Skip to main content
main-content

Über dieses Buch

This book discusses environmental management and construction management approaches to the environmental problems that can emerge in construction projects. It sets a brand new standard for environmental management in mega construction projects in China and helps all construction project stakeholders establish a more compliant and efficient environmental management system. The authors systematically explore management systems and team management, offering managerial methods and tips based on international and Chinese practices. Outlining all the environmental challenges that can arise during construction, it is a valuable resource for company owners, construction contractors, and construction management consultants and companies. It also offers useful insights for engineers, project managers and project executives.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Construction Preparation

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. EHS Concept and Interrelation

HSE expands as health, safety, and environment. This management system, also known as EHS (hereinafter referred to as EHS), is introduced by European and American companies. Compared to ISO9000 quality management system and ISO14000 environment management system, EHS has safety included. Safety, environment, and health management are actually closely interrelated in production and construction practices, thus are integrated as EHS management system. Security management sometimes is incorporated in EHS in some European and American companies or construction projects, so that they can be managed as HSSE comprehensively.
Jianming Yang

Chapter 2. Environmental Guidelines and Objectives

Owner companies of major projects, whether they have obtained ISO14000 environmental certification (or passed equivalent environmental audit), they will, as normal practices, set up their own environmental guideline and objectives. Environmental guideline is the ultimate goal to achieve for a business, such as “to build a low-carbon green company,” environmental objectives are relatively more detailed and specific, such as “the company will reduce carbon dioxide emissions by twenty percent through technology innovation in the year of xxxx.”
Jianming Yang

Chapter 3. Team Organization and Personnel

The personnel and organization of environment management are decided by the project management model of the mega construction project. Project management is categorized by the nature of different works and organizational characteristics, listed as below:
1.
Project management of the owner company (project management of the investor and developer);
 
2.
Project management of construction management company (management services provided by construction management consulting company on behalf of the owner);
 
3.
Project management of the designing company;
 
4.
Project management of construction company;
 
5.
Project management of supervision company (Jian Li), e.g., project Jian Li, environment Jian Li, soil and water conservation Jian Li;
 
6.
Project management of general contractor, e.g., design and construction contractor, or design, procurement and construction contractor.
 
Jianming Yang

Chapter 4. Environmental Impact Assessment

The first level of environment management on key megaprojects is to comply with all the national (local) laws and regulations, and Environmental Impact Assessment is a necessary starting point to ensure that all the project processes are in compliance with laws and regulations. The bigger the size and importance of the project, the more scientifically solid and accurate its EIA should be. Meanwhile, project executives and environment management team should thoroughly study and understand the environment assessment report, which will be beneficial for subsequent environment management.
Jianming Yang

Chapter 5. Soil Assessment

The industrial sites that are used for the following industries: Petro-chemical industry, pharmaceutical industry, rubber and plastics industry, textile printing and dyeing industry, metal surface treatment, metal smelting and rolling industry, nonmetallic mineral products industry, leather tanning industry, metal casting processing industry, the production, storage and use of hazardous chemicals, the pesticide production industry, the collection, disposal of hazardous waste sites and the gas station, domestic waste treatment plant, sewage treatment plant need to have relevant investigation, risk assessment and remediation when the original sites are redeveloped for environmental sensitivity sites like residence, store, school, kindergarten, hospital, nursing home, playground, park, stadium, exhibition buildings, etc. Mega construction projects are likely to involve demolition and reconstruction, as they usually take up large spaces. And then the soil assessment would be very necessary if above-mentioned chemical projects were once in the area. Otherwise it is difficult to prove that the environmental management of the new project is not affected by the negative impact left by previous projects. Soil assessment shall entrust a qualified experienced institute to carry out the main work.
Jianming Yang

Chapter 6. Environmental Supervision (Environmental Jian Li)

Environmental Jian Li must be employed on mega projects to assist the owner’s environment management team with project’s environment supervision.
Jianming Yang

Chapter 7. Environmental Monitoring

Environmental Monitor is to use the modern science and technical method of physical, chemical, and biological to monitor and measure the factors about environmental chemical pollutants and the physical and biological pollution on site intermittently or continuously, and makes the right environmental quality assessment.
Jianming Yang

Chapter 8. Estimation

Estimation is an always-be challenge for mega construction projects. In any project, sufficient budget is desired by each line of business, and environment team as well. Undoubtedly, it plays a pivotal role in effective environment management for the construction project to well plan and utilize environment budget within limited amount of the overall budget. Otherwise, without adequate budget, the environment management will not be feasible, however smart the principles and goals may be. Furthermore, to make every cent counts, the efficiency of budget spending must be taken care of and supervised, fending off all the uncontrollable factors, so as to make sure of the actual execution of budgets.
Jianming Yang

