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Über dieses Buch

In this thesis a prospective approach was developed to identify and to assess current as well as potentially upcoming product applications with focus on environmental releases and exposures of engineered nanomaterials. The developed product application scenarios were illustrated in case studies on iron oxide and silver nanoparticles. It was shown that despite of prevailing knowledge gaps, reasonable estimations for environmental releases and exposures can be made. This novel approach facilitates the identification of early indicators for precautionary risk management measures and among them benign by design concepts in technology and product development.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Background and motivation

Abstract
Nanotechnologies are promising for various product applications that are accompanied with a significant market potential (Roco 2011). Innovations based on nanomaterials address global challenges like energy, health care, clean water, and climate change (Palmberg et al. 2009) promising to satisfy the economical, social and environmental needs of the society. Consequently, nanotechnologies are often declared as the key technology of the 21st century combining several research disciplines including physics, chemistry, biology and biochemistry.
Henning Wigger

Chapter 2. Risk assessment of technological innovations

Abstract
This chapter will introduce relevant terms laying the foundation for the subsequent chapters of this thesis. At first, technological innovation will be defined and described and the relation to the precautionary principle and TA will be shown. Second, technology characterization is shown in the context of TA to systematically analyze technologies in early innovation stages.
Henning Wigger

Chapter 3. Approaches for release and product life cycle modeling

Abstract
From a historical perspective release and emission estimations mainly focused on the release of chemicals or on emissions from technical processes (KEMI 2004; Fissan et al. 2013), which is why no method is directly available for NOAA release estimation (see chapter 2). Moreover, it has also become apparent that the life cycle perspective is a crucial aspect for releases of NOAAs during the product lifespan (Som et al. 2010a). The life cycle stages characterize different types of situational contexts that influence the NOAAs or nano-enhanced products (Mitrano et al. 2015).
Henning Wigger

Chapter 4. Product application scenarios for prospective assessments

Abstract
Following the discussion of challenges associated with environmental release and exposure assessments, this chapter introduces the general product life cycle scenarios. Principally, the scenario method applied in this dissertation can act as first indication with regard to potential environmental releases based on different release patterns. Especially during the use stage, high uncertainties for potential release quantities and release points are evident.
Henning Wigger

Chapter 5. Current and future product applications of iron oxide and silver nanoparticles

Abstract
The early identification of new technologies and their potential applications constitutes challenges for research, entrepreneurs, and policy stakeholders. This is because of the fact that knowledge on research and development activities is generally available in decentralized form and is often restricted due to confidential issues (Watts and Porter 1997). Thus, plenty of methods exist that aim to provide information for technological forecasting and potential technology trends to assist decision-makers in industrial, regulatory, and subsidies political settings (Watts and Porter 1997).
Henning Wigger

Chapter 6. Case study: Clothing textiles with incorporated silver nanoparticles

Abstract
As clothing textiles with incorporated AgNPs are currently available on the market and represent a contradictory discussed application in the scientific literature, it was selected for a more detailed investigation and exemplification of the prospective matrices developed in chapter 4.5. Hence, this chapter will describe shortly the background and the state‐of‐the-art of clothing textiles’ life cycles. Based on this, the product application scenarios together with the prospective matrices are introduced and evaluated regarding the application type with the corresponding scoring scheme.
Henning Wigger

Chapter 7. Case Study: Magnetic resonance imaging based on iron oxide nanoparticles

Abstract
MRI belongs to the field of biomedical imaging and is one of the most advanced applications in drug delivery and theranostics in which nanomaterials might play a major role in the near future (Wigger et al. 2015b). The MRI principle has been extensively described in literature and only an overview will be given here (cf. Laurent et al. 2008; Na et al. 2009). The fact that each atom has its own atomic spin can be used to visualize soft tissues and organs of the human body.
Henning Wigger

Chapter 8. Conclusion and outlook for future research

Abstract
In the following, the outcomes of this thesis will be briefly summarized with consideration of the research objectives defined in subsection 1.2. Subsequently, limitations will be discussed and an outlook for future researches will be given.
Henning Wigger

Backmatter

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