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The β function and the universal shape of the WPMF profile obtained in coupled simulations allow a formulation of the one-dimensional theory of the WBL and the carrying out of a detailed study of the WBL structure including the dependence of the drag coefficient on the wind speed. It is shown that a wide scatter of the experimental data on the drag coefficient can be explained, taking into account the age of waves. It is suggested that a reduction of the drag coefficient at high wind speeds can be qualitatively explained by the high-frequency wave suppression. A direct wave model based on the one-dimensional nonlinear equations for potential waves is used for simulation of wave field development under the action of energy input, dissipation, and nonlinear wave–wave interaction. The equations are written in conformal surface-fitted non-stationary coordinate system. New schemes for calculating the input and dissipation of wave energy are implemented. The wind input is calculated on the basis of the parameterization developed through the coupled modeling of waves and turbulent boundary layer. The wave dissipation algorithm, introduced to prevent wave breaking instability, is based on highly selective smoothing of the wave surface and surface potential. The integration is performed in Fourier domain with the number of modes M = 2048, broad enough to reproduce the energy downshifting. As the initial conditions, the wave field is assigned as train of Stokes waves with steepness ak = 0.15 at non-dimensional wave number k = 512. Under the action of nonlinearity and energy input, the spectrum starts to grow. This growth is followed by the downshifting. The total time of integration is equal to 7203 initial wave periods. During this time, the energy increased by 1111 times. Peak of the spectrum gradually shifts from wave number non-dimensional k = 512 down to k = 10. Significant wave height increases 33 times, while the peak period increases 51 times. Rates of the peak downshift and wave energy evolution are in good agreement with the JONSWAP formulation.
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- One-Dimensional Modeling of the WBL
Dmitry V. Chalikov
- Chapter 10