Chapter 9. Environmental Management Procedures

As a mega construction project, the first task of environmental management team, if without Environmental Impact Assessment Report (many of today’s environmental assessment has been completed by the owner-entrusted qualified third-party before the officially project launch), it should first establish the relevant environmental management program. With respect to the ISO9000 or ISO14000, environmental policy and objectives substantially correspond to first level documents, and environmental management team organization structure and the appropriate management of the procedures correspond to the second level documents. Here defined practical work of environmental control team, as well as actual management control processes.
Jianming Yang

Chapter 10. Tendering

Environment management team does not involve into tendering process in small and medium projects; however, in mage construction project, it is necessary for environment management team to look into every step of tendering. The “tendering” referred to hereby basically include the requirements in the environment protection part of the tender document for General Contractor candidates, and the tendering for dedicated environment protection facilities for this project as well. It takes some craftsmanship to do tender management. A well-managed tender can take predominant effect on the contractor’s performance after boarding.
Jianming Yang

Chapter 11. The Preparation for Environmental Protection Equipment

Environmental Protection Equipment refers to equipment specialized on environmental pollution control including water pollution control equipment, air pollution control equipment, solid waste handling equipment and noise control equipment.
Jianming Yang

Construction Process Control

Frontmatter

Chapter 12. Environmental Risks

Mega construction project is different from normal construction project due to its enormous investment, long construction duration, and high challenge. Meanwhile, there are various risks existing in the construction process which would cause severe accident with wide scope of influence compared to medium–small-sized project. Generally speaking, the risk is mainly presented as follows: Personnel injury due to safety accident, environmental pollution due to environmental accident, economic losses due to rescue and recovery, and reputation loss of owner company or construction company which is unable to value.
Jianming Yang

Chapter 13. Environmental Administrative License

Environmental administrative license means that administrative organization (people’s government or environmental administrations), according to the application of citizen, corporate or other organization, grants he/she/it the right to engage in certain activities after reviewing the legality. Environmental remediation is costly, sometimes the pollution cannot even be remediated, and therefore environmental protection should focus on prevention, which is also the significance of environmental administrative license mechanism. Through this mechanism, the government, on the one hand, includes some environmental risky behavior into the range of administrative license to avoid arbitrariness of this kind of activities; on the other hand, defines rights, obligations and responsibilities of each party, thereby managing environmental risk in a controllable range.
Jianming Yang

Chapter 14. Training

It is hard to conduct an integrated training in one time toward all personnel, since there is a large number of people involved in the mega construction project. Therefore, for the mega construction project, environmental training shall be conducted stage by stage to be more effective on all on-site management staff and on-site construction workers. We recommend the following stages.
Jianming Yang

Chapter 15. Storm Water Drainage

Storm water will cause delays in construction work on-site, while effective and timely drainage will help with the resumption of construction work. Meanwhile, the improper drainage of storm water in office area and workers’ accommodation area will impact the project management and workers’ life, thus impact the process of the project. As a result, it is necessary to set up effective temporary storm water drainage system at construction site, office area, and worker accommodation area as well as to keep the drainage clear. If site condition meets, it is better to leverage the permanent storm water drainage facilities, which is established at site.
Jianming Yang

Chapter 16. Waste Water and Sewage Management

Site of mega construction project will definitely produce large amount of construction waste water during a relatively long period, meanwhile since the concentrated settlement of construction workers and managers in construction living area, it will produce great amount of domestic sewage and medical waste water due to the setting of clinics. Management of different waste water is both a difficult problem and a challenge. If suitable management method can be applied at the beginning of the project, everything will certainly be in perfect order; in contrast, if there is no enough attention being paid at the early stage, it will be a mess when the amount of waste water and sewage becomes large.
Jianming Yang

Chapter 17. Noise Management/Nighttime Construction Management

Sound, produced by the vibration of substance, is a sense when the air of a certain frequency acts on the ear drum. Some types of sound bring harm or annoyance to human being, such as deafening machine sound and explosive sound which will harm the human ear. This kind of unpleasant sound is called noise. Environmental noise refers to the noise that disturbs the surrounding environment during industrial production, construction, transportation, and social life. Environmental noise pollution refers to the phenomenon that the environmental noise exceeds the national emission standard for environmental noise and affects the normal work, study, and life of people.
Jianming Yang

Chapter 18. Air Quality and Atmospheric Particulate Matter Control

Take Shanghai as an example, general contractors should manage and control activities which would produce dust pollution during construction process according to environmental regulations and requirements, such as Air Pollution Prevention Law in People’s Republic of China and Shanghai Municipal Dust Pollution Prevention and Control Measures. As for major projects, excavation, transportation and stacking of sediment, construction waste and garbage are absolutely necessary, and involved bare area is huge. Therefore, management requirements, such as sediment transportation, dust control, road cleaning, and car washing, should be classified.
Jianming Yang

Chapter 19. Solid Wastes Management

On the construction site of a megaproject, there is usually large amount of solid wastes from construction work and workers’ daily life, such as normal household garbage, kitchen wastes, and construction wastes like concrete blocks. Except those recyclable parts, other solid wastes must be disposed according to national regulations.
Jianming Yang

