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Über dieses Buch

This book summarizes the results of experimental work on the development of technologies for the manufacture of sour service line pipe steels. It presents the latest theories on the mechanisms of cracking and factors affecting fracture resistance in H2S-containing media of low-alloy pipe steels. The authors propose methods for improving the quality of continuously cast slabs and show the effect of the chemical composition on the microstructure and properties of rolled plates for pipes. Considerable attention is paid to the metallurgical aspects of microstructure formation and its mechanical properties, as well as the enhancement and cracking resistance of sour service sheets under thermomechanical rolling with accelerated cooling. In brief, the book presents a cutting-edge overview of sour service sheet and pipe production.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Effect of Hydrogen Sulfide-Containing Media on Pipe Steels

Abstract
Consequences of simultaneous and delayed failure of the pipe walls, equipment, and metal parts operated in oil and gas production areas in contact with liquid and gaseous media containing hydrogen sulfide have led to the need to study the mechanisms of the failure initiation. An artificial increase in the hydrogen concentration in steel allowed the observation of the fracture.
Ivan Shabalov, Yury Matrosov, Alexey Kholodnyi, Maxim Matrosov, Valery Velikodnev

Chapter 2. Factors Affecting the Cracking Resistance of Pipe Steels in H2S-Containing Media

Abstract
The negative effect of aggressive hydrogen sulfide-containing wet media in transported gas and oil causes disruption of continuity and failure of pipes by the mechanisms of hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) and sulfide stress cracking (SSC) and is determined by a number of external and internal factors. The external factors include the corrosive environment characteristics such as the concentration of hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and other impurities, acidity (pH) in the aqueous medium, H2S partial pressure, temperature, duration of the corrosive medium action on the material, and external stresses.
Ivan Shabalov, Yury Matrosov, Alexey Kholodnyi, Maxim Matrosov, Valery Velikodnev

Chapter 3. Central Chemical and Structural Segregation Heterogeneity in Continuously Cast Slabs

Abstract
Continuously cast slab serves as a billet for the production of high-quality plate and coiled stock for pipes. The initial quality of slab largely determines the ability to meet the requirements on surface quality, contamination with non-metallic inclusions, impact toughness, crack resistance in H2S-containing media, continuity, etc. The quality of continuously cast billet is formed at the stages of liquid steel treatment in the ladle, in the vacuum unit, in the ladle-furnace unit, in the intermediate ladle, and upon continuous casting. Thereby, the problems of ensuring the chemical composition within specified limits, the low content of harmful impurities (sulfur, phosphorus) and gases (nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen), cleanliness from non-metallic inclusions, minimization of surface and internal defects of the slab, etc., are solved.
Ivan Shabalov, Yury Matrosov, Alexey Kholodnyi, Maxim Matrosov, Valery Velikodnev

Chapter 4. Formation of the Structure and Properties of Plates from Pipe Steels upon Thermomechanical Processing with Accelerated Cooling

Abstract
The plate and strip production from low-carbon low-alloy steels for oil and gas pipes and critical duty-welded structures is today one of the most innovative branches of ferrous metallurgy. Since the 1970s, there has been a continuous development of the chemical compositions of steels and rolling technologies in order to improve the properties combining high strength, toughness, cold resistance, corrosion resistance, and weldability of steels, as well as to reduce the cost of their production.
Ivan Shabalov, Yury Matrosov, Alexey Kholodnyi, Maxim Matrosov, Valery Velikodnev

Chapter 5. Effect of Chemical Composition on the Central Segregation Heterogeneity and HIC Resistance of Rolled Plates

Abstract
The central segregation chemical and microstructural heterogeneity in low-carbon low-alloy pipe steel plates produced from continuously cast slabs occupies a small region of the plate and does not substantially affect the conventional mechanical properties and cold resistance. However, it causes a discontinuity detected by ultrasonic inspection, decreases mechanical properties in the Z direction, increases the tendency to cracking in the weld zone, and, which is especially important for the pipes for sour service, increases the sensitivity to HIC (Pemov and Nosochenko in Metallurgist 47(11):460–464, 2003; Matrosov et al. in Probl Ferrous Metall Mater Sci 1:98–104, 2014).
Ivan Shabalov, Yury Matrosov, Alexey Kholodnyi, Maxim Matrosov, Valery Velikodnev

Chapter 6. Effect of Thermomechanical Treatment on the Central Segregation Heterogeneity and HIC Resistance of Rolled Plates

Abstract
For the development of the thermomechanical and heat treatment regimes for HIC-resistant plates from pipe steels, their effect on the formation of the base metal microstructure responsible for the mechanical properties of the steel and on the axial zone microstructure responsible for the HIC resistance of the plates is taken into account. The structural formation in the central segregation zone and in the base metal of the plates is mainly affected by the conditions of hot plastic deformation and cooling. The microstructural formation in the centerline zone is characterized by some specific features associated, first of all, with a higher content of segregating elements, which is inherited from continuously cast slabs. This chapter is devoted to the effect of the controlled rolling and post-deformation cooling (cooling rate, start and finish temperature of accelerated cooling) and heat treatment on the microstructure of the central segregation zone and the HIC resistance of rolled plates.
Ivan Shabalov, Yury Matrosov, Alexey Kholodnyi, Maxim Matrosov, Valery Velikodnev

Chapter 7. Manufacturing Technology of Steels for Pipes Ordered for Sour Service

Abstract
In this chapter, the state of the technology of industrial production of H2S-resistant rolled plates and strips and pipe manufacture by leading Russian and international metallurgical and pipe enterprises is considered. At present, mainly pipes of grades up to X65 inclusive have found commercial use for the construction of sour-gas-resistant pipelines. Research works aimed at the development of X70 and X80 grade pipes for operation in the most aggressive media are underway. To achieve high properties of pipe steels, including HIC and SSC resistances, high strength, cold resistance, weldability, it is necessary to choose the optimal chemical composition of steel and to optimize the production methods such as steelmaking, hot plastic deformation, and cooling. An important condition is the formation of fine structure with the regulated number and size of structure constituents (ferrite, pearlite, bainite), fine carbonitride particles precipitated under certain rolling conditions, and limited quantity of non-metallic inclusions.
Ivan Shabalov, Yury Matrosov, Alexey Kholodnyi, Maxim Matrosov, Valery Velikodnev
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