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Orchids are the most highly evolved and diverse flowering plant family on Earth. The origins of these plants date back millions of years. Exactly how old the family is, however, was a longstanding subject for debate, given that there were no remains in the ancient fossil record to work with. That is until recently, when scientists conducting research through Harvard University made an extraordinary discovery . In 2005, a fossil of an extinct bee, Proplebeia dominicana, was recovered in the Dominican Republic. The bee specimen was dated to be 15–20 million years old (Fig. 1.1).
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S.R. Ramírez et al., Dating the origin of the Orchidaceae from a fossil orchid with its pollinator, Nature, 448, 1042–1045, 2007. CrossRef
Charles Darwin, The Various Contrivances by Which Orchids are Fertilized by Insects and On The Good Effects of Intercrossing, John Murray, London, 1862, 1 st ed., p.307.
T.J. Gavnish, et al., Orchid historical biogeography, diversification, Antarctica and the paradox of orchid dispersal, J. Biogragr, 1-12, 2016.
D. Chamovitz, What a Plant Knows, A Field Guide to the Senses, Scientific American, 2012.
P. Calvo and K. Friston, Predicting green: really radical (plant) predictive processing, J. Roy. Soc. Interface, 14, 1–20, 2017. CrossRef
A. Trewavas, Aspects of Plant Intelligence, Ann. Bot. 92(1), 1–20, 2003; A. Trewavas, Plant Behavior and Intelligence, Oxford University Press, 2014.
M. Grieve, A Modern Herbal, Jonathan Cape Ltd, 1931, reprinted 1998, p.605.
S.P. Jagdale, et. al., Pharmacological Studies of ‘Salep’, Herbal Medicine and Toxicology 3(1), 153–156, 2009.
Quoted in: Medicinal Orchids of Asia, by Eng Soon Teoh, Springer, 2016, taken from a flyer in the 1920s.
Article in Japan Times, July 21, 2017: http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2017/02/02/business/japans-business-gift-culture-says-orchids/
There is strong evidence for this assertion: K. Suetsugu et al., Potential pollinator of Vanda falcata (Orchidaceae): Theretra (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) hawkmoths are visitors of long spurred orchid, Eur. J. Entomol. 112(2), 393–397, 2015.
For those with more than a passing interest in this beautiful orchid, there is the All Japan Fūkiran Society and its offshoot: Fūkiran Society of America: http://fukiransoa.weebly.com/f363kiran-books.html
Anne Goldgar, Tulipmania: Money, Honor, and Knowledge in the Dutch Golden Age, University of Chicago Press, 2007.
Arthur Swinson, Frederick Sander, The Orchid King, Hodder & Stoughton, 1970, quoted from p.54.
Taken from Hortus Veitchii, by James H. Veitch, 1906, that documents all the orchids discovered at Veitch’s Nursery and by whom.
Peter McKenzie Black, Orchids, Hamlyn, 1973, p.71.
Kunth in F.W.H.von Humboldt, A.J.A.Bonpland & C.S.Kunth, Vol. 1, 1815, p.342. This issue is also addressed in: Ruben P. Sauleda, The proper name for a Colombian Cattleya Lindl., New World Orchidaceae – Nomenclatural Notes, No. 6, 2013.
Tom Hart Dyke and Paul Winder, The Cloud Garden – A True Story of Adventure, Survival, and Extreme Horticulture, Lyons Press, 2004.
Hybrid parentage as well as genera and species information can also be found on the BlueNanta website: http://bluenanta.com/
Reinikka M.A., A History of the Orchid, Timber Press, Portland, OR, 1995.
L. Menashian, et al., Improved food intake and reduced nausea and vomiting in patients given a restricted diet while receiving cisplatin chemotherapy. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 92, 58–61, 1992.
T. Fladby, et al. Olfactory response in the temporal cortex of the elderly measured with near infrared spectroscopy: a preliminary feasibility study, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab., 24, 677–80, 2004. CrossRef
D.J. Fitzgerald, et al., A. Mode of antimicrobial action of vanillin against Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus plantarum and Listeria innocua. J. Appl. Microbiol., 97, 104–13, 2004.
As quoted in: M.M. Bomgardner, The Problem with Vanilla, Chem. & Eng. News, Sept. 2016.
C.J. Bulpitt’s “The uses and misuses of orchids in medicine,” Q.J. Med 98 , 625–631, 2005. CrossRef
- History of Orchids
Joel L. Schiff
Systemische Notwendigkeit zur Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen