Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
The Copenhagen climate meeting was the biggest and most anticipated climate meeting in history. Since the high expectations for the meeting were not met, an extensive debate on the reasons for the failure and on those who might be culpable took place after the conference, focusing especially on China and the Danish Presidency. This chapter identifies the underlying reasons for the failure, namely procedural mistakes and excessive expectations coupled with misconceptions of great power politics. Second, the chapter analyses the lessons learnt from the failure of Copenhagen, motivated by the blame game. Two aspects are highlighted in particular: the strategic leadership role of the presidency, which is needed for the consensus-based decision-making to function and the need for high-level bilateral cooperation between the USA and China.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Abbott, Kenneth, and Duncan Snidal. 2000. Hard and Soft Law in International Governance. International Organization 54 (3): 421–456. CrossRef
Adam, David, Jonathan Watts and Patrick Wintour. 2009. Copenhagen Climate Talks: No Deal, We’re Out of Time, Obama Warns. The Guardian, November 15. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2009/nov/15/copenhagen-climate-deal-obama (21 Apr 2017).
Bodansky, Daniel. 2010. The Copenhagen Climate Change Conference: A Postmortem. The American Journal of International Law 104 (2): 230–240.
Bovens, Mark, and Paul’t Hart. 1996. Understanding Policy Fiascoes. New Brunswick: Transaction.
Clemencon, Raymond. 2016. The Two Sides of the Paris Climate Agreement: Dismal Failure or Historic Breakthrough? Journal of Environment & Development 25 (1): 3–24. CrossRef
Darby, Meghan. 2015. Germany and France Back 1.5C Global Warming Limit. Climate Home, December 3. Available at http://www.climatechangenews.com/2015/12/03/germany-and-france-back-1-5c-global-warming-limit (21 Apr 2017).
Depledge, Joanna. 2008. Striving for No: Saudi Arabia in the Climate Change Regime. Global Environmental Politics 8 (4): 9–35. CrossRef
———. 2010. Looking Back and Looking to Others: Insights on the Organization of the Climate Change Negotiations. Unpublished.
Depledge, Joanna, and Pam Chasek. 2012. Raising the Tempo: The Escalating Pace and Intensity of Environmental Negotiations. In The Roads from Rio: Lessons Learned from Twenty Years of Multilateral Environmental Negotiations, ed. Pam Chasek and Lynn Wagner. New York: Routledge.
Dimitrov, Radoslav. 2010. Inside UN Climate Change Negotiations: The Copenhagen Conference. Review of Policy Research 27 (6): 795–821. CrossRef
Doyle, Alister. 2010. Analysis: Mexico Hailed, Others Blamed if Climate Failure? Reuters, December 7. Available at http://www.reuters.com/article/us-climate-blame-idUSTRE6B55XQ20101207 (21 Apr 2017).
Dubash, Navroz. 2009. Copenhagen: Climate of Mistrust. Economic & Political Weekly 44 (8): 8–11.
Eddy, Melissa. 2015. At Climate Talks, A Few Letters That Almost Sank the Deal. The New York Times, December 14. Available at https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/projects/cp/climate/2015-paris-climate-talks/at-climate-talks-three-letters-almost-sunk-the-deal (21 Apr 2017).
ENB. 2009. The Earth Negotiations Bulletin 12(459). December 22. Available at http://enb.iisd.org/enb/vol12 (21 Apr 2017).
Goldenberg, Suzanne. 2009. Gordon Brown Says Climate Change Deal Must be Legally Binding in Six Months. The Guardian, December 6. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2009/dec/06/gordon-brown-climate-change-deal (21 Apr 2017).
———. 2014. Secret Talks and A Personal Letter: How the US-China Climate Deal Was Done. The Guardian, November 12. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/nov/12/how-us-china-climate-deal-was-done-secret-talks-personal-letter (21 Apr 2017).
Hallding, Karl, Marie Ohlsson, Aaron Atteridge, Marcus Carson, and Mikael Roman. 2011. Together Alone? BASIC Countries and the Climate Change Conundrum. Copenhagen: The Nordic Council of Ministers.
