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Über dieses Buch

In today's electronics business, managing an ESD progranris an integral part of a complete quality program. In fact, any electronics firm without an active ESD program puts itself and its customers at risk. This book illustrates one good example of the detail and dedication to quality that AT&T expects within its own operations and from its suppliers. Writing of the book began at a time when Ted Dangelmayer was burdened with many demands. These demands were from AT&T's own operations, internal suppliers, external suppliers, customers and others looking for a better understanding of the phenomenon of ESD, its impact and, most of all, ways to control and manage it. In a way, this book is a response to these demands by making available a reader friendly document that distills the hard-won experiences of Ted and AT&T. The information and methods in this book have been gained at no small cost and produce results that far exceed eXRenses. There is, however, a caveat: Success will not be obtained unless there is real management commitment. This means management must allocate the necessary resources and provide active support to ensure that training, auditing, reporting, tracking and an aggressive corrective action program all take place successfully. Ted is an internationally recognized authority, and you will benefit greatly by listening to his advice and following his recommendations.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Twelve Critical Factors in ESD Program Management

Abstract
Developing, implementing, and managing a successful ESD program requires a total system approach that extends from product design to customer acceptance. The program will need to be well managed and woven into every aspect of the manufacturing process in order to produce lasting success. In fact, a well-managed program can be far more effective than one well stocked with expensive supplies. The twelve critical factors described in this chapter (Table 1-1) form the basis of successful ESD program management.
G. Theodore Dangelmayer

Chapter 2. Implementing an ESD Control Program: The Basic Steps

Abstract
The 16 basic steps introduced in this chapter will provide the basis for the design and implementation of effective ESD program management. Presenting the steps first in this chapter in a brief outline offers a conceptual overview before focusing on individual steps in later chapters. This is especially beneficial for manufacturing companies contemplating the organization of such a program or for those attempting to strengthen their commitment to controlling ESD.
G. Theodore Dangelmayer

Chapter 3. Fundamentals of Electrostatics

Abstract
To successfully implement or upgrade an ESD program, familiarity with the concepts of electrostatics and ESD is necessary. In this chapter, we will briefly touch upon the basic elements. For a more extensive discussion, refer to introductory physics or engineering text books.23–25
G. Theodore Dangelmayer

Chapter 4. An Economic Analysis

Abstract
It has now been established that ESD can damage virtually any semiconductor. However, establishing how often that occurs in a specific manufacturing facility, or the consequence of that damage, has proven to be extremely difficult. For that reason, approvals to expend funds for ESD precautions are sought reluctantly and are often denied. This chapter will illustrate a technique that has proven successful in estimating the economic benefit of ESD precautions and, subsequently, in establishing a systematic and cost-effective prevention plan.
G. Theodore Dangelmayer

Chapter 5. Designed-In Protection and Product Testing

Abstract
Considerable effort is required to minimize ESD effects in manufacturing. However, the control program described in this book would be largely ineffective without some protection built into the devices. Manufacturing using metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices without specific protection circuitry would be extremely expensive if not impossible. Furthermore, once the devices leave the factory in circuit assemblies, they again become vulnerable during installation, maintenance, and repair. These functions are often performed by someone other than the equipment manufacturer. Thus, protection is required to survive this more hostile environment. Since performance requirements may limit the on-chip protection of some devices, additional protection may be required at the PWB assembly or system level. Special design techniques are also required to protect operating equipment from experiencing ESD-induced upset or soft errors as well as errors in data transmission.
G. Theodore Dangelmayer

Chapter 6. ESD Test Facilities

Abstract
Testing is an essential part of any ESD program, as it permits the coordinator to scientifically evaluate many critical aspects of the program. Areas where testing can be useful include:
  • Defining procedures and requirements used in an ESD Control Handbook
  • Qualifying ESD control products
  • Providing purchasing with the necessary information and requirements to buy and monitor incoming items
  • Providing information, procedures, and requirements for ESD Auditing
  • Solving manufacturing problems
  • Providing FMA for devices and systems and
  • Testing and qualifying devices and/or systems prior to shipment.
G. Theodore Dangelmayer

