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Representing the coordinated work of a research group from four different Italian University departments which conducted the Eco-Management for Food (EMAF) Project, this book offers a systematic approach for managing and improving the environmental aspects of agri-food processes and products using Product-Oriented Environmental Management Systems (POEMS).

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Background and Concepts

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Innovative Environmental Management Tools for the Agri-Food Chain

Abstract
Agri-food firms, as enterprises in any other sector, have a series of tools at their disposition, based on international standards, which may be useful for the purposes of environmental management. System standards (such as ISO 14001 for Environmental Management Systems) are the most widely used, but a more suitable approach to environmental quality management in the agricultural and agri-food sectors is probably one based on using direct means of ensuring the environmental performance of products. In this chapter, new approaches centred on the product-orientation of environmental management systems are presented, also investigating their role in the improvement of economic and competitive performance. Finally, the path towards the definition of a Product-Orientation of Environmental Management Systems (POEMS) framework, specifically tailored to companies operating in the agribusiness sector, is described.
Roberta Salomone, Daniela Rupo, Giuseppe Saija

Integrated Management Systems (IMS)

Frontmatter

Chapter 2. The Integration of Quality Management and Environmental Management Systems

Abstract
Various Management Systems (MSs) (Quality, Environment, Health and Safety, etc.) are put in place by a great number of organisations, to improve their global performance and recently, the most important challenge is their integration. An Integrated Management System (IMS) is based on the combination of a number of MSs to plan, realise, control, audit and systematically improve the wide array of company performance. The adoption of an IMS is favored by the same basic principles and the similar common structure of the main standards implemented. The roadmap towards the integration of MSs, particularly in the agri-food sector, has to be seen as a complex path, involving innovative future management systems and tools and deriving from the call to satisfy emerging socio-economic requests from organisations engaged in continuous improving of their global performance in quality, environment, health and safety and social responsibility. The Integration of Management Systems is a highly relevant management approach, capable of generating significant benefits and more efficient management and use of resources.
Maria Proto, Ornella Malandrino, Stefania Supino

Chapter 3. A Model of Integrated Management System for Agri-Food Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs)

Abstract
The characteristics of MSs related to Quality, Environment, Health and Safety provide the opportunity for synergic integration, for enhancing operations and disseminating results in order to improve efficacy and efficiency in terms of resources and experience, as suggested by the regulations themselves. The proposed model represents a path for the integration of standardised MSs and is a flexible framework that can be tailored to the specific needs of SMEs operating in the agri-food sector on the global market. Moreover, it is an essential starting point for the adoption of other environmental tools useful for companies of the agri-food sector. It could even be considered the necessary backbone for encouraging the progressive diffusion of innovative environmental tools. The IMS model fosters a holistic view of continuos improvement of Quality for the maximisation of effectiveness and efficiency of both internal and external organisational performance, facilitating the spread and potential growth of competitiveness and sustainability in the sector.
Maria Proto, Ornella Malandrino, Stefania Supino

Chapter 4. The Implementation of Integrated Management System in Agri-Food SMEs

Abstract
The IMS model, proposed in chapter 3, has been applied to Petti Spa, a well known company producing processed tomatoes. During the integration process two different kinds of strong points (internal/external) emerged. Those relative to internal processes include: the focus on a holistic approach and underpinning relationships; synergies in terms of capabilities linked to the early use of routine MSs; a reduction in unnecessary documents and bureaucracy; improvements in organisational efficiency and effectiveness. Those relative to external processes mainly concern the worldwide spread of multiple MSs in the agri-food sector and the enhancement of synergies; the use of best practices due to strong competition on the global market; the widespread adoption of tools for continuous improvement and benchmarking. Nevertheless, some weak points emerged, concerning the need for a change in attitude among employees and management; the difficulties in attempting to re-allocate roles, responsibilities and skills and the resources required for training, knowledge sharing and dissemination.
Maria Proto, Ornella Malandrino, Stefania Supino

Simplified Life Cycle Assessment (s-LCA)

