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2023 | Buch

New Advances in Building Information Modeling and Engineering Management

herausgegeben von: María de las Nieves González García, Fernanda Rodrigues, João Santos Baptista

Verlag: Springer Nature Switzerland

Buchreihe : Digital Innovations in Architecture, Engineering and Construction


Über dieses Buch

This book explores the latest advances in the field of building management. Several chapters use new technologies such as the BIM methodology for collecting life cycle information and managing the maintenance of existing buildings, sharing valid historical and architectural heritage data, energy analysis of building envelopes, and planning new buildings or sustainable building practices. In addition, other tools are presented that focus on improving access to BIM information, open-source governance, mobile applications to accelerate information transfer, the use of blockchain, lean design methods, and open-source software to solve critical path problems. Some contributions feature the assessment of occupational risks in construction, as it is necessary to plan preventive measures based on risk assessments integrated throughout the construction process, which is another important element for the management of this sector.


Chapter 1. Maintenance Management of Existing Building Supported on BIM
The management of building maintenance has changed significantly since the advent of Building Information Modelling (BIM) in architecture, engineering, construction, and operations. However, developing and managing predictive maintenance plans that rely on software remains a difficult and time-consuming task. Therefore, the objective of this work is to demonstrate the advantages of the BIM method for maintaining the condition of buildings during their life cycle. To this end, the methodology developed aims to implement the BIM method in maintenance management by exploring the interoperability between the Revit software and the Excel database, which allows the synchronisation of preventive maintenance plans between these two platforms. The methodology developed and applied to a case study consists of modelling the case study in Revit and introducing the corresponding parametric information. Then, Table 13 of the Omniclass standard was applied, which classifies spaces according to their use. Then, a maintenance plan was developed for some elements of the case study. Finally, a bidirectional interaction between Revit and Excel was established through a Dynamo routine for Revit and through a commercial add-in. This work demonstrates a method to avoid fragmentation of information during the life cycle of a building. This allows for efficient management and thus cost reduction in future interventions. This work summarises all building information in a unified model and aims to develop a methodology that can be applied to other building typologies.
R. Matos, H. Rodrigues, E. Tavares, A. Costa, A. D. Alves, Fernanda Rodrigues
Chapter 2. Extending Access to BIM Information: Merging Augmented Reality Interfaces and Semantic Enrichment
The potential of combining Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Augmented Reality (AR) has proven beneficial in various Architecture, Engineering, Construction and Operations (AECO) sectors. Despite the gradual adoption of BIM, there is a need for integrative and coordinated interfaces that can leverage the different academic backgrounds, profiles, and tacit knowledge of stakeholders in the AECO sector. As one of the most important research areas related to BIM, AR provides the necessary functionality to improve access to BIM information. This paper describes the early development phases of a BIM-based AR interface for semantic enrichment of BIM models for the HoloLens head-mounted display (HMD). Specifically, the interface provides more natural access to BIM information, even for users with no prior experience or knowledge of BIM tools. Initial lab tests have been conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using voice and gesture interactions to link semantic data to physical objects, which are then transformed into BIM information.
F. M. Dinis, J. Poças Martins, B. Rangel, A. S. Guimarães, A. Soeiro
Chapter 3. A Review on the Digitalization of On-Site Production Management—Case Study in a Portuguese Construction Company
The Construction Industry (CI) is characterised by a low-skilled workforce and a low level of digitalization and information integration. Compared to similar industries, it suffers from low productivity and low efficiency. This paper explores alternative ways of collecting data at the construction site to improve on-site production management through workforce control, taking into account the technical skills of on-site workers. A bibliometric analysis was conducted to identify the main trends and research tools. The main objective of this research is to propose solutions for the digitalization of worksite processes. The use of technologies, especially mobile applications, accelerates the transmission of productivity information and allows management to make informed decisions and reduce the burden of the control process. This paper presents a case study demonstrating that mobile applications can bridge the gap between the workplace and the office and fit into the context of geographic dispersion. Although mobile applications are beneficial for managing production in the field, a system that integrates all software and data storage in a single location is required to achieve lasting results in efficiently transferring information from the field to the office. This research argues for a gradual adoption of these technologies in construction companies. Further study of the transition between different levels of digitization is essential to determine the true impact on a company's productivity.