Hewitt, Gavin. 2009. Europe Snubbed in Copenhagen? BBC, December 22. Available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/thereporters/gavinhewitt/2009/12/s_5.html (21 Apr 2017).
Hood, Christopher. 2002. The Risk Game and the Blame Game. Government and Opposition 37 (1): 15–54. CrossRef
———. 2010. The Blame Game: Spin, Bureaucracy, and Self-Preservation in Government. Princeton: Princeton University Press. CrossRef
Hood, Christopher, Robert Baldwin, and Henry Rothstein. 2000. Assessing the Dangerous Dogs Act: When Does a Regulatory Law Fail? Public Law (summer): 282–305.
Howlett, Michael. 2012. The Lessons of Failure: Learning and Blame Avoidance in Public Policy-Making. International Political Science Review 33 (5): 539–555. CrossRef
Jones, Martin. 2011. “Hopenhagen” to “Nopenhagen”? The Role of Public Expectation at the Copenhagen Summit. Available at http://www.e-ir.info/2011/07/03/%E2%80%9Chopenhagen%E2%80%9D-to-%E2%80%9Cnopenhagen%E2%80%9D-the-role-of-public-expectation-at-the-copenhagen-summit (21 Apr 2017).
Kanter, James. 2009a. U.N. Climate Chief Says Money for Poorer Nations Is Key to Copenhagen. The New York Times, October 29. Available at https://green.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/10/29/un-climate-chief-says-money-for-poorer-nations-is-key-to-copenhagen/?_r=0 (21 Apr 2017).
———. 2009b. E.U. Blames Others for “Great Failure” on Climate. The New York Times, December 22. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/23/world/europe/23iht-climate.html (21 Apr 2017).
Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, Sylvia, and Antto Vihma. 2009. Comparing the Legitimacy and Effectiveness of Global Hard and Soft Law: An Analytical Framework. Regulation & Governance 3 (4): 400–420. CrossRef
Khor, Martin. 2009. Blame Denmark, Not China, for Copenhagen Failure. The Guardian, December 28. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/cif-green/2009/dec/28/copenhagen-denmark-china (21 Apr 2017).
Kulovesi, Kati, and Maria Gutiérrez. 2009. Climate Change Negotiations Update: Process and Prospects for a Copenhagen Agreed Outcome in December 2009. Review of European Community & International Environmental Law 18 (3): 229–243. CrossRef
Lee, John. 2009. How China Stiffed the World in Copenhagen. Foreign Policy, December 21. Available at http://foreignpolicy.com/2009/12/21/how-china-stiffed-the-world-in-copenhagen (21 Apr 2017).
Lynas, Mark. 2009. How Do I Know China Wrecked the Copenhagen Deal? I Was in the Room. The Guardian, December 22. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2009/dec/22/copenhagen-climate-change-mark-lynas (21 Apr 2017).
McConnell, Allan. 2010. Policy Success, Policy Failure and Grey Areas In-between. Journal of Public Policy 30 (3): 345–362. CrossRef
Meilstrup, Per. 2010. The Runaway Summit: The Background Story of the Danish Presidency of COP15, Danish Foreign Policy Yearbook 2010, 113–135. Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies.
Oppermann, Kai, and Alexander Spencer. 2016. Studying Fiascos: Bringing Public and Foreign Policy Together. Journal of European Public Policy 23 (5): 643–652. CrossRef
Oxford Dictionaries. 2016. Word of the Year 2016 Is…. Available at https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/word-of-the-year/word-of-the-year-2016 (21 Apr 2017).
Purvins, Nigel and Andrew Stevenson .2010. Rethinking Climate Diplomacy: New Ideas for Transatlantic Cooperation Post-Copenhagen, GMF Brussels Forum Paper Series March 8.
Rajamani, Lavanya. 2009. The Copenhagen Agreed Outcome: Form, Shape and Influence. Economic & Political Weekly 44 (48): 30–35.
———. 2010. Copenhagen Accord: Neither Fish nor Fowl. Centre for Policy Research, February 8. Available at http://www.cprindia.org/articles/copenhagen-accord-neither-fish-nor-fowl (21 Apr 2017).
