, Department for Children, Schools, and Families, London, 2010). However, with the emergence of COVID-19 and the high reliance on the internet by children, it meant that the police must adapt to the changes and rely on advanced technologies such as AI. The UK Police force is stretched due to a lack of financial and human resources, which means that alternative intervention methods are applied in monitoring and attacking online child abuse. This chapter challenges the use of AI unilaterally in predicting and identifying online abuse as opposed to face-to-face investigation and intervention. Though AI can be helpful, it has limitations that can impact on protecting children online as discussed in this chapter.
Christantus Tabi, Chaminda Hewage, Sheikh Tahir Bakhsh, Elochukwu Ukwandu
Beyond the Surface Web: How Criminals Are Utilising the Internet to Commit Crimes
The internet has revolutionised society and plays a key role in users lives. The rapid advances in technology means that now more than ever, users have the right to anonymity online, a service which is greatly invaluable to some, however, is leading to illicit behavior in others. Security threats and the distribution of illegal materials and substances continue to take place online, with a combination of legal loopholes and advancing anonymity subsequently leading to slow investigatory processes. This research considers how criminals are using services to their advantage and remaining largely undetected by the criminal justice system. This research also considers how ethically the criminal justice system works when dealing with its investigations with recommendations for the future. The growing use of cryptocurrencies are also considered with its security advantages for users but how the virtually anonymous features are enticing for criminal activity. This research considers whether digital forensics is keeping up with demand within the criminal justice system and whether new services with the standardisation and collaboration of governments is required to aid further investigations.
Kaycee Jacka
The Role of the Internet in Radicalisation to Violent Extremism
This chapter critically examines the role that the Internet and the Internet of Things (IoT) play in violent extremism. The chapter specifically focuses on arguments surrounding radicalisation as a pathway to terrorism and how individuals become radicalised due to different radicalisation processes and theories. Based on this critical analysis, the chapter argues that the Internet plays a key role in radicalisation to violent extremism due to several approaches. Issues highlighted in this chapter mainly focusses on the struggles of social media (SM) moderation and regulations. Furthermore, the chapter discusses how the IoT can aid SM regulation to reduce online radicalisation to violent extremism through artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) technology. It will be argued how AI and ML could be deployed to reduce terrorist content online, making social media platforms (SMPs) a safer cyber space for individuals to operate within.
Olivia Bamsey, Reza Montasari
Exploring the Extent to Which Extremism and Terrorism Have Changed Since the Advent of the Internet
This review will examine the academic literature over which role the internet has in the evolution of extremism and terrorism since its advent. It will compare two different approaches. The first claims that the internet is a major factor that facilitates ideas and narratives, which can lead to the rise of extremism and terrorism. The second, which in its turn contradicts this approach, argues that prior the advent of the internet extremists and terrorists where more successful into achieving their goals. For that reason, the review will be split into 3 sections. The first section will be examining some needed key definitions of what constitutes terrorism and extremism. Afterwards the essay will shift its approach towards the main debate of whether the internet has a causal link with extremism and terrorism or not. Therefore Sect. 2 brings forth the ways, in which the internet has helped terrorism to advance its goals. Moving on to the third section, this piece of work will discuss the approach in which the internet does not assist extremist narratives but, in the contrary helps the advancement of better research around it and its prevention. Lastly, the review will sum up over the literature that has been discussed and conclude that there is always space for future research.
Kevin Locaj
Zero Trust Security Strategies and Guideline
Zero Trust is like the design of the layout of a high security military base, airport or bank, where the security is embedded into the design stage. Consequently, Zero-Trust strategies incorporate ‘Secure by Design’ principles into the early constructs of an organization’s architecture. The premise of Zero-Trust (as the name indicates) is to assume that every interaction begins in an untrusted state. In contrast, traditional perimeter security often determines trustworthiness based on whether communication starts from inside a firewall. Zero-Trust is an alternative to traditional perimeter security, which due to the widespread moves to hybrid environments, remote working and insider risk has become increasingly regarded as being a flawed concept. Technology has evolved, as have work environments, but equally the cyber criminals’ tactics and techniques have evolved as well. It’s not a matter of if, but when, that opportunist malicious actor gets beyond your perimeter and organizations need to design their security architecture so that it predicts this. Zero trust starts by focusing on identifying those assets that need to be protected, by defining your protect surface (e.g. critical data, application, assets, and services), and then mapping the data and transaction flows across this (identifying any connected/impactful assets) and designing a zero-trust architecture through the effective siting of next-generation firewalls so that the defined protect surfaces are isolated and access is strictly restricted, based upon the principle of least privilege. Finally, understanding the environment your attack surfaces, needing protection, you are better able to understand what NORMAL is so that you can quickly find and respond to the detection of any potential ABNORMAL activities so that you can apply the 6 Ds of Defense (Deter, Detect, Disrupt, Delay, Deny and Defend).
Jim Seaman
Digital Transformation in Policing: The Promise, Perils and Solutions
herausgegeben von
Reza Montasari
Victoria Carpenter
Anthony J. Masys
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