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Über dieses Buch

This book uniquely employs risk and vulnerability approaches to advocate international policy options for enhancing maritime security cooperation in the Indian Ocean region. Understanding shared risks and common vulnerabilities that impact the achievement of mutual objectives in the oceanic domain present practical bases for progressing collective action. The Indian Ocean sea lanes are the world’s most important thoroughfares for energy resources (oil, gas and coal) and other cargoes. Secure maritime trade routes are vital to global, regional and national economies. Further, security challenges resulting from marine environmental degradation impacted by climate change are rising. Regional and extra-regional actors need to work more closely together to impose law and order at sea, control regional conflicts, respond to humanitarian crises and natural disasters, and conserve the marine environment. This book provides an invaluable resource for political leaders, policy advisers, academic researchers, military professionals, and students of international security and strategic studies.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Security of the Indian Ocean Maritime System

Abstract
The diverse Indian Ocean region is growing in importance as a global geopolitical focal area. The objectives of regional and extra-regional actors overlap and converge at sea. Emerging traditional and non-traditional security factors pose regional maritime security imperatives. A dearth of regional arrangements, history and habits of collaboration present significant challenges to developing cooperative and collective maritime security approaches. Concepts of risk and vulnerability, when combined with notions of security, offer the potential for constructing approaches that can foster an understanding of shared risks and common vulnerabilities that can lead to cooperative maritime security risk treatments. Composite security, risk and vulnerability analytical approaches are advocated as providing a conceptual framework to develop and promote enhanced cooperative and collective maritime security in the Indian Ocean.
Lee Cordner

Chapter 2. Creating an Analytical Framework: Maritime Security, Risk and Vulnerability

Abstract
Traditional and contemporary concepts of maritime security are explored, along with concepts of risk and vulnerability, as they apply to strategic analysis. A brief epistemological scan supports the development of a conceptual basis for understanding the nexus between security, risk and vulnerability. The emerging convergence between security and risk, as normative concepts, is identified. Theoretical constructs are drawn together to develop a composite framework with practical applications for complex international security contexts. A universal definition of maritime security is proposed that includes traditional and non-traditional security challenges and encompasses notions of risk and vulnerability. Common theoretical bases and workable definitions likely to be acceptable to the majority of actors are necessary precursors to practical collective and cooperative maritime security advancement in the Indian Ocean.
Lee Cordner

Chapter 3. The Indian Ocean Region Maritime Security Risk Context

Abstract
Establishing the risk context is an essential first step in a strategic risk and vulnerability analysis of Indian Ocean region maritime security. The focus is on the Indian Ocean as an integrated maritime system; 15 generic, shared strategic objectives are proposed. Traditional and non-traditional security factors are considered. Areas explored include: law of the sea; globalization, economy and trade; energy; social cohesion and development; interstate competition and traditional conflict; safety in the maritime domain; regional security architectures; and the marine environment, climate change and ocean resources. The risk context analysis informs how maritime security interfaces with and contributes to other aspects of regional security, for example, economic, environmental, human, food and energy. Subsequent risk assessment and treatment considerations are founded upon contextual judgments.
Lee Cordner

Chapter 4. Indian Ocean Maritime Security Strategic Risk Assessment

Abstract
Major risks that impact the achievement of strategic objectives and, consequently, the security of the Indian Ocean region maritime system are outlined. Generic evaluation criteria are defined to enable likelihood, consequences and overall risk impacts to be assessed. Nineteen strategic risks are identified, along with shared vulnerabilities. These are cross-referenced to the 15 strategic objectives discussed in Chap. 3. Relationships are not linear; in many cases, objectives are affected by multiple risks and vice versa; cumulative and aggregated risks must also be considered. Risks to maritime navigation, sovereignty, energy and environment, and those from the lack of regional security architectures are high on the list. Understanding risks and vulnerabilities aids in targeting opportunities for improvements and enhancements to regional maritime security. A necessary basis is provided for risk treatment and vulnerability reduction efforts.
Lee Cordner

Chapter 5. Strategic Risk Assessment: Offshore Oil and Gas Safety and Security in the Indo-Pacific

Abstract
A strategic risk assessment approach is employed to demonstrate its utility in the evolving Indo-Pacific offshore oil and gas context. Shared objectives are defined, and common risks and vulnerabilities are identified. Massive expansions in offshore exploration and exploitation will continue in the East and South China Seas, northwest of Australia, Bay of Bengal, India’s west coast and off East Africa. The region is not well prepared to deal with major safety and security incidents typified by recent Deepwater Horizon (USA) and West Atlas (Australia) oil spills. Risk factors include man-induced failures, regulatory and maritime boundary uncertainties, increasing maritime user intensity, environmental protection concerns, law and order at sea, and armed conflict. Regional- and national-level risk mitigation and treatment considerations and options are recommended.
Lee Cordner

Chapter 6. Indian Ocean Maritime Security Cooperative Arrangements

Abstract
A key consideration for treating maritime security risks in the Indian Ocean region (IOR) is the efficacy of regional security architectures: regimes, arrangements, entities and stakeholder relationships. The state of regionalism and security governance arrangements in the IOR is contrasted with the western Pacific region. Arrangements in the IOR, which include the Indian Ocean Rim Association and the Indian Ocean Naval Symposium, are at a relatively nascent stage of development. This presents challenges for regional security cooperation and collective action; it also offers opportunities for devising innovative approaches to addressing regional maritime security risks. Prospects for improving Indian Ocean regional governance arrangements are explored and the implications of enhancing regional maritime security to treat risks and reduce vulnerabilities are assessed.
Lee Cordner

Chapter 7. Maritime Security Risk Treatment: India; Indian Ocean Region Middle, Small and Developing States; Major External Powers

Abstract
Nation-states remain the primary actors in the international system. Prospects for regional and extra-regional states’ involvement in maritime security risk treatment and vulnerability reduction efforts in the Indian Ocean region are evaluated. States’ exposures to maritime risks and vulnerabilities are also briefly reviewed. The likelihood of leadership and contributions from the major regional power, India, and middle powers, Australia, South Africa, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, Iran and Pakistan, are assessed. Smaller states are briefly reviewed: Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Myanmar; plus island states: Mauritius, the Seychelles, Madagascar, Comoros and the Maldives; and East African states: Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, Somalia and Djibouti. Finally, prospects for selected external states’ involvement are assessed: France (both a regional and an extra-regional state), the United States, China, Japan and Russia.
Lee Cordner

Chapter 8. Prospects for Collective and Cooperative Maritime Security in the Indian Ocean Region

Abstract
The objectives of regional and extra-regional actors in the Indian Ocean region (IOR) converge at sea. The sea lines of communication are the world’s most important. In the medium term, the oceanic environment impacted by climate change generates the greatest security challenges. Massive humanitarian and ecological crises will overwhelm adaptation and response capacities. Procrastination will result in unmitigated disasters beyond current experience, with significant maritime security consequences. A proposed way ahead is to conceptualize the IOR as an integrated maritime system in which participants have mutual objectives threatened by common risks and shared vulnerabilities. Evidence from risk-based approaches can identify opportunities and actions for cooperative and collective maritime security. Appropriately resourced policy-level strategic risk assessments, combined with strong leadership and political will, are required.
Lee Cordner

Backmatter

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