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Über dieses Buch

Rapid industrialization is a serious concern in the context of a healthy environment. With the growth in the number of industries, the waste generated is also growing exponentially. The various chemical processes operating in the manufacturing industry generate a large number of by-products, which are largely harmful and toxic pollutants and are generally discharged into the natural water bodies. Once the pollutants enter the environment, they are taken up by different life forms, and because of bio-magnification, they affect the entire food chain and have severe adverse effects on all life forms, including on human health. Although, various physico-chemical and biological approaches are available for the removal of toxic pollutants, unfortunately these are often ineffective and traditional clean up practices are inefficient. Biological approaches utilizing microorganisms (bacterial/fungi/algae), green plants or their enzymes to degrade or detoxify environmental pollutants such as endocrine disruptors, toxic metals, pesticides, dyes, petroleum hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds, offer eco- friendly approaches. Such eco-friendly approaches are often more effective than traditional practices, and are safe for both industry workers as well as environment.

This book provides a comprehensive overview of various toxic environmental pollutants from a variety natural and anthropogenic sources, their toxicological effects on the environment, humans, animals and plants as well as their biodegradation and bioremediation using emerging and eco-friendly approaches (e.g. Anammox technology, advanced oxidation processes, membrane bioreactors, membrane processes, GMOs), microbial degradation (e.g. bacteria, fungi, algae), phytoremediation, biotechnology and nanobiotechnology. Offering fundamental and advanced information on environmental problems, challenges and bioremediation approaches used for the remediation of contaminated sites, it is a valuable resource for students, scientists and researchers engaged in microbiology, biotechnology and environmental sciences.



Chapter 1. Conventional Methods for the Removal of Industrial Pollutants, Their Merits and Demerits

Release of unprocessed and incompletely treated industrial wastes signifies a severe environmental threat regarding anthropological and ecological health concerns. An appropriate treatment approach that may be fruitful for waste management in a cost-effective and eco-friendly manner is becoming more important and a critical issue all over the world. There are various conventional, emerging, advanced, and biological treatment methodologies available that are suitable for wastewater remediation. In recent years, researchers have made notable achievements by means of conventional, biotechnological applications for the treatment and degradation of hazardous pollutants and noxious organic and inorganic combinations. Moreover, promising outcomes were achieved by these conventional treatment technologies, but they also have some drawbacks. Therefore, this chapter delivers an impression of the usage, advantages, and shortcomings of current technologies available for the effective management of waste products generated by industrial activities and their economically feasible alternatives.
Sandhya Mishra, Pankaj Chowdhary, Ram Naresh Bharagava

Chapter 2. Toxicological Aspects of Emerging Contaminants

The emerging contaminants field suffers from insufficient global information, especially in Africa, and even less from Asia. Emerging contaminants constitute a group of natural, synthesised chemicals and microorganisms that have been proved to cause serious effects on the laboratory organisms and therefore a threat to human and aquatic species. They are presumed to be endocrine disruptors, carcinogenic, teratogenic, and interfere with the sexual and reproductive behaviour of some small aquatics. This being the case, the discovery of emerging contaminants stands to be the finest toxicological investigation owing to improved science and technology. Nevertheless, in future, the world will come up with new environmental discoveries because of the continuous production of materials, which by themselves may be harmful, or their life cycle may be a threat.
Miraji Hossein

Chapter 3. An Overview of the Potential of Bioremediation for Contaminated Soil from Municipal Solid Waste Site

The soil contamination due to open disposal of municipal solid waste has become a serious issue particularly in the developing countries. Several studies have revealed variable impacts of pollutant toxicity on the environment and exposed inhabitants. This chapter provides an overview of the application of bioremediation of sites contaminated owing to municipal solid waste. The application of bioremediation technologies and well-organized mechanisms for environmental safety measures of these methods were discussed. Because some pollutants can be seriously affect to the environment, the chapter furthermore suggests strategies for better remediation of site. In addition, more detail studies exploring the linkage between the fates, and environmentally important factors are necessary to better understand the parameters on using bioremediation technologies.
Abhishek Kumar Awasthi, Jinhui Li, Akhilesh Kumar Pandey, Jamaluddin Khan

