introduced by Micali and Pass (STOC’06) guarantees that the view of any verifier
can be simulated in time closely related to the
(as opposed to worst-case) time spent by
in the generated view. We provide the first constructions of precise concurrent zero-knowledge protocols. Our constructions have essentially optimal precision; consequently this improves also upon the previously tightest non-precise concurrent zero-knowledge protocols by Kilian and Petrank (STOC’01) and Prabhakaran, Rosen and Sahai (FOCS’02) whose simulators have a quadratic worst-case overhead. Additionally, we achieve a statistically-precise concurrent zero-knowledge property—which requires simulation of unbounded verifiers participating in an unbounded number of concurrent executions; as such we obtain the first (even non-precise) concurrent zero-knowledge protocols which handle verifiers participating in a super-polynomial number of concurrent executions.
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