Rapp, Tobias, Christian Schwägerl and Gerald Traufetter. 2010. How China and India Sabotaged the UN Climate Summit. Der Spiegel, May 5. Available at http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/the-copenhagen-protocol-how-china-and-india-sabotaged-the-un-climate-summit-a-692861.html (21 Apr 2017).
Restuccia, Andrew and Michael Crowley.2014. The Climate Deal that Almost Wasn’t: After Months of Work, a Mad Scramble to Get China to Reduce Pollution. Politico, November 12. Available at http://www.politico.com/story/2014/11/us-china-climate-change-deal-112853 (21 Apr 2017).
Stockton, Nick. 2015. Meet Laurent Fabius, Non-Stop Climate Negotiations Gangster. The Wired, December 14. Available at https://www.wired.com/2015/12/meet-laurent-fabius-non-stop-climate-negotiations-gangster (21 Apr 2017).
Stothard, Michael and Anne-Sylvaine Chassany. 2015. COP 21: Laurent Fabius Lauded for Successful Conclusion. Financial Times, December 14. Available at https://www.ft.com/content/8dc56938-a1a0-11e5-8d70-42b68cfae6e4 (21 Apr 2017).
UNEP. 2010. The Emissions Gap Report 2010. Available at http://www.unep.org/publications/ebooks/emissionsgapreport (21 Apr 2017).
UNFCCC. 1992. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, New York, 9 May 1992, in force 21 March 1994
———. 2007. Decision 1/CP.13, Bali Action Plan, UN Doc. FCCC/CP/2007/6/Add.1, 14 March 2008.
———. 2009. Decision 2/CP.15, The Copenhagen Accord, UN Doc. FCCC/CP/2009/11/Add.1, 30 March 2010.
———. 2011. Decision 1/CP.17, Establishment of an Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action, UN Doc. FCCC/CP/2011/9/Add.1, 15 March 2012.
Victor, David. 2011. Global Warming Gridlock: Creating More Effective Strategies for Protecting the Planet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Vidal, John. 2009. Ed Miliband: China Tried to hijack Copenhagen Climate Deal. The Guardian, December 20. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2009/dec/20/ed-miliband-china-copenhagen-summit (21 Apr 2017).
———. 2010. Copenhagen Climate Failure Blamed on “Danish Text”. The Guardian, May 31. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2010/may/31/climate-change-copenhagen-danish-text (21 Apr 2017).
Vihma, Antto. 2010. Elephant in the Room: The New G77 and China Dynamics in Climate Talks, FIIA Briefing Paper 62.
———. 2015a. Climate of Consensus: Managing Decision Making in the UN Climate Negotiations. Review of European, Comparative & International Environmental Law 24 (1): 58–68. CrossRef
———. 2015b. Paris Stress Test: Can the UN Climate Talks Deliver? FIIA Briefing Paper 184.
Vihma, Antto and Harro Van Asselt. 2012. Great Expectations: Understanding Why the UN Climate Talks Seem to Fail, FIIA Briefing Paper 109.
Vihma, Antto and Kati Kulovesi. 2012. Strengthening the Global Climate Change Negotiations, Report for the Nordic Council of Ministers, May 9. Available at http://norden.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A701694&dswid=8713 (21 Apr 2017).
Vihma, Antto, Jacob Mulugetta, and Sylvia Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen. 2011. Negotiating Solidarity? The G77 Through the Prism of Climate Change Negotiations. Global Change, Peace & Security 23 (3): 315–334. CrossRef
Young, Oran. 2002. The Institutional Dimensions of Environmental Change: Fit, Interplay, and Scale. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Zammit-Cutajar, Michael. 2010. Climate Accord: From Copenhagen to Cancún. Carbon Positive, March 3. Available at http://forestindustries.eu/content/road-copenhagen-canc%C3%BAn (21 Apr 2017).
- ‘First as Tragedy…’: Mistakes, Blaming and Learning at the Copenhagen Climate Conference
- Chapter 12