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Both the beauty and interest of fractures and fracture networks are easy to grasp, since they are abundant in nature. An example is the road from Digne to Nice in the south of France, with an impressive number and variety of such structures: the road for the most part, goes through narrow valleys with fast running streams penetrating the rock faces; erosion is favored by the Mediterranean climate, so that rocks are barely covered by meager vegetation. In this inhospitable and sterile landscape, the visitor can im­ mediately discover innumerable fractures in great masses which have been distorted by slow, yet powerful movements. This phenomenon can be seen for about 100 kilometers; all kinds of shapes and combinations are repre­ sented and can be observed either in the mountain itself or in the man-made cliffs and excavations, resulting from improvements made to the road. In the same region, close to the Turini Pass, a real large scale hydrody­ namic experiment is taking place -a source which is situated on the flank on the mountain, has been equiped with a tap; if the tap is open, water flows through the tap only, but when it is closed, then the side of the mountain releases water in a matter of seconds. Other outlets are also influenced by this tap, such as a water basin situated a few hundred meters away.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
The major objectives of this book are to determine the macroscopic properties of individual fractures and of collections of fractures that we shall call fracture networks. We shall also study the possible evolution of these objects, resulting from mechanical forces and deposition and/or dissolution processes. These problems have important fields of application. In the oil industry, it might be useful to exploit the presence of fractures in order to increase oil production. On the contrary, in the long-time storage of nuclear wastes, the passage of waste to the fracture network must be avoided.
Pierre M. Adler, Jean-François Thovert

Chapter 2. Analysis and Generation of Random Objects

Abstract
The main objective of this chapter is to provide some tools to generate random objects, i.e., fractures and fracture networks. This very important chapter can be applied throughout, since apparently very different objects can be obtained by the use of a single tool which is the generation of correlated fields.
Pierre M. Adler, Jean-François Thovert

Chapter 3. Transport and Mechanical Properties

Abstract
The major purpose of this chapter is to provide the reader with a first approach to the quantitative analysis of the macroscopic properties of fractured media. Section 3.2 is a brief account of the basic equations which govern some elementary physical phenomena such as conduction, convection, dispersion and mechanical deformation at the local scale. Familiarity with basic vector and tensor calculus is assumed here as well as a basic knowledge of continuum mechanics. Recommended references are Aris (1962), Bird et al. (1960) and Landau and Lifshitz (1970).
Pierre M. Adler, Jean-François Thovert

Chapter 4. A Single Fracture: Generation, Characterization

Abstract
This Chapter is devoted to the geometrical properties of a single fracture, with emphasis on the conceptual tools used to characterize and simulate a real fracture, and with the purpose of predicting its transport properties. As a general rule, the point of view is microscopic. The fracture is generally supposed to extend indefinitely, and its local properties are discussed.
Pierre M. Adler, Jean-François Thovert

Chapter 5. Geometry of Fracture Networks

Abstract
This chapter is devoted to the geometrical properties of fracture networks, with the purpose of describing the relevant characteristics for predictions of their transport properties.
Pierre M. Adler, Jean-François Thovert

Chapter 6. Elementary Transport in Single Fractures

Abstract
This chapter provides an overview of the simplest transport properties of single fractures, namely permeability, conductivity and solute transport.
Pierre M. Adler, Jean-François Thovert

Chapter 7. Elementary Transport in Fracture Networks

Abstract
The major purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the determination of some of the simplest properties in fracture networks. Three elementary phenomena are considered, — namely conductivity, permeability and dispersion of a passive solute. In this respect, this chapter recalls what was dealt with in Chapter 6, concerning a single fracture. More complex phenomena will be addressed in Chapter 8.
Pierre M. Adler, Jean-François Thovert

Chapter 8. Coupled Processes in a Single Fracture

Abstract
In this chapter, two types of processes are addressed which have little in common, except that they both induce geometrical changes in the fracture where they take place, and in turn, changes in its transport properties.
Pierre M. Adler, Jean-François Thovert

Backmatter

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