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Über dieses Buch

Hybrid drives and the operation of hybrid vehicles are characteristic of contemporary automotive technology. Together with the electronic driver assistant systems, hybrid technology is of the greatest importance and both cannot be ignored by today’s car drivers. This technical reference book provides the reader with a firsthand comprehensive description of significant components of automotive technology. All texts are complemented by numerous detailed illustrations.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

History of the automobile

Abstract
Mobility has always played a crucial role in the course of human development. In almost every era, man has attempted to find the means to allow him to transport people over long distances at the highest possible speed. It took the development of reliable internal-combustion engines that were operated on liquid fuels to turn the vision of a self-propelling “automobile” into reality (combination of Greek: autos = self and Latin: mobilis = mobile).
Karl-Heinz Dietsche, Dietrich Kuhlgatz

History of the diesel engine

Abstract
As early as 1863, the Frenchman Etienne Lenoir had test-driven a vehicle which was powered by a gas engine which he had developed. However, this drive plant proved to be unsuitable for installing in and driving vehicles. It was not until Nikolaus August Otto’s four-stroke engine with magneto ignition that operation with liquid fuel and thereby mobile application were made possible. But the efficiency of these engines was low. Rudolf Diesel’s achievement was to theoretically develop an engine with comparatively much higher efficiency and to pursue his idea through to readiness for series production.
Karl-Heinz Dietsche

Areas of use for diesel engines

Abstract
No other internal-combustion engine is as widely used as the diesel engine). This is due primarily to its high degree of efficiency and the resulting fuel economy.
Joachim Lackner, Herbert Schumacher, Hermann Grieshaber

Basic principles of the diesel engine

Abstract
The diesel engine is a compression-ignition engine in which the fuel and air are mixed inside the engine. The air required for combustion is highly compressed inside the combustion chamber. This generates high temperatures which are sufficient for the diesel fuel to spontaneously ignite when it is injected into the cylinder. The diesel engine thus uses heat to release the chemical energy contained within the diesel fuel and convert it into mechanical force.
Hermann Grieshaber, Thorsten Raatz

Basic principles of diesel fuel injection

Abstract
The combustion processes in the diesel engine, also linked to engine performance, fuel consumption, exhaust-gas composition, and combustion noise, depend to a great extent on how the air/fuel mixture is prepared.
Hermann Grieshaber, Olaf Stein

Basics of the gasoline (SI) engine

Abstract
The gasoline or spark-ignition (SI) internalcombustion engine uses the Otto cycle 1) and externally supplied ignition. It burns an air/fuel mixture and in the process converts the chemical energy in the fuel into kinetic energy.
Dirk Hofmann, Bernhard Mencher, Werner Häming, Werner Hess

Inductive ignition system

Zusammenfassung
Ignition of the air/fuel mixture in the gasoline engine is electric; it is produced by generating a flashover between the electrodes on a spark plug. The ignition-coil energy converted in the spark ignites the compressed mixture immediately adjacent to the spark plug, creating a flame front which then spreads to ignite the mixture in the entire combustion chamber. The inductive ignition system generates in each power stroke the high voltage required for flash - over and the spark duration required for ignition. The electrical energy drawn from the vehicle electrical system battery is temporarily stored in the ignition coil for this purpose.
Walter Gollin

Transmissions for Motor Vehicles

Abstract
Every motor vehicle engine operates within a specific speed range which is limited by the idle speed and the maximum speed. Power and torque are not offered uniformly and the maximum values are only available in partial ranges. Transmissions therefore convert the engine torque and the engine speed in accordance with vehicle traction requirements in such a way that the power remains roughly constant. They also allow the different directions of rotation for forward and reverse travel.
D. Graumann, T. Müller, T. Laux

Motor-vehicle safety

Abstract
In addition to the components of the drivetrain (engine, transmission), which provide the vehicle with its means of forward motion, the vehicle systems that limit movement and retard the vehicle also have an important role to play. Without them, safe use of the vehicle in road traffic would not be possible. Furthermore, systems that protect vehicle occupants in the event of an accident are also becoming increasingly important.
Friedrich Kost

Basic principles of vehicle dynamics

Abstract
A body can only be made to move or change course by the action of forces. Many forces act upon a vehicle when it is being driven. An important role is played by the tires as any change of speed or direction involves forces acting on the tires.
Friedrich Kost

Car braking systems

Abstract
Braking systems are indispensable for the roadworthiness and safe operation of a motor vehicle in road traffic conditions. They are therefore subject to strict legal requirements. The increasing effectiveness and sophistication demanded of braking systems over the course of time has meant that the mechanical systems have been continually improved. With the advent of microelectronics, the braking system has become a complex electronic system.
Wulf Post

Vehicle electrical systems

Abstract
The vehicle electrical system of a motor vehicle comprises the alternator as the energy converter, one or more batteries as the energy accumulators and the electrical equipment as consumers. The energy from the battery is supplied to the starter (consumer), which then starts the vehicle engine. During vehicle operation, the ignition and fuel-injection system, the control units, the safety and comfort and convenience electronics, the lighting, and other equipment have to be supplied with power.
Clemens Schmucker, Hartmut Wanner, Wolfgang Kircher, Werner Hofmeister, Andreas Simmel

Overview of electrical and electronic systems in the vehicle

Abstract
The amount of electronics in the vehicle has risen dramatically in recent years and is set to increase yet further in the future. Technical developments in semiconductor technology support ever more complex functions with the increasing integration density. The functionality of electronic systems in motor vehicles has now surpassed even the capabilities of the Apollo 11 space module that orbited the Moon in 1969.
Bernhard Mencher, Walter Gollin, Ferdinand Reiter, Andreas Glaser, Felix Landhäußer, Klaus Lerchenmüller, Doris Boebel, Michael Hamm, Tilman Spingler, Frank Niewels, Thomas Ehret, Gero Nenninger, Peter Knoll, Alfred Kuttenberger

Control of gasoline engines

Abstract
“Motronic” is the name of an engine-management system that facilitates open- and closed-loop control of gasoline engines within a single control unit. There are Motronic variants for engines with intake-manifold injection (ME Motronic) and for gasoline direct injection (DI Motronic). Another variant is the Bifuel Motronic, which also controls the engine for operation with natural gas.
Konrad Reif

Control of Diesel engines

Abstract
Electronic control of a diesel engine enables precise and differentiated modulation of fuel-injection parameters. This is the only means by which a modern diesel engine is able to satisfy the many demands placed upon it. Electronic diesel control (EDC) is subdivided into three system blocks: sensors/setpoint generators, ECU, and actuators.
Konrad Reif

Lighting technology

Abstract
The most important light sources for the lighting systems on the vehicle front and rear are halogen lamps, bulbs, gas-discharge lamps and LEDs.
Konrad Reif

Electronic stability program

Abstract
The electronic stability program (ESP) is a closed-loop system designed to improve driveability through programmed intervention in the brake system and/or drivetrain. The integrated functionality of ABS1) prevents the wheels from locking when the brakes are applied, while TCS2) inhibits wheel spin during acceleration. The overall role of ESP is to prevent the vehicle’s tendency to “plow” or become unstable and break away to the side, provided the vehicle remains within its physical limits.
Konrad Reif

Adaptive cruise control

Abstract
Like the basic cruise-control system that has been available as a standard feature for many years, ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control) can be categorized as a driver-assistance system. Cruise control regulates driving speed to maintain the desired speed selected by the driver using the cruise-control unit. In addition to the basic cruise-control function, ACC measures the distance to the vehicle in front and its relative speed, and uses this information together with other collected data (position of other vehicles in the same or different lane; in future, even stationary objects) to regulate the time gap between the vehicles. ACC is thus able to adapt the vehicle’s speed to match the speed of the vehicle traveling in front and maintain a safe distance from it. The driver is able to override or switch off the ACC function at any time (e.g. by depressing the gas or brake pedal).
Konrad Reif

Occupant-protection systems

Abstract
In the event of an accident, occupant-protection systems are intended to keep the accelerations and forces that act on the passengers low and lessen the consequences of the accident. These passive vehicle safety systems include:
-Seat belts with seat-belt pretensioners
-Airbags and
-Rollover protection systems (on cabriolets)
Konrad Reif

Hybrid drives

Abstract
A concept for economizing on fuel, for reducing CO2 and pollutant emissions, and at the same time for increasing driving pleasure and driving comfort is provided by hybrid electric vehicles (Hybrid Electric Vehicle, HEV). For drive purposes these vehicles use both an internal- combustion engine and at least one electric motor (electrical machine). There are in this respect a multitude of HEV configurations which partly pursue different optimization objectives and which utilize to differing extents electrical energy to drive the vehicle.
Michael Bildstein, Karsten Mann, Boyke Richter

Operation of hybrid vehicles

Abstract
Operation of a hybrid electric vehicle is essentially determined by the operating strategy. Depending on the higher optimization objective (reduced emissions, fuel economy), the operating strategy establishes at every moment the distribution of the requested drive torque to the internal-combustion engine and the electric motor so that the engine operates at the most favorable operating points possible. The operating strategy also controls the generation of electrical energy for charging the traction battery.
Michael Bildstein, Karsten Mann, Boyke Richter

Regenerative braking system

Abstract
During regenerative braking kinetic energy of the drive wheels is converted by the electric motor – which is operated as a generator for this purpose – into electrical energy. In this way some of the energy which is normally lost as frictional heat during braking is fed in the form of electric energy to the battery and then utilized. At the same time the generator operation of the electric motor brings about a vehicle-braking effect.
Michael Bildstein, Karsten Mann, Boyke Richter

Workshop technology

Abstract
More than 30,000 garages/workshops around the world are equipped with workshop technology, i.e. test technology and workshop software from Bosch. Workshop technology is becoming increasingly important as it provides guidance and assistance in all matters relating to diagnosis and troubleshooting.
Stephan Sohnle, Rainer Rehage, Rainer Heinzmann, Rolf Wörner, Günter Mauderer, Hans Binder

Backmatter

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