Chapter 4. Anammox Cultivation in a Submerged Membrane Bioreactor

A submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) was seeded with digester sludge and operated aiming at demonstrating a practical rapid anammox start-up and enrichment process. The study has aimed at the anammox start-up and enrichment process in a submerged bioreactor and discussed about the performance of anammox bacteria for treating industrial wastewater with relevant references. Several reports showed that anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) were operated for a period of 100–500 days under a completely anaerobic environment and fed with synthetic media. The maximum ammonium nitrogen removal rate was achieved to be 3.12 kg-N/m3/day under anaerobic nitrogen loading rate of 4.1 kg-N/m3/day in a granular anammox reactor. Mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) were 1.5 g/L after 90 days, and regular membrane backwashing maintained transmembrane pressure (TMP) below 30 kPa. This work demonstrated that anammox cultures can be enriched from sludges conveniently sourced from anaerobic digesters in a reasonable time frame using the AnMBR, thus enabling the next stage of utilising the biomass for treatment of industrial wastewaters.
M. Golam Mostafa

Chapter 5. Toxicity, Beneficial Aspects and Treatment of Alcohol Industry Wastewater

The alcohol industry is one of the most popular among all industries and a key contributor in the world’s economic growth, but unfortunately, these industries are also considered one of the major sources of environmental pollution. Alcohol industry wastewater is highly toxic for the aquatic and the terrestrial eco-system. This wastewater contains a high concentration of biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total solids, organic matter, potassium and sulphates and high acidic characteristics. Because of the high content of a toxic nature, it causes an adverse impact on soil structure and water bodies in the case of excessive amounts. In aquatic resources, it reduces the penetration power of sunlight causing a reduction in the photosynthetic activity of aquatic plants, dissolved oxygen content in water bodies and in terrestrial regions, and it causes genotoxic and phytotoxic effects on animal and plants respectively. Additionally, this wastewater may be used for the ferti-irrigation after proper dilution. In this chapter, we discuss in detail the positive and negative aspects of alcohol wastewater and miscellaneous treatment technologies for wastewater treatment. The aim of this chapter is also to provide updated information on the alternative uses of alcohol wastewater, such as energy production, ferti-irrigation, and other value-added products.
Pankaj Chowdhary, Ram Naresh Bharagava

Chapter 6. Bioremediation Approaches for Degradation and Detoxification of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Waste from industry is a noteworthy risk to the earth as it contains different poisonous, mutagenic and cancer-causing substances including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are a class of different organic compounds with two or more intertwined benzene rings in a linear, angular or cluster array. Eviction of PAHs is crucial as these are persevering toxins with ubiquitous event and adverse natural impacts. There are several remedial techniques, which are productive and financially savvy in elimination of PAHs from the affected environment. These removal approaches are not just eco-friendly; they additionally display an emerging and new strategy in mitigating the ability of PAHs to cause potential risk to living beings. Accessible physical and synthetic techniques are neither eco-accommodating nor financially viable in this way. Natural strategies such as bioremediation techniques are most appropriate for biodegradation of PAHs. Such techniques require less chemicals, less time and less contribution of energy and are cost-effective and eco-accommodating. The lethal PAH mixes can be changed into non-harmful and more straightforward ones utilizing normally occurring microorganisms like algae, bacteria and fungi in a procedure called biodegradation. This chapter mainly focuses on the enhancement in biodegradation of hazardous PAHs by using bioremedial approaches.
Pavan Kumar Agrawal, Rahul Shrivastava, Jyoti Verma

Chapter 7. Endocrine-Disrupting Pollutants in Industrial Wastewater and Their Degradation and Detoxification Approaches

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), a group of chemicals that alter the normal function of the endocrine system of humans and wildlife, are a matter of great concern. These compounds are widely distributed in respective environments such as water, wastewater, sediments, soils, and atmosphere. Chemicals like pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, flame retardants, natural hormones, heavy metals, and chemicals derived from basic compounds (such as plasticizers and catalysts) are major endocrine disruptors. EDCs emerging from industries such as pulp and paper, tannery, distillery, textile, pharma, etc. have been considered as major source of contamination. Alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs), bisphenol A (BPA), phthalates, chlorophenols, norethindrone, triclosan, gonadotropin compounds, pesticides, etc. are generally escaped during wastewater treatment and contaminate the environment. Endocrine-disrupting activity of these compounds is well documented to have adverse effect on human-animal health. Globally, efforts are being approached for their efficient removal from sewage/wastewaters. Thus, this chapter provides updated overview on EDC generation, characteristics, and toxicity as well as removal/degradation techniques including physical, chemical, and biological methods. This chapter also reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of EDCs on human health so that the effects can be known and remedies applied for the problem as soon as possible.
Izharul Haq, Abhay Raj

