Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Despite sustained demand, the plantation economy, particularly for tea, coffee and rubber, is seen to be in a crisis and hence undermining the livelihoods of workers and small producers involved in the production of these commodities. Based on secondary literature, we elaborate the factors contributing to this ‘crisis’ in the plantation economy and what we see as problematic in the institutional response to this ‘crisis’ and hence in ensuring decent livelihoods for workers. First, we point out that the crisis is an outcome of shifts and slippages in governance regimes and a failure of capital to make sustained investments in the sector. We highlight gaps in governance such as exit of capital without ensuring decent livelihoods or decent living wages for labour in large plantations, casualization of work, reliance on small grower models and concentration of marketing power in tea and coffee value chains that allow little room for value redistribution. Second, we point out that plantation interests cannot be reduced merely to commodity-specific interests. Biodiversity, gender, politics of land grab and sustainability in terms of ecology are emerging as equally important aspects of the plantation question. A value chain approach that emphasizes ‘upgrading’ as a way out to secure better livelihoods ought to therefore also incorporate value creation and destruction of ecologies that currently sustain plantation crops and what this may imply for workers’ and small producers’ livelihoods. The strong productivist logic of some of the interventions in the plantation economy may therefore require a rethink and critical assessment. The chapter therefore develops a critique of the premises underlying some of the policy shifts. Finally, we discuss a few micro-level interventions to suggest possible pathways towards a ‘high road’ to addressing the crisis.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
It is all the more important to note that majority of the workers do not even possess lands, so that they could think of constructing a house post retirement from the plantations.
In fact, this perspective has been mooted to advance the New International Division of Labour (NIDL’s) explanatory power by moving away from nation states as units of analysis and allowing space for peripheral regions to serve multiple roles in the global division of labour.
The tea plantations in Assam follow a general policy of worker management, by which, temporary workers are made permanent only if there is a vacancy caused by retirement of a permanent worker or death of a permanent worker. This being the case, there are many instances of temporary workers remaining temporary for 10 years, 20 years and even retiring as temporary workers (Viswanathan 2018).
http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4480e.pdf. Accessed on 16 August 2018.
Bair, J. 2009. Frontiers of Commodity Chain Research. Stanford University Press.
Banerjee, R. 2008. The Rajah of Darjeeling Organic Tea: Makaibari. New Delhi: Cambridge University Press (imprint of Foundation Books).
Bonacich, E., L. Cheng, N. Chinchilla, N. Hamilton and P. Ong (eds.). 1994. Global Production: The Apparel Industry in the Pacific Rim. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Cattaneo, O., Gereffi, G., and Staritz, C. (eds.). 2010. Global Value Chains in a Post Crisis World: A Development Perspective. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
Chatterjee, T., and John, J. 2012. “Price Stabilisation Fund for Tea-Towards an Alternative Approach”. National Research Programme on Plantation Development (NRPPD) Discussion Paper No: 19. Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram.
Chaudhuri, Mohuya. 2015. “Tea Gardens in the East Are Brewing Starvation, Malnutrition”. The Wire, 30 July. https://thewire.in/economy/tea-gardens-in-the-east-are-brewing-starvation-malnutrition. Accessed on 16 August 2018.
Das, K. 2013. “Plantation Infrastructure and the Performance of Assam’s Tea Sector: An Analysis on the Smallholding Tea Plantation Sector”. National Research Programme on Plantation Development Discussion Paper No: 29. Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram.
Deepika M. G. 2015. “Export Performance and Factors Affecting Competitiveness of Plantation Commodities in India.” National Research Programme on Plantation Development Discussion Paper 45. Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram.
Deshpande, A. 2000. “Does Caste Still Define Disparity? A Look at Inequality in Kerala, India”. American Economic Review 90(2): 322–325.
Gereffi, G. 1995. “Global Production Systems and Third World Development”. In Global Change, Regional Response: The New International Context of Development, Barbara Stallings (ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gereffi, Gary, and M. Korezeniewicz (eds.). 1990. Commodity Chains and Global Capitalism. Connecticut: Praeger.
Gereffi, Gary, John Humphrey, and Timothy Sturgeon. 2005. “The Governance of Global Value Chains.” Review of International Political Economy 12(1): 78–104.
Gibbon, P. 2000. “Global Commodity Chains and Economic Upgrading in Less Developed Countries”. Working Paper: No. 2. Copenhagen: Centre for Development Research.
Heller, P. 1999. The Labor of Development: Workers and the Transformation of Capitalism in Kerala, India. New York: Cornell University Press.
Hopkins, T. K. and I. Wallerstein. 1986. “Commodity Chains in the World Economy Prior to 1800”. Review 10(1): 157–170.
International Tea Committee (ITC). 2006. Annual Bulletin of Statistics, London, UK: International Tea Committee.