Chapter 20. Hazardous Waste Management

Hazardous waste refers to the solid, semi-solid and liquid waste, which is defined by the national unified measures as toxic, flammable, explosive, corrosive, chemical reactivity, infectious and may be harmful to human health and the environment. Hazardous waste could cause serious environmental pollution, combustion, explosion, and other risky situations. Those wastes could also lead to poisoning such as carcinogenicity, teratogenicity for people through ingestion, inhalation, skin absorption, etc. Therefore the management of hazardous waste is very crucial.
Jianming Yang

Chapter 21. Recycling of Cement, Wood, and Other Resources

Due to the characteristics of extensive construction, long period, complexity, frequent cross-construction, and numerous temporary building and construction, large amounts of cement and wood are needed in mega construction project repeatedly. If these construction materials are dumped after used only once, it is wasteful. Otherwise, there will be large amounts of construction waste and solid waste. Therefore, based on our country’s laws and regulations and sustainable development requirement, it is particularly important to make reasonable recovery and resources recycling.
Jianming Yang

Chapter 22. Environmental Emergency Response Plan

In construction period of megaprojects, once natural disasters, serious accidents, serious environmental pollution, and other emergencies occur, if without a comprehensive pre-made emergency plan, those emergencies will not be efficient controlled or even has an irreversible negative impact on company reputation. Thus, it is important to establish and execute the emergency plan for environment, safety, firefighting, health, security, labor standards etc., especially for EHS management of those mega construction projects.
Jianming Yang

Chapter 23. Dormitory Environment

There is usually a large number of construction workers working on megaprojects. And the dormitories are the dense population areas which are also temporary facilities. So the owner company should pay more attention to situation that could cause injuries or instabilities of society, such as fire hazards (fire in dormitories), safety issue (collapse of dormitories), security issue (theft, fighting and chaos after drinking), and labor relations issue (troubles caused by back pay). There could be environmental issues in dormitories. If those issues cannot be resolved in time, constructions workers may complain dormitory management; also there could be negative impact to the environment o dormitory and neighborhood.
Jianming Yang

Chapter 24. Audit Oversight

Audit is divided into internal audits and external audits. Internal audits, sometimes called first-party audits, are conducted by, or on behalf of, the organization itself. The subject to internal audits is the organization’s own management system. Internal audits verify that the organization’s management system can continue to meet the requirements and operate normally. Internal audits provide information for effective management review, as well as for corrective and preventive actions, aiming to confirm the effectiveness of the organization’s management system, which may form the basis for an organization’s declaration of conformity. For mega construction projects, internal audits mainly refer to audits of the daily operation of the owner company’s environmental management team.
Jianming Yang

Chapter 25. Internal Collaboration

Just like any other departments, environmental department could not and would not be able to run on its own. To achieve the best management effect, it requires collaboration with many different departments of the company and the project. The collaboration we mentioned here does not include the foundation support in the traditional sense, such as Human Resources supports all other departments on recruiting, and Operations department assists on checking work attendance, etc. By collaboration, here it means that cross-department cooperation exceeds traditional scope of work to achieve higher management effectiveness.
Jianming Yang

Chapter 26. External Collaboration

Environmental management department of mega construction project owner company should work with public affairs to visit local environmental protection bureau and their subordinate division heads to talk in person on topics such as construction difficulties, challenge, highlights, and plans. Facing problem and in time communications enable us to efficiently work out plans when problems appear or even before they appear.
Jianming Yang

Chapter 27. Completion Verification Checklist for Environmental Protection

Completion acceptance is quite different for key megaprojects from that of smaller ones in terms of time needed. The main work of mega construction projects may not be finished at the same time with environmental protection facilities. More coordination is needed for them to start commissioning and production at the same time. Construction company should apply for completion acceptance step by step to environmental protection department in jurisdiction based on actual situations.
Jianming Yang

Backmatter

Weitere Informationen

BranchenIndex Online

Die B2B-Firmensuche für Industrie und Wirtschaft: Kostenfrei in Firmenprofilen nach Lieferanten, Herstellern, Dienstleistern und Händlern recherchieren.

Whitepaper

- ANZEIGE -

Systemische Notwendigkeit zur Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen

Die Entwicklung des mitteleuropäischen Energiesystems und insbesondere die Weiterentwicklung der Energieinfrastruktur sind konfrontiert mit einer stetig steigenden Diversität an Herausforderungen, aber auch mit einer zunehmenden Komplexität in den Lösungsoptionen. Vor diesem Hintergrund steht die Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen symbolisch für das ganze sich in einer Umbruchsphase befindliche Energiesystem: denn der Notwendigkeit einer Schaffung und Bildung der Hybridnetze aus systemischer und volkswirtschaftlicher Perspektive steht sozusagen eine Komplexitätsfalle gegenüber, mit der die Branche in der Vergangenheit in dieser Intensität nicht konfrontiert war. Jetzt gratis downloaden!

Bildnachweise