Chapter 8. Arsenic Toxicity and Its Remediation Strategies for Fighting the Environmental Threat

Arsenic (As) is an abundant element found ubiquitously in nature, primarily in the earth’s crust and also in the environment. Arsenic is necessary for living beings; however, it is also an emerging issue by virtue of the toxicity it causes in living beings, including humans and animals. Basically, the ground water is badly affected by As contamination, coming from sources including As-affected aquifers, and has severely threatened humanity around the world. Arsenic poisoning is worse in Bangladesh and Uttar Pradesh, where As(III) is found in higher concentrations in ground water, which is used by people. The dissolution process caused by oxidation and reduction reactions leads to the natural occurrence of As in groundwater. There are several review articles on As toxicity and exposure, but with scattered information and no systematic knowledge in a combined way. However, in this chapter we try to compile all the information in systematic manner, which will be helpful for people who are working for As mitigation and removal from environment for sustainable development. This chapter will be helpful in providing detailed knowledge on As occurrence, speciation, factors affecting As toxicity arising because of its biogeochemistry, and various physico-chemical and biological strategies for combating the environmental threats.
Vishvas Hare, Pankaj Chowdhary, Bhanu Kumar, D. C. Sharma, Vinay Singh Baghel

Chapter 9. Microalgal Treatment of Alcohol Distillery Wastewater

Microalgae possess unique metabolic mechanisms making them highly efficient at removal of the nutrients from and decomposition of organic components of different wastewater types including alcohol distillery wastewater. Microalgae generate dissolved oxygen increasing the efficiency of the alcohol distillery wastewater treatment. Microalgal cells take up and store large amounts of nitrogen (N) and, especially, phosphorus (P). This process induces the nutrient removal efficiency and generates the valuable algal biomass enriched in N and P. Nevertheless, the microalgae-based alcohol distillery wastewater treatment processes are much less established in comparison with conventional anaerobic and aerobic approaches based on bacteria and other heterotrophic organisms. It is not likely that microalgal treatment, either in the open ponds or in the closed systems, can replace completely the conventional alcohol distillery wastewater treatment methods but will complement the latter.
Alexei Solovchenko

Chapter 10. Endophytes: Emerging Tools for the Bioremediation of Pollutants

Pollutants are toxic to living organisms and the environment. Removal of these pollutants using biological agents has been attempted, with many of these successfully performed by a variety of bacteria and fungi. In recent years, a group of microorganisms known as endophytes have been explored for their bioremediation potential. Endophytes are microorganisms that exist in the tissues of the host plant and have traditionally been studied for their plant growth-promoting properties, biocontrol activities, and production of bioactive compounds. Their bioremediation potential is new and has tremendous room for research and development. Endophytes are, therefore, interesting microorganisms in our effort to discover new tools for the bioremediation of pollutants. In this chapter, the nature of endophytes, their tolerance to pollutants, and their application and mechanisms in removing pollutants such as toxic metals and triphenylmethane dyes are discussed. Examples of known endophytic species are also highlighted, and the methods in bioprospecting for these endophytic isolates are also discussed.
Carrie Siew Fang Sim, Si Hui Chen, Adeline Su Yien Ting

Chapter 11. Textile Wastewater Dyes: Toxicity Profile and Treatment Approaches

Textile industry is one of the major industries in the world that play a major role in the economy of many countries. Wastewater discharges from textile industries are highly colored which contains various polluting substances including synthetic dyes, chemicals, etc., causing severe health hazards to humans, animals, plants, as well as microorganisms. This highly colored textile wastewater severely affects photosynthetic function in plant as well as aquatic life by eutrophication. So, this textile wastewater must be treated before their discharge. In this chapter, different treatment methods to treat the textile wastewater have been presented such as physical methods (adsorption, ion exchange, and membrane filtration), chemical methods (chemical precipitation, coagulation and flocculation, chemical oxidation), and biological methods (aerobic and anaerobic). This chapter also recommends the possible eco-friendly approaches for treating diverse types of effluent generated from textile operation.
Sujata Mani, Pankaj Chowdhary, Ram Naresh Bharagava