Chapter 7. Realistic Requirements

Abstract
The ESD control techniques and requirements in this chapter are based on research carried out at AT&T Bell Laboratories, detailed manufacturing studies such as those in Chapter 4, and the author’s eleven years of experience in manufacturing environments. These requirements were first published in a handbook at the AT&T manufacturing facility in North Andover, Massachusetts. Over time, they have been thoroughly reworked by the AT&T Corporate ESD Committee so that they now represent a consensus held by all AT&T locations. In fact, they are now the accepted requirements at all AT&T manufacturing facilities and appear in their final form in the AT&T Electrostatic Discharge Control Handbook. They have been carefully formulated to define minimum standards that will still allow maximum flexibility at each location. As such, they have been successfully used at locations having as few as 50 employees and at others with as many as 11,000. That is to say, they have been proven realistic and suitable for large or small operations.
G. Theodore Dangelmayer

Chapter 8. Implementing an Auditing Program

Abstract
On most mornings the ESD auditing inspector begins the workday at the Merrimack Valley Plant by entering the previous day’s data into the computer. Then he proceeds to the manufacturing floor and continues the data collecting process for the current auditing cycle.
G. Theodore Dangelmayer

Chapter 9. Using Auditing Results To Manage The ESD Program

Abstract
As explained in Chapter 8, auditing reports provide the coordinator with essential, timely information enabling him to understand the current status of the program. Only with this knowledge are good decisions and sound management possible. There should always be answers to the following questions: What major problems might currently stand in the way of perfect compliance or zero deviations? Were past efforts to solve major problems successful? Are resources being used to their best advantage? Are additional resources or support needed? Has there been any progress over the past two months? Can management count on further progress? Is a systemic change necessary to realize further improvement? Has management been kept informed?
G. Theodore Dangelmayer

Chapter 10. Purchasing Guidelines: Finding the Hidden Costs and Problems

Abstract
The ESD control equipment (Figure 10-1) should be carefully evaluated prior to first-time purchase and, reevaluated on a periodic basis for as long as the equipment continues in service. When done correctly, the evaluation process is time-consuming and demanding. To simplify the major tasks of collecting and recording data, checklists such as those found in this chapter are recommended. In addition to the checklists, this chapter contains information and discussion on the checklist items. Thus, the pass or fail marks on the checklists should add up to defensible final decisions based on understanding and a sense of critical judgment.
G. Theodore Dangelmayer

Chapter 11. Training for Measurable Goals

Abstract
Does training make a difference? It certainly does! Our experience shows that employees who are trained to comply with ESD control procedures do a better job. The evidence comes from our auditing reports. They show that untrained employees account for most of the deviations, while trained employees cause very few deviations. For example, during one auditing period, four out of every five deviations were caused by employees with little or no training (Figure 11-1). Subsequent audits revealed that when employees received training or were given additional training, the number of deviations in those work areas decreased dramatically.
G. Theodore Dangelmayer

Chapter 12. Packaging Considerations

Abstract
Although packaging is intended to provide protection for its contents, it can be the cause of ESD failures unless special materials and/or procedures are used. The successful implementation of ESD-protective packaging procedures depends on having a basic understanding of how sensitive devices may be damaged in a package or during the packaging procedure and how the protective procedures work.
G. Theodore Dangelmayer

Chapter 13. Automation

Abstract
The problems surrounding automation-caused ESD damage differ considerably from those typically encountered in the manufacturing process. First, the damage done by automated systems is usually because of a charged device instead of a human body. Secondly, the repetitious nature of automation can systematically damage or, worse yet, partially damage large quantities of devices, and thereby create a serious quality and reliability problem. The third major difference between automation damage and the typical ESD problem concerns the solution: more engineering skill is needed to eliminate, or at least minimize, automation-caused ESD damage.
G. Theodore Dangelmayer

Chapter 14. Payback and Benefits

Abstract
For the expenses associated with ESD control to be justifiable, there must be an economically sound payback and benefit. The measurement of this payback has been an elusive problem for many companies. However, as reported in earlier chapters, we have had considerable success in showing that a well-managed ESD control program introduces dramatic improvements. Financial indicators alone provide sufficient justification for the program, but when the intangible benefits are added, the value of an ESD program becomes overwhelming.
G. Theodore Dangelmayer

Backmatter

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