Luís Jacques de Sousa, Miguel Chichorro Gonçalves, J. Poças Martins
Chapter 4. Historic Building Information Modeling (HBIM) and Common Data Environment: The Case Study of Palazzo Vitelli in San Giacomo in Città di Castello
This paper represents an attempt to illustrate HBIM (Historic Building Information Modelling) to support the management of historic buildings, with particular attention to the methods of organising and sharing information from a public administration perspective. Within the framework of a research agreement between the Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering of the University of Perugia and the Municipality of Città di Castello (PG), it was decided to carry out a case study on Palazzo Vitelli in San Giacomo, a sixteenth century building. The aim is to provide the Municipality with a BIM model of the building and to support them in the digitization processes, completely from an information technology point of view and embedded in a valid data exchange and management system. The BIM modelling of historical architecture is an opportunity to reflect on the potential of this logic and to address the numerous problems related to the complexity of the historical-architectural heritage. Moreover, the comparison with a context of modest possibilities presents the challenge of adapting structures for sharing information created for different purposes to the BIM, revealing that in many cases the transition to new forms of data management must be made in the spirit of continuity and intelligent use of resources.
F. Bianconi, M. Filippucci, S. Battaglini, F. Cappilli
Chapter 5. A Workflow for Photogrammetric and Thermographic Surveys of Buildings with Drones
The interest in studying the energy performance of existing buildings has increased. Therefore, the integration of relevant information into BIM (Building Information Modelling) and BEM (Building Energy Modelling) is beneficial for energy information management and task automation. For an appropriate analysis of an existing building (“as-is”), it is possible to collect data on its 3D geometric properties and measure the thermal conditions of the building envelope to perform an energy analysis. The use of UAS (Unmanned Aircraft Systems)/drones has become a popular method for collecting building data because it offers advantages such as reduced labour, low cost, and easy access to locations that could not otherwise be reached. In addition, with the advancement of infrared (IR) sensors, which are getting smaller even smaller, it is possible to integrate them into drones. The IR data can be used to study building behaviour and pathologies, as different surface temperatures can be detected. Existing methods focus on fusing RGB (red–green–blue) and IR images, typically merging IR data with 3D geometry in a process that can later be integrated into BIM models. However, they do not achieve the advantages offered by this method with UAS and require additional equipment to perform the surveys. This paper presents a method for integrating building data obtained by photogrammetry and thermography into BIM environment, using only a UAS. In addition to this qualitative approach, a quantitative approach was developed using data collected by photogrammetry with the drone to perform an energy analysis of building envelopes.
D. F. R. Parracho, J. Poças Martins, E. Barreira
Chapter 6. Digital Asset Production Using Lean Design Management: A Conceptual Framework
While design management is advancing in construction management research and professional practice, various questions were raised on the interactions between social and technical dimensions. The technical dimension provided prescriptions and standard methods to manage design workflows using BIM methodologies and linked digital tools. The social dimension streamlines basis for collaborative information production and identifies the relationship between the involved parties during developing and exchanging the digital asset. Hence, the concepts of waste and value are the basis for current guidelines to improve design productivity and information reliability. Therefore, this paper reviews the theories of lean design management and lean practice in information production management using communication tools for BIM workflows. The paper qualitatively analyzed lean design methods at directive and operational levels during planning for digital asset production. Finally, the paper explores the connections between lean design and BIM Execution Plan (BEP) and Level of Development (LOD) communication tools. A thorough literature review is applied to the current standards of construction information management and lean design management in the same field. The study found that lean construction concepts are implicitly applied in the current information management standards, but the social dimensions were rarely captured, and the existing task management software is external to BIM standards and functionalities. The study provides a general understanding of waste in information and production, and it explains the shortcomings of the current information management practices using traditional methods.
M. Karaz, J. C. Teixeira
Chapter 7. Risk Assessment Comparative Analysis by the Method “Level of Preventive Action” in Three Case Studies