Frontmatter

Chapter 5. Life Cycle Assessment for the Agri-Food Sector

Abstract
The food supply chain has become an important contributor to a number of environmental impacts, and food and drink products are accountable for a significant share of the overall environmental impacts of private consumption. In order for the whole chain to be taken into account, a life cycle approach to environmental assessment is needed; in that framework, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been increasingly used to improve the environmental performance of food systems. In this chapter review papers on food LCA case studies were reviewed in terms of methodological key aspects (e.g., functional unit, system boundary, multi-functionality, data, etc.). Moreover, an attempt was made to identify the most critical impacts and life-cycle stages. In the case studies reviewed, different assumptions and methodologies were found and discussed. However, it was not possible to clearly identify one or more environmental impacts as being more important than others. Finally, no sure conclusions were drawn regarding the most impacting stage, although the agricultural one was mentioned most frequently.
Ioannis Arzoumanidis, Luigia Petti, Andrea Raggi, Alessandra Zamagni

Chapter 6. A Model of Simplified LCA for Agri-Food SMEs

Abstract
This Chapter describes and discusses the approach for identifying a simplified life cycle assessment (LCA) model suited for SMEs in the agri-food sector, addressing both the supply (developments of methods and tools) and demand (what stakeholders desire from a life cycle tool) side of the simplification problem. As far as the demand side is concerned, building on the results of the analysis carried out in Chap. 5, a literature review was carried out, aimed at identifying and characterising already existing simplified approaches and tools. On the supply side, the results of the review were crosschecked with the main outcomes of a survey about the need for simplification, the stakeholders of interest and their needs. This allowed the identification of some criteria for identifying the suitable simplified tool, which was subsequently selected by applying decision making methodologies belonging to the family of Multi-Attribute Utility Theory. This process resulted in the choice of eVerdEE. The validation of this choice is described in Chap. 7, through the application of this tool to a case study and its parallel analysis with the results of a detailed LCA.
Ioannis Arzoumanidis, Alessandra Zamagni, Andrea Raggi, Luigia Petti, Daniele Magazzeni

Chapter 7. The Implementation of Simplified LCA in Agri-Food SMEs

Abstract
In Chap. 6 a simplified Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tool that could be suitable for SMEs, especially in the food industry, was identified. In this Chapter, the selected tool (eVerdEE) was tested for its robustness and suitability, by implementing it to an Italian wine produced by a small winery. A full LCA was also carried out to evaluate in parallel the results of the two tools. Furthermore, the implementation of the simplified LCA tool aimed also to check whether it actually meets the criteria against which it was assessed for its selection. It was found that both tools showed fossil depletion and climate change as the impact categories with the highest normalised scores. Nevertheless, no safe considerations could be drawn with regard to which phase contributed more, as different stages contributed differently to the various impact categories. Finally, some general considerations regarding strengths and weaknesses of the implementation of LCA in SMEs were outlined, especially as regards data collection.
Ioannis Arzoumanidis, Luigia Petti, Andrea Raggi, Alessandra Zamagni

Environmental Labels and Declarations

Frontmatter

Chapter 8. Environmental Labels and Declarations in the Agri-Food Sector

Abstract
In these last years, the labels and environmental communications have received a great deal of attention in the international scene in order to implement a policy which can encourage producers to improve the environmental performance of their products thus stimulating consumers to give up their habit of making purchases. These labels/declarations encourage the supply and the demand of those products and services able to cause lower damage to the environment stimulating a process of continuous environmental improvement guided by the market. Given the presence of different national systems of environmental labelling and in order to bring into line the methodologies to be adopted, the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) has elaborated and regulated three types of labels/environmental declarations: Type I, II and III; there is another category which has not been regulated by the ISOs and which has been defined as “environmental labels of type IV”. In this chapter, there is a critical review of the most significant literature about environmental labels, referring in particular to food products; the aim is to investigate the role that environmental labels have played in the behaviour of consumers and of producers.
Maria Teresa Clasadonte, Agata Lo Giudice, Agata Matarazzo

Chapter 9. Guidelines for Environmental Labels in the Agri-Food SMEs

Abstract
In agri-food sector there has been the springing up of voluntary environmental labelling systems used as instruments for environmental communication and useful to obtain a commercial feed-back of eco sustainable management. The result is a varied survey and it becomes extremely difficult and complex for the operators to choose the most effective label which explains the values of their environmental involvement and the application of the operating modes of the chosen labelling system. The aim of this chapter is to draw up some guidelines which take into account the peculiarities of the soil, the specific quality of the products, the characteristics of the supply chain and of the company operative context and the final reference markets; by doing so, these guidelines provide the firms with the right criteria whereby they can choose the most adequate environmental label for their agricultural and food products thus helping them to enhance their communication strategies and their visibility on the market. These guidelines will assist the firms which want to apply an environmental label to their own outputs, choosing a communication system close to their realities through the evaluation of objective, comparable and believable information.
Maria Teresa Clasadonte, Agata Lo Giudice, Agata Matarazzo

