Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
George Osborne’s Northern Powerhouse agenda was based on the idea that Northern cities are ‘individually strong but collectively not strong enough. The whole is less than the sum of its parts’. Few would probably disagree with the basic intent and aspiration behind this declaration, or that the UK economy has become too dominated by London, but this chapter argues that both the dominant diagnosis of the problem, and the main policies being advanced to solve it, are more debatable. It is in fact questionable whether Northern cities are as economically strong ‘individually’ as Osborne’s claim suggests. There is more to a city’s economic success than just size and density, and the argument that greater connectivity to London promised by the High Speed 2 rail project will benefit Northern cities is highly contestable. Moreover, devolution could even intensify economic and social disparities both among Northern cities themselves and in relation to the more advantageous position of London with regard to fiscal devolution. The lagging performance of Northern cities (and regions) and the challenge confronting their catch up with London need to be understood in terms of the historical development of the national political economy, and how that development has favoured a certain disposition towards and role in the evolving process of globalisation.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Baldwin, R. 2016. The great convergence: Information technology and the new globalisation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Barlow Commission. 1940. Royal commission on the distribution of the industrial population. London: H.M. Stationery Office.
Bernanke, B.S. 2004. The great moderation, remarks at the meeting of the Eastern Economic Association. Washington, DC, February 20. Available from: http://www.federalreserve.gov/boarddocs/speeches/2004/20040220/.
Blanchard, O.J., and L.E. Katz. 1992. Regional evolutions. Brookings Papers in Economic Activity, 1, Washington, DC. CrossRef
Bosker, M. 2007. Growth, agglomeration and convergence: A space-time analysis for the European regions. Spatial Economic Analysis 2: 91–100. CrossRef
Business. 1987. Across the North–South divide, September.
Cable, V. 2013. London draining life out of rest of country. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-25444981.
Cameron, D. 2010. Transforming the British economy: Coalition strategy for economic growth. Speech, May 28, Prime Minister’s Office, London. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/transforming-the-british-economy-coalition-strategy-for-economic-growth.
Carmody, C. 2013. Slowing productivity growth: A developed economy comparison. Economic Roundup (2). The Treasury, Australian Government. Available from: http://www.treasury.gov.au/PublicationsAndMedia/Publications/2013/Economic-Roundup-Issue-2/Economic-Roundup/Slowing-productivity-growth.
Centre for Cities. 2017. Cities outlook 2017. London: Centre for Cities.
City Growth Commission. 2014. Unleashing metro growth. London: The City Growth Commission; London: RSA.
City of London Corporation. 2011. London’s competitive place in the UK and global economies. Research report. London: City of London Corporation.
City of London Corporation. 2014. London’s finances and revenues. Research report. London: City of London Corporation.
Clegg, N. 2010. Fair shares. The Northern Echo, June 29. Available from: http://www.theNorthernecho.co.uk/features/leader/8244486.Fair_shares/.
Crafts, N. 2005. Regional GDP in Britain, 1871–1911: Some estimates. Scottish Journal of Political Economy 52: 54–64. CrossRef
Crozet, M., and G.P. Koenig. 2007. The cohesion-growth trade-off: Evidence from EU regions. Paris: University of Paris.
Dall’erba, S., and G.J.D. Hewings. 2003. European regional development policies: The trade-off between efficiency-equity revisited. Discussion Paper 03-T-2, Regional Economics Applications Laboratory, University of Illinois.
Department of Business, Innovation and Skills. 2010. Understanding local growth. BIS Economics Paper, London.
Deutsche Bank. 2013. London and the UK economy: In for a penny, in for a pound? Special report. Deutsche Bank Markets Research.
Dijkstra, L., E. Garcilazo, and P. McCann. 2013. The economic performance of European cities: Myths and realities. European Planning Studies 21: 334–354. CrossRef
Gabaix, X. 1999. Zipf’s law for cities: An explanation. Quarterly Journal of Economics 114: 739–767. CrossRef
Geary, F., and T. Stark. 2015. Regional GDP in the UK, 1861–1911: New estimates. Economic History Review 68: 123–144. CrossRef
Geary, F., and T. Stark. 2016. What happened to regional inequality in Britain in the twentieth century. Economic History Review 69: 216–228. CrossRef
Heseltine, M. 2012. No stone unturned: In pursuit of growth. London: Department for Business, Innovation and Skills.
HM Government. 2010. Local growth: Realising every place’s potential. Cm 7961. London: HM Government.
HM Treasury. 2007. Regional disparities and growth in Europe (author C. Lees). London: HM Treasury, Mimeo.
Jacobs, J. 1984. Cities and the wealth of nations: Principles of economic life. New York: Random House.
Kaldor, N. 1981. The role of increasing returns, technological progress and cumulative causation in the theory of international trade and economic growth. Economie Appliquée XXXIV: 593–617.