The occupational risk assessment method adapted to building works called Level of Preventive Action (Lpac) has been implemented in three construction sites in three different countries: Brazil, Spain, and Portugal. The works have different characteristics, covering different construction phases. From all of them, technical data related to occupational health and safety were taken, and psychosociological data related to workers and their perception of risk in the work environment. The results were transferred to “MS-Excel” tables adapted to the characteristics of each of the construction projects. In the procedure, photographs were taken of the different work units evaluated, showing the work carried out, the health and safety teams, the workers, and the organization. The evaluation method can generate a wide spectrum of results from the large number of graphs, including those related to the total “Level of Preventive Action” and its corresponding parameters related to the construction system. The graphic results also determine the evaluation of the preventive action of the risks in the construction systems; results based on risk management techniques; including the personal perception of risky environments, the social behaviour of workers; and the evaluation of preventive action in work environments (absolute, documentary, constructive and social). Despite the great diversity of results, Lpac makes it possible to visually interpret the risk situation and decide so that the control of preventive action is the most effective.
L. C. Pentelhão, João Santos Baptista, A. J. Carpio, María de las Nieves González García
Chapter 8. An Open-Source Built Heritage Management Tool for Inner Areas
A Management System, which takes into consideration the life cycle of the building and aims at improving the energy performance of the existing building stock, is the objective of the research project whose first results are presented in this contribution. The building park of Piaggine [Salerno], a minor historical centre in the National Park of Cilento and Vallo di Diano and Alburni, as part of the enhancement of inner areas characterised by a significant architectural, naturalistic and environmental heritage, was chosen as a sample area for the experimentation of this tool. The characteristics of the built environment were analysed and collected in a GIS system which, through “dialogue” with known databases, made it possible to implement and associate a quantity of information and data on the existing built heritage. After that, a new database was generated that defined a first life cycle of the buildings, indicating their stratification, maintenance and building density, and identifying unauthorised building and unsuitable building management. In this way, it will be possible for the public and private sector to monitor consumption, plan interventions and manage the built heritage. The added value in the use of this tool is its application by the Public Administration, which will operate with: consultancy activities, through a personalised relationship with the user and convention with public officials and authorised technicians, it will provide suitable hypotheses concerning services for the management and renovation of existing buildings or for future interventions and, through incentive tools, which work dynamically with the system, it will be able to promote access to energy efficiency of goods and services contrasting the phenomenon of energy poverty.
M. Merola
Chapter 9. The Role of Blockchain Technology in the Future of Construction
If we look around, we see a transformation in all areas of digital industry, education or business. There has been a major transformation in the digital sector. Significant work, changes and improvements have been made in the design and manufacturing industries. Both the digital sector and the construction sector are experiencing a digital transfer. Technology continues to evolve to solve various problems that are emerging across all industries. Blockchain is also moving toward the construction industry. Combining Blockchain with Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a great combination. Blockchain is very useful for the manufacturing industry. Blockchain is a chain of interconnected blocks, where each block refers to the block before it. The main feature of Blockchain is to ensure information security. All information is stored in the Blockchain in codified, encrypted and hashed form. Blockchain is used for the accuracy of information exchanged between two actors. The overall structure of blocks in blockchain consists of two main parts. The first part contains the main information of the block in hashed form and the second part contains the address of the previous block in hashed form. In various construction projects, this data may include the smart contracts concluded between the employer, the contractor and the consultant, as well as the correspondence conducted with various organizations and the evaluation of workers’ working hours. The structural information is the most important data in the sensitive projects, and its accuracy should be evaluated, as filtering out such information leads to severe losses. The research method is descriptive with the aim of learning about the blockchain and combining it with the construction industry and building data modeling.
A. H. Javaheri Khah, M. Valiente López
Chapter 10. Trustless Construction Project Information Exchanging Using Hyperledger Blockchain
The distributed ledger is an immutable record for data stored inside it. This technology can be helpful for construction project events and communication recording. This article investigates the Hyperledger project, a modular enterprise Blockchain with pluggable products to create a construction communication and data exchange ledger. Hyperledger is an open-source modular Blockchain architecture designed to help enterprises run distributed ledgers to benefit from the technological advancement provided by Blockchain technology. These ledgers are immutable, distributed, and trustless. These features allow for transparent communication between stakeholders, which could positively impact construction project workflow and the participation of projects actors. The article uses Hyperledger products Fabric and Composer to showcase a hypothetical Blockchain to exchange project metadata and communication between construction project participants. The article presents an example of using Blockchain for the construction project process by designing a Blockchain to handle the Request for Information (RFI) process.
