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This book presents the fundamentals of project management as applied in the built environment and more specifically for the construction industry. It presents the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK) using practical examples to show how various project management principles and concepts can be applied in practice. Providing study notes for students and aspiring project management professionals in the construction industry, each of the 13 chapters includes a set of comprehensive revision questions that allow readers to reflect on what they have learned. The book offers an introduction to what project management is all about as well as the project life cycles, stakeholders and organizations involved. It explains the project management processes and how these processes are applied in integration, scope, time, cost, quality, human resource, communications, risk and procurement management. It concludes with ethics and professional conduct in the project management profession.



Chapter 1. Introduction to Project Management

Projects are not new. Since young, all of you have performed the role of the accidental project manager even without you taking any formal courses in project management. These projects might include putting together a house model or constructing a small playground for a school in another developing country as part of an overseas community involvement project.
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Chapter 2. Project Life Cycles, Stakeholders and Organizations

Projects do not just materialize from thin air. There must always be a purpose for initiating a project and for the project to be developed and refined through the process of progressive elaboration. For large and complex projects, an idea is first formed at the inception stage. The idea for a project is then progressively elaborated and developed to provide more details for implementation. For large and complex projects such as convention centres, theme parks and expressways, elaboration and development may take place in phases. These phases may be carried out sequentially if time is not of the essence or concurrently to fast track the completion of a project. The project life cycle is unlike nature where it is not possible to fast track the human life cycle or the butterfly life cycle. Fast tracking the butterfly life cycle as it evolves from the egg to the larva and pupa stage may cause defects in the butterfly. Throughout the project life cycle, people and organizations come into and leave the project. Suitable organization structures are therefore important to create appropriate behaviour to underpin project success.
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Chapter 3. Project Management Processes

All projects are made up of processes that fall within the nine areas of the project management body of knowledge. To reiterate, these nine areas relate to integration, scope, time, cost, quality, human resource, communications, risk and procurement. There are five processes that kick-start each of these nine areas.
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Chapter 4. Project Integration Management

Projects are made up of moving parts. As these parts evolve and move along over time, some parts will be completed on time while other parts may be delayed. Furthermore, some other parts may also face changes along the way. All these movements have to be co-ordinated and integrated so that all the various parts move in tandem towards successful project completion. In short, synchronization is essential. The moving parts of a project can come in many forms. Project integration management is one of the nine areas in the project management body of knowledge. As the project moves through the other areas relating to scope, time, cost, quality, human resource, communications, risk and procurement, project integration management is necessary to ensure that all knowledge areas are synchronized and that all the relevant stakeholders are kept informed of progress, delays and changes in a timely manner.
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Chapter 5. Project Scope Management

Project scope management is closely aligned with integrated change control. In essence, a project needs a scope statement to steer the project in the right direction. But the scope statement is not a simple one-paragraph statement. Depending on the scale and complexity of the project, a fully developed project scope statement can be a set of hefty documents. These documents can include elemental breakdown of the entire building project, specifications and drawings. Based on progressive elaboration, development of the project scope statement would require many inputs from stakeholders to define the scope of work clearly and without ambiguities. There are three major components in scope management. These include establishing the scope, managing scope change, and verifying scope.
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Chapter 6. Project Time Management

Where time is concerned, project management has been described as a nine-to-five job. This is so because project management comprises of the nine knowledge areas that are underpinned by the five processes. Planning is however the key driver behind good time management. It has often been said that if a person fails to plan, that person plans to fail. Time management is about understanding the type, nature, magnitude and intensities of the activities involved in a project and scheduling these activities to meet the various deadlines. To do this, the project manager therefore needs to possess good understanding of the activities in the industry concerned. The activities in the banking industry are clearly different from the activities in the manufacturing industry.
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Chapter 7. Project Cost Management

Having identified the resources needed to complete the project, it is now necessary to estimate how much each of these resources cost. The sum of all costs related to all resources is the total project costs. Cost estimating is the process of calculating and computing the costs of all the resources that have been identified to be necessary to complete the project. Such resources can be identified from the project scope statement, work breakdown structure, components and activities. Cost estimates for resources can in turn be affected by quality choice, risk influence and procurement matters. Resources typically include materials, manpower and machine. In addition, costs of these resources can be influenced by management competence, methods of construction and money to fund the project. Collectively, this can be abbreviated as the 6 M’s. Estimating the costs of resources can be affected by economic conditions, currency fluctuations, market competition and other variations such as those relating to availability as well as demand and supply situation.
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Chapter 8. Project Quality Management

Quality is a fascinating concept because it can mean different things to different people. The quality concept is rendered even more complex as it applies to tangible products and intangible services. Quality must always be looked at in sum total. This is because even a simple flaw in a product or service will singularly affect the user enjoyment of that product or service. For example, a café that serves very good food can be marred by poor or rude services. For this reason, quality is often defined as all the characteristics of a product or service that bears on its ability to satisfy implied or stated needs. Stated needs are needs explicitly mentioned by the customer. Implied needs, although not expressly stated, are implicitly expected by the customer. An example of an implied need is that of a hotel guest who expects to have a good night sleep without disturbance.
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Chapter 9. Project Human Resource Management

Organizations are made up of and are run by people. In a school environment, for example, human resource management is all about people. They include the teaching staff, students, parents, alumni, members of the school advisory committee and vendors.
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Chapter 10. Project Communications Management

People need information and instructions in organizations. Communications is the life-line of projects as it provides the linkages between management, clients, project team members and other stakeholders. This life-line focuses on who needs what information in what format and when.
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Chapter 11. Project Risk Management

Many people tend to associate risks with a negative mind-set. This is because risks cannot generally be anticipated as risk occurrences are typically events or conditions that are unplanned but yet can have vast positive or negative impact on project outcome. While most risks are perceived to be a threat, not all risks are actually bad. Risk is often associated with a crisis.
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Chapter 12. Project Procurement Management

Projects require a variety of resources for their completion. These resources however do not simply appear out of nowhere. They have to be procured or purchased. The project manager needs to identify and plan for what resources are necessary for the project. Depending on the nature of the project, resources can include machineries, equipment, tools, materials, tradesmen, supervisors, consultancy services, employee training as well as a host of other goods and services.
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Chapter 13. Project Ethics and Professional Conduct

The practice of project management involves many stakeholders who often times take care only of their self-interests to the detriment of others. Granted that project management straddles nine broad knowledge areas, it is inevitable that ethical practices and professional conduct may be compromised by some stakeholders to safeguard their own organizational survival and profitability.
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