The body of water referred to as the Gulf, with its surrounding land mass, is widely regarded as the pre-eminent world source of the energy supplied in the form of oil and gas, 90% of which is transported by sea. In this capacity, it stands at risk of being seriously damaged as a result of the activities of ships and of onshore and offshore oil, gas and chemical processing and loading facilities. As a unique semi-enclosed body of shallow water surrounded by some of the most intense industrial and developmental activity in the world, it is inevitably at great risk from both land-based and sea-based impacts. This chapter gives an overview of the marine activities most often considered to be responsible for pollution in the Gulf, and at the instruments available, through the International Maritime Organization, in particular, to reduce the potential impact of marine pollution on Gulf waters.
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- Pollution from sea based sources
- Birkhäuser Basel