M. Darabseh, J. Poças Martins
Chapter 11. Open-Access Software Implementation for Critical Path Problems Arising in Planification Theory
In planning theory, Critical Path Problems are used to solve the schedule of a planning. These problems are based on calculating the total duration of a project, as well as on obtaining information about the expected time spam for every activity to be carried out along the project. There is a variety of methods that solve this type of problems, usually implemented in computer software packages, most of which are not free for the general public. In this contribution we propose two different ways to solve Critical Path Problems with access-free software. Our implementations allow to find the solution of general planification problems using a simple spreadsheet (Calc or Excel, for example) to which the personnel in universities and companies have access. Our contribution consists of a toolbox formed by two spreadsheets that we developed for solving Critical Path Problems using Excel, although our implementation is valid for OpenOffice versions and the like. The first spreadsheet is based on a graph representation of the Critical Path Method. In this case, the resolution of the problem consists of posing it as if it were a linear programming problem, specifically a Maximum-length Route Problem. The second spreadsheet uses Bernard Roy’s methodology and implements the algorithm in a way that allows to determine critical paths automatically by simply entering planning timings and dependencies. In the contribution we will explain our spreadsheet implementations using an example, consisting of a few activities of a planning problem. We will show how our implementation is flexible and can be easily modified and scaled to solve larger planification problems. Our spreadsheet implementations are available to free usage by general public.
Elena Martin Porta, Álvaro P. Raposo, José A. Capitán
Chapter 12. Spanish Construction Emerging Risks About Health and Psychosocial Risk
The aim of this research paper is to study the psychosocial risks which are present in the construction sector in Spain, as well as their consequences for construction workers, in conjunction with drug addiction and the use of substances to which this group is exposed, before comparing the Spanish results with the European findings obtained from the third ESENER survey. To this end, a quantitative study has carried out of the research indicators based on the survey, just like that performed in third ESENER survey’s case, in order to be able to extract the results from both studies and compare them, whilst focusing upon Spain’s profile. The results obtained reveal the importance of preventing these psychosocial risks, with worrying data concerning the level of stress among workers, along with the workers’ legal obligation to participate in health and safety matters, which only a low percentage of companies in the sector fulfil. On top of this, the alarming level of substance use during the working day must also be considered as must its involvement in workplace accidents. In conclusion, these kind of risks must be incorporated in workplace assessments, and companies must be equipped with the resources to prevent them, as well as implementing training activities and campaigns to raise awareness about the dangers of consuming substances during the working day.
Á. Romero Barriuso, B. M. Villena Escribano, María de las Nieves González García, M. Segarra Cañamares
Chapter 13. Real Estate Market: Smart Renaissance
In the three years following the Real Estate boom, the change in architectural studies was remarkable. In the last twelve years, architects, technical architects, engineers, testing and quality companies, developers, builders, site managers, operators of different trades as well as installation, materials, and Real Estate companies were forced to change their business focus on different goals. This crisis even had an impact on university studies and private architecture schools that were created during the boom and both suffered from enrollment losses with new graduates seeking professional opportunities beyond the national scene. The current situation has been different for the last two years as the role of the architectural studio has changed and it no longer exists as such. The architect now works within business, engineering and even consulting synergies. By means of a real case study, and in collaboration with the university and Real Estate companies, this study contributes new conclusions to the state of the question. These findings result from constant changes as well as the fluctuating and cyclical speed of development in the architecture sector. The latest crisis that occurred in the sector, as well as the COVID-19 pandemic, has affected several disciplines, causing professionals and teachers to create new teaching methods and ways of working in diverse teams, which has opened research fields for new ways of building and urban development.
G. Cantarero-García, F. I. Gordejuela, C. P. Gutiérrez
New Advances in Building Information Modeling and Engineering Management
herausgegeben von
María de las Nieves González García
Fernanda Rodrigues
João Santos Baptista
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