Chapter 12. Pesticide Contamination: Environmental Problems and Remediation Strategies

Pesticides are the chemicals used in the control of weeds and pests. The larger inputs of pesticides and fertilisers contaminate food commodities with trace amounts of chemical pesticides and its invasion in crops causes diseases, which is a growing source of concern for the universal population and environment in today’s world. The extensive utilisation of pesticides possibly enhances their accumulation in the agricultural fields and environmental components, such as enlarged farms, field sizes, loss of landscape elements etc. Nevertheless, their low biodegradability has classified these chemical substances as a persistent toxic element. Furthermore, organo-chlorine pesticides have caused multiple problems of health hazards, such as acute and chronic effects including developmental effects and neurological disruptors in humans and animals. The biological stability of pesticides and the higher content of lipophilicity in food products create a significant effect on the physical condition of human beings and animals. As the bio-accumulation and bio-magnification of lethal pesticides are the main cause of the loss of plants, microbes and animal biodiversity, therefore, microbially based bioremediation of toxic pollutants from the polluted sites has been proposed to be a safe and sustainable means of decontaminating the environment. In this communication, we have tried to explain the source of environmental pollution by pesticides, its hazardous effects on living beings and remediation strategies.
Siddharth Boudh, Jay Shankar Singh

Chapter 13. Recent Advances in Physico-chemical and Biological Techniques for the Management of Pulp and Paper Mill Waste

Pulp and paper industries are one of the major sources of environmental pollution that discharge enormous amount of wastewaters containing recalcitrant pollutants into the environment. Wastewaters have high biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total solids (TS), phenols, lignin and its derivatives. High strength of wastewaters containing dark colour and toxic compounds from pulp paper industries causes serious aquatic and soil pollution. On terrestrial region, pulp and paper mill wastewater at high concentration reduces the soil texture and inhibits seed germination, growth and depletion of vegetation, while in aquatic system, it blocks the photosynthesis and decreases the dissolved oxygen (DO) level which affects both flora and fauna and causes toxicity to aquatic ecosystem. The high pollution load from pulp and paper industrial wastewater gradually increases, and hence, there is a need for adequate treatment to reduce these pollution parameters before final discharge into the environment. Thus, this chapter gives detailed information about sources, characteristics, toxicity and physico-chemical and biological methods for the treatment of pulp and paper mill wastes and wastewaters.
Surabhi Zainith, Pankaj Chowdhary, Ram Naresh Bharagava

Chapter 14. Role of Rhizobacteria in Phytoremediation of Metal-Impacted Sites

Phytoremediation is an emerging and eco-friendly technology that has gained wide acceptance and is currently an area of active research in plant biology. A number of metal-hyperaccumulating plants have already been identified as potential candidates to phytoremediate metal-polluted soil. Various strategies have been successfully applied to generate plants able to grow in adverse environmental conditions and accumulate or transfer a number of metals. Recently, biotechnological approaches have opened up new opportunities concerning the application of beneficial rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria for improving plant growth, biological control, and heavy metal remediation from contaminated sites. Further, molecular approaches have been applied to improve the process of phytoremediation efficiently using a transgenic approach. The overexpression of several genes whose protein products are directly or indirectly involved in plant metal uptake, transport, and sequestration, or act as enzymes involved in the biodegradation of hazardous organic wastes, has opened up new possibilities in phytoremediation. This chapter is mainly focused on plant-microbe interactions to phytoremediate metal-contaminated sites and evaluate the progress made thus far in understanding the role of rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria in the phytoremediation of metal-contaminated sites and different phytoremediation technologies. In addition, we also discuss the use of genetic engineering to modify plants for enhanced efficacy phytoremediation strategies. These approaches will be helpful to develop phytoremediation technologies for large-scale application to remediate vast areas of metal-polluted sites.
Reda A. I. Abou-Shanab, Mostafa M. El-Sheekh, Michael J. Sadowsky