Chapter 10. The Implementation of the Guidelines for Environmental Labels and Declarations in Agri-Food SMEs

Abstract
In order to test the implementation of the guidelines for environmental labels and declarations in agri-food SMEs, a firm which operates in the pasta chain was chosen as it was considered representative of the Sicilian economic system. After a brief description of the sector and the pilot firm, the path followed by the firm towards the choice of a voluntary environmental labelling system which suited its peculiarities will be reported. Following the iterative procedural steps and making use of decision support instruments, the organisation has given to its distributors and consumers the necessary information for a conscious choice of eco-compatible products and the relevant information connected with the phases of the productive process, the product itself and the performance in terms of environmental impact. The experience resulting from the application of the guidelines proposed to the pilot firm has shown how it is possible to choose the voluntary communication system, closer to the business reality, by starting from the analysis of the company activities and of the expectations of the management, the stakeholders and their environmental awareness.
Maria Teresa Clasadonte, Agata Lo Giudice, Agata Matarazzo

Product-Oriented Environmental Management Systems (POEMS)

Frontmatter

Chapter 11. Product-Oriented Environmental Management Systems: Methodologies and Experiences

Abstract
In this chapter, a literature review of previous methodological and applicative studies on Product-Orientation of Environmental Management Systems (POEMS) was performed, in order to bring order and clarity to the main issues concerning this new tool of environmental management. The review method employed, consisted of classifying and separately analysing the collected material on three different levels of document content: projects and programmes concerning POEMS application; technical standards suitable for the POEMS structure; methodological research on POEMS framework. The state-of-the-art and literature review allowed the authors to identify models and case studies on POEMS from which to extrapolate key topics for designing a complete theoretical framework of the tool. These key topics are useful starting points to drive future research and developments and successful implementation of POEMS.
Roberta Salomone, Giuseppe Ioppolo, Giuseppe Saija

Chapter 12. A Model of Product-Oriented Environmental Management System for Agri-Food SMEs

Abstract
In this chapter, a POEMS model specifically tailored to companies operating in the agri-food sector is described. The framework was developed from a traditional Environmental Management System (ISO 14001 standard), integrated with a Quality Management System (ISO 9001 and ISO 9004 standards) in order to allow the satisfaction of external customer and other stakeholder expectations concerning product requirements. Considering that the main obstacle firms face in performing POEMS is organising cooperation and close interaction between the different actors involved in the product chain, organisational capabilities are necessary, so that the proposed model integrates the “Deming cycle” (Plan-Do-Check-Act—PDCA Cycle) and the “Capability cycle” in which capability is intended as “the ability to coordinate, deploy and legitimate resources to perform tasks”. Furthermore, the product-orientation of the Integrated Management System is guaranteed by the inclusion of a simplified-LCA and by the identification of the most appropriate environmental product label or declaration.
Roberta Salomone, Giuseppe Ioppolo, Giuseppe Saija

Chapter 13. The Implementation of Product-Oriented Environmental Management Systems in Agri-Food SMEs

Abstract
The application potentiality of the POEMS model proposed in the previous chapter has been tested in pilot companies, operating in two different agri-food supply chains (olive oil production and roasted coffee production); the main aim of the pilot experiences was to test the model and to plan possible corrective and/or improvement actions. The implementation potentiality of the defined POEMS model was evaluated following five main procedural analysis phases: (1) supply chain analysis; (2) analysis of the level of integration of the pilot firm’s management systems; (3) preliminary analysis of the environmental impacts of the product/products identified by the companies themselves using the Life Cycle Assessment methodology; (4) identification of the most suitable product environmental communication; and (5) identification of main future improvement options.
In this chapter the main results of these two pilot experiences are reported, thanks to which some strong and weak points of the model emerged.
Roberta Salomone, Giuseppe Ioppolo, Giuseppe Saija

Backmatter

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