Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13280-013-0436-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Environmental pollution liability insurance was officially introduced in China only in 2006, as part of new market-based approaches for managing environmental risks. By 2012, trial applications of pollution insurance had been launched in 14 provinces and cities. More than ten insurance companies have entered the pollution insurance market with their own products and contracts. Companies in environmentally sensitive sectors and high-risk industries bought pollution insurance, and a few successful compensation cases have been reported. Still, pollution insurance faces a number of challenges in China. The absence of a national law weakens the legal basis of pollution insurance, and poor technical support stagnates further implementation. Moreover, current pollution insurance products have limited risk coverage, high premium rates, and low loss ratios, which make them fairly unattractive to polluters. Meanwhile, low awareness of environmental and social liabilities leads to limited demand for pollution insurance products by industrial companies. Hence, the pollution insurance market is not yet flourishing in China. To improve this situation, this economic instrument needs stronger backing by the Chinese state.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 236 kb)13280_2013_436_MOESM1_ESM.pdf
Abraham, K.S. 1986. Distributing risk: Insurance, legal theory, and public policy. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Bie, T. 2008. Environmental pollution liability insurance in foreign countries. Qiu Shi. Retrieved March 3, 2008, from http://www.bizjournals.com/philadelphia/stories/2001/11/05/focus4.html (in Chinese).
Bie, T., and X. Fan. 2007. Comparative study on the international environmental pollution liability insurance systems. Insurance Studies 89–92 (in Chinese).
Chen, P. 2006. A study on the types of liability of the insurer for oil pollution and that of the party liable. In Prevention and compensation of marine pollution damage, recent developments in Europe, China and the US, ed. M.G. Faure, and J. Hu, 241–262. Alphen: Kluwer.
Ericson, R.V., A. Doyle, and D. Barry. 2003. Insurance as governance. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Freeman, P.K., and H. Kunreuther. 1997. Managing environmental risk through insurance. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. CrossRef
Freeman, P.K., and H. Kunreuther. 2003. Managing environmental risk through insurance. In Yearbook of environmental and resource economics, ed. T.T. Henk Folmer, 159–189. Glos: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.
Gao, J. 2010. Environmental pollution liability insurance have made positive progress in China. China Environment News. Retrieved September 20, 2010, from http://www.cenews.com.cn/xwzx/zhxw/ybyw/201009/t20100919_664056.html (in Chinese).
Goldman, P. 2006. Public interest environmental litigation in China: Lessons learned from the U.S. Experience. Vermont Journal of Environmental Law 8: 251–278.
He, G., L. Zhang, Y. Lu, and A.P.J. Mol. 2011. Managing major chemical accidents in China: Towards effective risk information. Journal of Hazardous Materials 187: 171–181. CrossRef
He, G., Y. Lu, A.P.J. Mol, and T. Beckers. 2012. Changes and challenges of China’s environmental management. Environmental Development 3: 25–38. CrossRef
Hollaender, K., and M.A. Kaminsky. 2000. The past, present, and future of environmental insurance including a case study of MTBE litigation. Environmental Forensics 12: 205–211. CrossRef
Kostka, G., and A.P.J. Mol. 2013. Implementation and participation in China’s local environmental politics: Challenges and innovations. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning 15: 3–16. CrossRef
Levmore, S., and K.D. Logue. 2003. Insuring against terrorism—and crime. Michigan Law and Economics Research Paper No. 03-005; U of Chicago, Public Law Working Paper No. 47; U Chicago Law & Econ, Olin Working Paper No. 189. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=414144 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.414144.
Lin, Q. 2010. The role of government in environmental pollution liability insurance. Popular Business 320 (in Chinese).
Liu, Y. 1996. The states and prospect of pollution liability insurance in China. China Environment Management 16–18 (in Chinese).
Liu, C., and A.R.B. Chik. 2012. Reasons for insufficient demand of environmental liability insurance in China: A case study of Baoding, Hebei Province. Asian Social Science 8: 201–204.
Ma, Y., S. Xue, P. Bai, X. Huo, and X. Bian. 2012. Investment analysis report on insurance industry in China (2012–2016). China Investment Consultant Company (in Chinese).
MEP. 2011. Circular on enhancing pollution prevention in lead-acid storage batteries and lead recovery industries. MEP.
MEP and IRC. 2007. The guidelines on environmental pollution liability insurance. MEP.
Minoli, D.M., and J.N.B. Bell. 2002. Insurance as an alternative environmental regulator: findings from a retrospective pollution claims survey. Business Strategy and the Environment 12: 107–117. CrossRef
Mol, A.P.J., and N.T. Carter. 2006. China’s environmental governance in transition. Environmental Politics 15: 149–170. CrossRef
PRCEE. 2011. The development report of environmental pollution liability insurance in China. PRCEE.
Priest, G.L. 1987. The current insurance crisis and modern Tort law. The Yale Law Journal 96: 1521–1590. CrossRef
Sankar, U. 1998. Laws and institutions relating to environmental protection in India. In The role of law and legal institutions in Asian economic development. Rotterdam: Erasmus University.
SCPC, L. 2008. Regulations on pollution prevention and control of hazardous waste. SCPC.
Shavell, S. 1979. On moral hazard and insurance. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 93: 541–562. CrossRef
Stone, A. 2001. Pollution insurance growing in popularity. Philadelphia Business Journal. Retrieved Nov 5, 2001, from http://www.bizjournals.com/philadelphia/stories/2001/11/05/focus4.html.
Van Rooij, B., A.L. Wainwright, Y. Wu, and Y.A. Zhang. 2012. The compensation trap: The limits of community-based pollution regulation in China. Pace Environmental Law Review 29: 701–745.
- Environmental Pollution Liability Insurance in China: In Need of Strong Government Backing
Arthur P. J. Mol
C. S. A. van Koppen
- Springer Netherlands