Chapter 15. Remediation of Phenolic Compounds from Polluted Water by Immobilized Peroxidases

In present chapter, an effort has been done to review the role of immobilized peroxidases in the removal of phenolic pollutants from wastewater or industrial effluents. Immobilized peroxidases were found significantly more stable against several kinds of denaturants such as the broad ranges of pH and temperatures, organic solvents, and other forms of chemical inactivators. These bound peroxidases were found highly resistant to inhibition caused by their specific inhibitors and products compared to their free forms. Peroxidases from several plant sources, horseradish, turnip, soybean seed coat, pointed gourd, and white radish, and some microbial sources have successfully been immobilized on/in various types of organic, inorganic, and nanosupports by using different methods and employed for the treatment of phenolic pollutants in batch processes and continuous reactors. The applications of immobilized peroxidases in targeting such compounds were found remarkably useful in decreasing the cost of the treatment. Herein, the findings have summarized that the immobilized peroxidases have a great potential in the remediation of phenolic pollutants from industrial wastewater.
Qayyum Husain

Chapter 16. Nanoparticles: An Emerging Weapon for Mitigation/Removal of Various Environmental Pollutants for Environmental Safety

Nanotechnology is a recent field of technology and nanoparticle materials are fundamental units that measure within the range 1–100 nm with several types of morphologies. They have exceptional and unique catalytic properties, which are associated with their size and are changed from their bulk materials. These nanoparticle materials are prepared by the various methods such as chemical, physical and biological methods. The prepared nanoparticles are investigated by numerous characterisation techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area analysis, absorbance spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy. XRD revealed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles. SEM and TEM images provides information on the morphology and particle size distribution, and BET revealed the surface properties of the nanoparticles. Optical properties are investigated by absorbance and photoluminescence spectroscopic techniques. The effective photo-catalysis of organic toxic pollutants and heavy metals from the environment have been a challenging subject for human health. Much research has explored the environmental behaviour of nanostructured materials for the effective removal of hazardous organic pollutants and heavy metals, existing both in the surface and underground wastewater. The goal of this chapter is to indicate the outstanding removal capability and environmental remediation of nanostructured materials for various toxic organic pollutants and heavy metal ions.
Gaurav Hitkari, Sandhya Singh, Gajanan Pandey

Chapter 17. Biphasic Treatment System for the Removal of Toxic and Hazardous Pollutants from Industrial Wastewaters

Industrial effluents carrying diverse pollutants are discharged freely into the adjacent environments and percolate to the groundwater resources. Currently, the treatment strategies also consider recycling and reuse with the energy recovery. Novel approaches to remove these pollutants include biphasic systems. Different biphasic systems including liquid-liquid two-phase partitioning and solid-liquid partitioning systems have proved successful for the cleaning of effluents containing textile dyes, heavy metals, organic contaminants, pharmaceutical ingredients and many other xenobiotic compounds. The system efficacy is based on the careful selection of the phase-forming substance/polymer as well as control and maintenance of the operational parameters including temperature, pH and hydraulic retention time. Among the biological parameters, selection of the microbes either pure cultures or mixed cultures plays a very important role for the removal of xenobiotics in biphasic systems.
Ali Hussain, Sumaira Aslam, Arshad Javid, Muhammad Rashid, Irshad Hussain, Javed Iqbal Qazi

Chapter 18. Phycotechnological Approaches Toward Wastewater Management

Phycoremediation​ technology is a cost-effective and environment-friendly approach, which involves use of microalgae to suck the pollutant present in the soil and water. The accumulation of inorganic and organic pollutants like pesticides, herbicides, insecticide, PCBs, DDT, and metals along with metalloids (Cd, Pb, Se, As) in the aquatic ecosystem can cause deleterious impacts on environment and organisms. Natural and intensive anthropogenic activities are the main factor responsible for the accumulation of these pollutants in plants and animals. These serious problems of pollution can be resolved by the application of phycoremediation technologies using microalgae to remove pollutants from the environment in a sustainable manner. The present chapter focuses on the different techniques used in remediation of pollutants and the mechanism of remediation adopted by micro- and macroalgal species to absorb the organic and inorganic pollutants from wastewater and soil.
Atul Kumar Upadhyay, Ranjan Singh, D. P. Singh
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