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Über dieses Buch

This book discusses the current direction of the research approach to extreme biomimetics through biological materials-inspired chemistry and its applications in modern technology and medicine. It is a resource covering topics of extreme (psychrophilic and thermopilic) biomineralization, solvothermal and hydrothermal chemistry of metal oxides and nanostructured composites, and bioinspired materials science in a diverse areas. The authors review the current advances in the extreme biomimetics research field and describe various approaches introduced and explored by their respective laboratories.

• Details the basic principles of extreme biomimetics approach for design of new materials and applications;

• Includes numerous examples of the hierarchical organization of hydrothermally or psychrophilically obtained biocomposites, structural bioscaffolds, biosculpturing, biomimetism, and bioinspiration as tools for the design of innovative materials;

• Describes and details the principles of extreme biomimetics with respect to metallization of chemically and thermally stable biopolymers.



Chapter 1. Psychrophiles as Sources for Bioinspiration in Biomineralization and Biological Materials Science

It is well known that extremely cold environments have significant impacts on the ecology, metabolism, and evolution of psychrophilic organisms. However, the relationship between metabolic and biomineralogical processes is not understood. In this chapter, we examine the biomineralization and diversity of selected prokaryotic and eukaryotic psychrophiles. We focus attention on biosilicification (in diatoms, silicoflagellates, radiolarians, sponges) and biocalcification (in bacteria, foraminiferans, sponges, bryozoans, corals, molluscs, echinoderms, crustaceans) as well as pay special attention to the biology and adaptation mechanisms of icefish species. Additionally, we present a wealth of information on references related to the topic that may be a time-saving resource for experts in materials science who are looking for model or key organisms as sources for special scientific and technological inspiration.
Hermann Ehrlich, Anton Nikolaev

Chapter 2. Cold Biosilicification in Metazoan: Psychrophilic Glass Sponges

Numerous species of sponges (Porifera) habituate cold waters, including Antarctic seas. Silica-based skeletal structures, including spicules and skeletal frameworks, of representatives from both Demospongiae and Hexactinellida taxons arise due to biosilicification processes. The mechanism of this special biomineralization under psychrophilic conditions remains unknown. In this chapter, the psychrophilic problem is discussed as it pertains to different aspects of the life cycle of hexactinellid sponges. New data on the vertical distribution of Hexactinellida which proves the previous analogous investigations are given, as well as new interpretation of their mortal process. A new type of deep-sea reef construction of hexactinellid sponge Sarostegia oculata is described for the first time.
Konstantin Tabachnick, Dorte Janussen, Larisa Menshenina

Chapter 3. Psychrophilic Calcification In Vitro

Psychrophilic calcification is known for both invertebrates and vertebrates. Especially, diverse ice fish species attract attention as model organisms for better understanding of the principles of calcification under extreme cold environmental conditions. Here, the experimental results obtained using XRD and HRTEM associated electron diffraction techniques as well as NEXAFS measurements show with strong evidence the presence of crystalline hydroxyapatite within selected hard tissues of ice fish. Also the calcium carbonate origin of the Champsocephalus gunnari ice fish otoliths has been confirmed. Also, the first attempts to develop calcium phosphate-based composites on organic templates using dual membrane diffusion method (DMDM) at the temperature of freezing point of water have been reported.
Anton Nikolaev, Vasilii V. Bazhenov, Olga V. Frank-Kamenetskaya, Olga V. Petrova

Chapter 4. Endemism and Biodiversity of Hydrothermal Vent Fauna

Hydrothermal vent fauna represents a unique source for scientists who are involved in investigations of ecology, zoology, and biochemistry of extremophyles . However, exoskeletal and biomineral-containing structures located within these organisms are of large scientific interest for bioinspired material science and especially for extreme biomimetics . Here, we report about biodiversity, endemism, and trophic specialization and the food web of animals which habituate in these extreme environmental conditions. Numerous underwater images represented in this chapter should help for better understanding of the life near hydrothermal vents.
Sergey V. Galkin, Anatoly M. Sagalevich

Chapter 5. Comparative In Situ Microscopic Observation of Cellulose and Chitin in Hydrothermal Conditions

Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on earth, while chitin is the most abundant biopolymer in the marine environment. This chapter reviews stability of these polysaccharides in water at high temperatures and high pressures up to the supercritical state of water (T c = 374 °C, P c = 22.1 MPa), which was studied by in situ optical microscopy. The results have direct ramifications in considering/developing hydrothermal biomass conversion, hydrothermal synthesis of inorganic–organic composites, and fossilization of soft-bodied organisms.
Shigeru Deguchi

Chapter 6. Biopolymers for Biomimetic Processing of Metal Oxides

The integration of a biopolymer and a metal oxide forming composites can be performed by a polymer-assisted mineralization, also called biomimetic approach. The biopolymer/metal oxide can be further transformed by thermal treatment into metal oxides/carbon composites and the pure metal oxide. The processes depend on the solubility and gelling properties of the biopolymers: sol–gel, solvothermal, reactive mineralization, and auto-combustion methods are considered here. Alginate, chitosan, starch, and cellulose are the most widely used beside other polysaccharides . Simple metal oxides can be targeted (SiO2, TiO2, ZnO, ZrO2, etc.…) and also mixed metal oxides (ferrites or perovskites). This overview emphasizes the important parameters of the synthesis, the impact of the biopolymers on characteristic of the metal oxide, and in improving the performances in applications (e.g., luminescent materials, catalysts, absorbent materials, magnetic composites, anode, photocatalyst materials, and others).
Bruno Boury

Chapter 7. Thermogravimetric Analysis of Sponge Chitins in Thermooxidative Conditions

Structural aminopolysaccharide chitin possesses diverse physicochemical properties which are important principal for use of this biopolymer in technology. Recently, special attention has been paid to the thermostability of chitin because of its potential application in hydrothermal synthesis with the aim to obtain novel nanostructured metal oxide-based composite materials. It was shown that chitin is still stable in the range of temperatures between 100 and 400 °C. Here, chitins from different origins have been studied with respect to investigate their thermostability using thermogravimetric analysis.
Dawid Stawski

Chapter 8. Bioelectrometallurgy of Copper on Chitin

The central idea of Extreme Biomimetics is based around the preparation of materials under conditions, which are extreme from point of view of living organisms (high temperature, high pressure, low pH level, etc.). The use of high temperatures and high pressures to emulate these extreme biomimetic conditions is widely used for the preparation of diverse (element oxides)-biopolymer hybrid composites. Here, we propose an alternative way based on a well-known process—electrochemical deposition or so-called plating. This method allows production of metallic and metal–oxide structures in vitro, which are replicas of the original substrate. We propose a new term “bioelectrometallurgy ,” which we define as the electroplating of biological matrices. For the first time marine demosponge skeletons of cell-free Aplysina fulva , which possess a 3D network structure, were used for the copper plating.
Iaroslav Petrenko, Vasilii V. Bazhenov, Allison L. Stelling, Valentina Z. Kutsova

Chapter 9. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Advanced Chitin-Based Materials

Chitin is an important, widespread, natural biopolymer, and has gained much attention in various branches of science including biomimetics and the creation of bioinspired materials. The unique chemical and thermal stability as well functionality of chitin have opened the gate for the development of extreme biomimetics routes for the creation of nanostructured biocomposites utilizing chitinous templates in various hydrothermal syntheses in vitro. Here, the unique structural, mechanical, and thermal properties of chitin from the “biomaterials” point of view will be discussed. Next, a short history of the discovery of chitin isolated from sponges will be discussed, as well as its evolutionarily ancient. Finally, the basic principles of solvothermal synthesis and utilization of chitin as a structural template in hydrothermal reactions will be described.
Marcin Wysokowski, Sabine Kaiser, Teofil Jesionowski

Chapter 10. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Spongin-Based Materials

The horny skeleton of some Demosponges is entirely constructed of fibers composed of protein-like material, termed spongin. This thermally, chemically and enzymatically resistant three-dimensional network of biocompatible fibers has been widely used since ancient Greece but nowadays it gains a renewed attention due to unique architectural, anastomosed design potentially attractive in the field of tissue engineering. In this chapter, the structural differences between commonly used chitin and spongin are discussed, some of the ambiguous aspects of spongin chemistry are explained, and its thermal properties in comparison to collagen and keratin are presented. Finally, the wide range of application of spongin is shown, also in terms of utilization in Extreme Biomimetics.
Tomasz Szatkowski, Teofil Jesionowski


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