John J. and P. Mansingh. 2016. “Plantation Labour Act 1951 and Social Cost – the Case of the Tea Industry”. In Globalisation, Development and Plantation Labour in India, Joseph K.J and P.K Viswanathan (eds.). New Delhi: Routledge India.
Joseph, K. J. 2010. “Towards a New Paradigm for Plantation Development in India: An Analysis of the System of Production and Innovation from an Inclusive Growth Perspective”. National Research Programme on Plantation Development Discussion Paper No.1. Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram.
Joseph, K. J. and N. Thapa. 2015. “Towards Evolving a More Effective R&D and Extension System in Tea: A Preliminary Exploration of North India.” National Research Programme on Plantation Development Discussion Paper No: 40. Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram.
Joseph, K. J., and P. K. Viswanathan. (eds.). 2016a. Globalisation, Development and Plantation Labour in India. New Delhi: Routledge.
Joseph, K. J., and P. K. Viswanathan. 2016b. “Globalization, Inclusive Development and Plantation Labour: An Introduction”. In Globalisation, Development and Plantation Labour in India, Joseph, K. J., and P. K. Viswanathan (eds.). New Delhi: Routledge.
Klooster, Dan and Alejandro Mercado-Celis. 2015. “Sustainable Production Networks: Capturing Value for Labour and Nature in a Furniture Production Network in Oaxaca, Mexico”. Regional Studies 50(11): 1889–1902.
Majumdar, T. R. 2016. The Tea Crisis: Unfolding the Reality. Chaay Bagan Sangram Samity.
Mansingh, Pallavi and Liby T. Johnson. 2012. “Comparative Analysis of Existing Models of Small Growers in Tea Value Chain in the Nilgiris”. National Research Programme on Plantation Development Discussion Paper No.20. Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram.
Marie-Vivien, D., Garcia, C. A., Kushalappa, C. G., and Vaast, P. 2014. “Trademarks, Geographical Indications and Environmental Labelling to Promote Biodiversity: The Case of Agroforestry Coffee in India”. Development Policy Review 32(4): 379–398.
Mohan, Sarah. 2018. Value Chain Upgrading for Competitiveness and Sustainability: A Comparative Study of Tea Value Chains in Kenya, Sri Lanka and Nepal. Geneva: International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD).
Neilson, J. and Pritchard, B. 2009. Value Chain Struggles: Institutions and Governance in the Plantation Districts of South India. Chichester: Wiley and Sons.
Ramamurthy, P. 2000. “The Cotton Commodity Chain, Women, Work and Agency in India and Japan: The Case for Feminist Agro-Food Systems Research”. World Development 28(3): 551–578.
Rammohan, K. T., and R. Sundaresan. 2003. “Socially Embedding the Commodity Chain: An Exercise in Relation to Coir Yarn Spinning in Southern India”. World Development 31(5): 903–923.
Rammohan, K. T., S. Soman, and E. Joseph. 2015. “Munnar: Through the Lens of Political Ecology”. Economic and Political Weekly 50(46/47): 33–37.
Rasaily R. 2016. “Women’s Labour in the Tea Sector: Changing Trajectories and Emerging Challenges”. In Globalisation, Development and Plantation Labour in India, Joseph K.J and P.K Viswanathan (eds.), 51–81. New Delhi: Routledge India.
Sarkar, Kingshuk. 2013. “Trends and Price Formation Mechanism in Indian Tea Auctions”. National Research Programme on Plantation Development Discussion Paper No.23. Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram.
Selvaraj, M. S., and S. Gopalakrishnan. 2016. “Nightmares of an Agricultural Capitalist Economy”. Economic and Political Weekly 51(18): 107–113.
Tea Board. 2016. Indian Tea Statistics, Tea Board, Government of India.
Thapa, N. 2012. “Employment Status and Human Development of Tea Plantation Workers in West Bengal”. National Research Programme on Plantation Development Discussion Paper No.11. Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram.
Upendranadh, C. 2010. “Coffee Conundrum: Whither the Future of Small Growers in India?” National Research Programme on Plantation Development Discussion Paper No.3. Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram.
Viswanathan, P. K. 2018. “ Fairtrade and its Impact on Working and Living Conditions of Tea Plantation Workers in India: A Study in Assam”. Unpublished Report submitted to the Fairtrade Foundation, UK.
Viswanathan, P. K. and Amita Shah. 2016. “Gender impact of trade reforms in India: An analysis of tea and rubber production sectors” In Globalisation, Development and Plantation Labour in India, Joseph K. J. and P. K. Viswanathan (eds.). New Delhi: Routledge India.
- Emerging Vulnerabilities in India’s Plantation Economy
P. K. Viswanathan
- Springer Singapore
- Chapter 6
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta