we mean that sector of the global financial market on which various interest rate-sensitive instruments, such as
bonds, swaps, swaptions, caps,
etc. are traded. In real-world practice, several fixed-income markets operate; as a result, many concepts of interest rates have been developed. There is no doubt that management of interest rate risk, by which we mean the control of changes in value of a stream of future cash flows resulting from changes in interest rates, or more specifically the pricing and hedging of interest rate products, is an important and complex issue. It creates a demand for mathematical models capable of covering all sorts of interest rate risks.