Krugman, P. 1996. The self-organising economy. Oxford: Blackwell.
Krugman, P. 2009. The new economic geography: Now middle-aged. Regional Studies 45: 1–7. CrossRef
Leunig, T., and J. Swaffield. 2007. Cities unlimited: Making urban regeneration work. London: Policy Exchange.
Linkon, S. 2013. Navigating past and present in the deindustrial landscape: Contemporary writers on Detroit and Youngstown. International Labor and Working-Class History 84: 38–54. CrossRef
Linkon, S. 2014. The half-life of deindustrialisation: Twenty-first century narratives of work, place and identity. Paper presented at deindustrialization and its aftermath: Class, culture and resistance, Centre for Oral History, May, Montreal, Quebec.
Lloyd, J. 1988. The Tory opposition. Marxism Today, March 12–19. Available from: http://126.96.36.199/Pub/MarxismToday-1988mar-00012. Accessed 31 July 2017.
Mackinder, H.J. 1919. Democratic ideals and reality: A study in the politics of reconstruction. New York: H.H. Holt.
Martin, P. 2005. The geographies of inequality in Europe. Swedish Economic Policy Review 12: 85–108.
Martin, R., and P. Sunley. 2007. Complexity thinking and evolutionary economic geography. Journal of Economic Geography, 7 (5): 573–601. CrossRef
Martin, R.L. 2008. National growth versus regional equality? A cautionary note on the new trade-off thinking in regional policy discourse. Regional Science, Policy and Practice 1: 3–13.
Martin, R.L. 2015. Rebalancing the spatial economy: The challenge for regional theory. Territory, Politics, Governance 3: 235–272. CrossRef
Martin, R.L. 2017. Cumulative causation, endogenous growth and regional development, chapter 22. In Encyclopedia of geography: People, the earth, environment and technology, ed. M. Dunford. New York: Wiley.
Martin, R.L., P.J. Sunley, P. Tyler, and B. Gardiner. 2016. Divergent cities in post-industrial Britain. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society 9: 269–299. CrossRef
Martin, R.L., P.J. Sunley, and B. Gardiner. 2017. Structural change and city productivity growth. Submitted to Journal of Economic Geography. Available from author.
Massey, D. 1986. The legacy lingers on: The impact of Britain’s international role on its internal geography. In The geography of deindustrialisation, ed. R. Martin and B. Rowthorn, 31–52. London: Macmillan. CrossRef
May, T. 2016. Speech given at the Conservative Party annual conference, October 5, Manchester.
Osborne, G. 2014. We need a Northern Powerhouse. Speech delivered in Manchester, June 23. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/chancellor-we-need-a-northern-powerhouse.
Overman, H., and P. Rice. 2008. Resurgent cities and regional economic performance. SERC Policy Paper 1, June 2008.
Oxford Economics. 2007. London’s place in the UK economy. Report for the City of London Corporation. London: Oxford Economics.
Rowthorn, R.E. 2010. Combined and uneven development: Reflections on the North–South divide. Spatial Economic Analysis 5: 363–388. CrossRef
Rubenstein, W.D. 1977. The Victorian middle classes: Wealth, occupation and geography. Economic History Review 30: 602–623.
Rubenstein, W.D. 1981. Men of property: The very wealthy in Britain since the Industrial Revolution. Beckenham: Croom Helm.
Sbergami, F. 2002. Agglomeration and economic growth: Some puzzles. HEI Working Paper 02/2002, Graduate Institute of International Studies, Geneva.
Scott, P. 2007. The triumph of the South: A regional economic history of early twentieth century Britain. Farnham: Ashgate.
Setterfield, M. 1998. Rapid growth and relative decline. London: Macmillan.
Soo, T.K. 2005. Zipf’s law for cities: A cross country investigation. Regional Science and Urban Economics 35: 239–263. CrossRef
Strangleman, T. 2016. Deindustrialisation and the historical sociological imagination: Making sense of work and industrial change. Sociology. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0038038515622906.
Sturgen, N. 2014. Speech to Scotland’s business sector, Glasgow (1 December 2014), reported in The Herald (Scotland). http://www.heraldscotland.com/politics/scottish-politics/sturgeon-london-brings-benefits-to-scotlands-economy.1417439283.
TheCityUK. 2017. UK-based financial and related professional services: Enabling growth across the UK, London. Available from: https://www.thecityuk.com/assets/2017/Reports-PDF/UK-based-financial-and-related-professional-Services-Enabling-growth-across-the-UK.pdf.
The Economist. 2017. The pragmatic case for moving Britain’s capital North. The Economist, London. Available from: http://www.economist.com/blogs/bagehot/2017/02/go-north?fsrc=scn/tw/te/bl/ed/.
- Reviving the ‘Northern Powerhouse’ and Spatially Rebalancing the British Economy: The Scale of the Challenge
- Chapter 2
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta