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This book provides an overview of the environmental problems that arise from construction activity, focusing on refurbishment as an alternative to the current crisis in the construction sector, as well as on measures designed to minimize the effects on the environment. Furthermore, it offers professionals insights into alternative eco-efficient solutions using new materials to minimize environmental impacts and offers solutions that they can incorporate into their own designs and buildings. It also demonstrates best practices in the cooperation between various universities in Andalusia in Spain and Latin America and many public and private companies and organizations.

This book serves as a valuable reference resource for professionals and researchers and provides an overview on the status of investigations to find solutions to improve sustainable development in terms of materials, systems, facilities, neighborhoods, buildings, and awareness of the society involved.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Sustainable Planning and Urban Development

Frontmatter

Urban Heat Island and Vulnerable Population. The Case of Madrid

The[aut]Sánchez-Guevara Sánchez, Carmen Urban Heat IslandHeat islandeffect[aut]Núñez Peiró, Miguelshows the differences[aut]Neila González, F. Javier among temperatures in urban areas and the surrounding rural ones. Previous studies have demonstrated that temperature differences could be up to 8 °C during the hottest periods of summer in MadridMadrid, and that it varies according to the urban structure. Associated to this effect, the impact of temperature increase over dwelling indoor thermal comfortComfort seems to double cooling energy demandEnergy demand. In Madrid, fuel poor households already suffering from inadequate indoor temperatures can face important overheating problems and, as a consequence, relevant health problems could become more frequent and stronger. This poses an increment in mortality rates in risk groups that should be evaluated. This research is aimed at establishing the geospatial connection between the urban heat islandUrban heat island and the most vulnerable populationVulnerable population living in the city of Madrid. Hence, those areas most in need for an urban intervention can be detected and prioritized.

Carmen Sánchez-Guevara Sánchez, Miguel Núñez Peiró, F. Javier Neila González

Analysis of the Influence of Variables Linked to the Building and Its Urban Context on the Passive Energy Performance of Residential Stocks

Numerous aspects influence the passive[aut]Ruá, Mª José energy performance of residential stocks. Besides building characteristics, urban planning is considered a key factor. This study analyses the influence of five covariates on both the building scale [shape factor (S/V), year of constructionConstruction (Y)] and the urban scale [urban block (UB), street H/W ratio, and orientation (O)] on two response variables that assess the passive energy performance of residential stocks: energy demandEnergy demand for cooling (EDc) and for heating (EDh). By modelling the energy performance of a set of buildings in a neighbourhood of Castellón de la Plana (Spain) by conducting dynamic simulation with the EnergyPlus software, values for response variables can be obtained. Prediction models for response variables have been previously developed by considering a bottom-up approach and a multivariate analysis based on the Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA)Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) methodology. The statistical analysis allowed the order of covariates to be found by level of significance: S/V, Y, H/W, UB and O. Despite the greater significance of building aspects, urban aspects also acquire notable relevance. Based on the results obtained herein, a set of design strategies is established and a new urban layout is proposed. The energy assessmentAssessment of the new urban layout concludes that 57.12% of savings in energy demand can be made compared to the actual energy demand in the existing neighbourhood.

Marta Braulio-Gonzalo, Mª José Ruá Aguilar, Mª Dolores Bovea Edo

Typological Analysis of H-Plan Social Housing Blocks Built in Spain Between 1957 and 1981

One[aut]Guajardo, Alfonso of the main challenges that Spanish cities will need to address in the near future is the regeneration of social housingSocial housing estates that were built during the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s. One of the causes of this obsolescenceObsolescence is the maladjustment between the housing typologies and the needs of contemporary societySociety. The aim of this research is to shed new light on these typologies, in order to enable a more efficient regeneration. A total of 44 blocks built in Spain between 1957 and 1981 have been analyzed. This research intends to establish a characterization of the H-plan social housing block type that can be a reference for future regenerative initiatives.

Alfonso Guajardo

Model to Integrate Resilience and Sustainability into Urban Planning

The[aut]Tumini, Irinaadaptation to changes[aut]Baeriswyl Rada, Sergio caused by natural events, passes from[aut]Arriagada, CarolinasustainabilitySustainability to a transversal and resilient model. However, the ambiguity in the definition of both concepts, can create uncertainties when it comes to proposing concrete actions in the urban setting. The development of synergies between the concepts is a task that is still pending, but one that is key for cities when adapting to future changes. This work proposes clarifying the differences and synergies between the two approaches, evaluating indicatorsIndicators which can act as the basis to integrate the concept of resilience and sustainability in public policies and territorial management tools. The study proposes a theoretical and empirical approach to the problem, identifying an evaluation model which will be apply to a specific case study in the town of Dichato, a coastal city in Chile, that is threatened by risks of different natures. The application to this real case will allow evaluating the applicability of the system of indicators proposed and, allow discussing the results obtained.

Irina Tumini, Carolina Arriagada Sickinger, Sergio Baeriswyl Rada

Opportunity Detection of Empty Architectonical Lands and Their Recycle for a More Sustainable City

In[aut]Carroquino Larraz, Santiago recent times, once the relevance of sostenibility in all productive sectors is accepted, the concept of recycling regains importance. The study of disused buildings existing in the city offers opportunities for more sustainable cities. The present article starts from the hypothesis that the reoccupation and renovation of buildings without use, which could respond to the demand of urban environmentEnvironment, is necessary in a more sustainable city. To that end, the need of putting to use existing buildings will be justified in the first place, in order to make use of the energy embodied in them and their benefits for urban revitalisation. Subsequently, the existing parameterized mapping tools will be analysed under the values of vulnerability and accessibility to urban facilities in the case of the city of Zaragoza. At last, conclusions will be drawn from the application of such tools in the analyse of empty spaces and needs. The investigation aims to search spots of opportunity where recycling empty architectonical lands can provide added value, acting aware of the sustainability demand and proposing an architecture for users.

Santiago Carroquino Larraz

The Arrabal of Alcázar viejo from Cordoba: Urban, Hereditary and Sustainable Regeneration of the Historic City Centre

Building sustainably begins from planning. Urban regenerationUrban regeneration of our old city centres requires finding a functional balance between residential and touristic areas, especially between them and the rest of the city. In order to build public facilities or housings in a sustainable way aiming at repopulating them, municipal ordinances are needed. They shouldn’t evoke idyllic images that create an attractive and touristic reality that never existed. Repopulation, tourismTourism and heritable identity have to walk hand in hand thanks to the planning. My thesis focuses on an arrabal (historical suburb of 13th century) called Alcázar viejo in Cordoba, where traditional houses are still in use. Each ancient house (casa patio), which count with a popular courtyardCourtyard, used to be the home of several families. Nowadays these structures are owned by a single family. After being recently declared “Intangible HeritageHeritage of Humanity” by UNESCO, the tangible value of them has been raised, resulting in such an increase in the tourism that the residential use is becoming endangered. Current Cordoba’s Historic CityCity Centre Protection Special Plan (PEPCH) lays down an only ordinance regarding traditional casa patio for all this area. This rule is breaking arrabal’s popularPopular identity and makes it difficult to repopulate it. This is a problem to build eco-efficientEco-Efficient and sustainable constructionsConstruction. The Plan pretends to impose an historical image not adapted to the society’s demands. So here I expect to propose improvements for a sustainable regeneration of the arrabal, especially regarding the planning, balancing it with tourism and heritage identity.

Rafael Cabello Montoro

An Approach to Daylight Contrast Assessment in Mediterranean Urban Environments

Visual environment in Mediterranean countries is full of contrasts. The vertical position of the sun as well as the frequent clear sky condition shape an urban environment defined by surfaces flooded by the sun and in the shade, which causes a high contrast, also between interior and exterior spaces. It is paradoxical that, in latitudes where the amount of natural light available is clearly over demand, the design of interior lighting has to cope with this situation using high levels of artificial light. If sustainable criteria are aimed to be introduced in lighting design, it is important to know the lit environment outside and the contrast with the interior of the building. With this aim, an analysis implemented in a specific case of study was outlined. The results highlight the existing contrast between inside and outside in a specific Mediterranean urban environment, and lay the foundations for further studies.

Judit Lopez-Besora, Helena Coch, Antonio Isalgue

Architecture and Society

Frontmatter

Heritage and Community Space as Contemporary Housing Project Matters. Neighbors Courtyards

Relationship spaces, both public and private, are places not explicitly covered by the existing programs of daily needs; however they are areas for spontaneous events and activities that mark the life and relationships of people who dwell in buildings. Although they have the right to intervene in the decision-making, they actually remain the forgotten ones of residential architecture. We have to look back to those spaces and the potential users because the ultimate goal is to inhabit the home. It is necessary to raise the review and reactivate some concepts about the habitat, to make understandable the living spaces for those who live in them and to study the housing sociability. It is also a necessity to design flexible and transformable dwellings in order to generate real coexistence adapted to the changes of the rhythms of life and new family structures. Currently, the different population demands flexible life and relationships, as well as leisure and meeting spaces that encourage coexistence. There has been a progressive shift of the center of gravity from the home to the community, and the housing will reflect these social trends. That’s why in this research, an approach to contemporary housing is carried out from the ways of living and appropriation of space, studying how the probability of change in housing can alter habitat practices, and more specifically the use of the domestic space, addressing this issue from the architectural project, in order to respond with other housing options for the community to identify with.

María del Carmen Martínez-Quesada

Restoration of Pier-Dock of Clevedon. An Example of Involvement of Society in Defense of the Cultural Heritage

The city of Clevedon, located on the coast of the Bristol Canal, in the south-west of England, is a town that still keeps most of its traditional buildings and, those include, the pier-dock of Clevedon, which is considered nowadays the most beautiful and important example of British pier of the twentieth century that still remains standing. In the year 1970, the local council decided to repair the pier as a local attraction but due to an inadequate load test, a porch of the dock collapsed and the pier remained closed for years until, finally, the city council decided to tear it down. The massive popular response in favor of conservation, transcended the national press, and the British administration on heritage itself, which regarded him as a protected building “Grade I” Monument of Exceptional Interest and forbade its demolition. A reconstruction project of the pier was presented in 1980 and in 1992 the works were completed. The renovated pier opened with a popular party attended by the people of Clevedon dressed in Victorian costumes in an act that symbolized the triumph of perseverance in the service of conservation of a building with historical and cultural interest that today looks at its splendor and is a model for action in defense of industrial architectural heritage.

Concepción González-García de Velasco, Andrés Agudo Martínez, Miguel González Vilchez

The Empathic City. Towards a New Model of Urban Sociability

The city[aut]Jiménez-López, Isabel is a physical[aut]Molina-Huelva, Martaand[aut]Barrios-Padura, Ángela social constructionConstruction made by man, which affects the daily life of citizens and therefore has become the main focus of social and human relations, able to respond to their needs and ensure a better life quality. That is why it is necessary to analyze and study the habitabilityHabitability and quality of life in urban contexts as a paradigm and reference for the development of social and collective life through the public spacePublic space and the urban fabric. The research seeks to create a methodology for the qualitative analysis of the public space through the research-action that will develop the DEU tool (DiagnosisDiagnosis of Urban Empathy Urban).

Isabel Jiménez-López, Angela Barrios-Padura, Marta Molina-Huelva

Sustainable Renovation of Buildings and Neighbourhoods

Frontmatter

(Re)Programa. Architectural Rehabilitation Incorporating Sustainability Criteria in an Andalusia Neighborhood

Between the years 2013–2015, members[aut]Gómez de Terreros Guardiola, Pedroof the research[aut]Blandón González, Begoña group TEP 954 InFact, worked on a I + D contract awarded by the Department of Public Works of the Government of Andalusia, studying the needs for intervention in the Andalusian buildings from the 40s with the aim of ensuring “active ageing” and “at home”. The research proposes a new urban model which ensures that people can stay in their neighborhoods until the end of their days, from projects focused on standards comfortComfort requirements, energy saving and environmental sustainabilitySustainability to management under socioeconomic criteria. A diagnosisDiagnosis of the building state of conservation and a testing of the degree of fulfillment the architectural requirements were performed according to Law 8/2013 guidelines. Regarding the urban livability, the weaknesses identified in the Building Evaluation ReportEvaluation report (IEE) and the need to prioritize adjusted performances to socioeconomic characteristics of neighborhoods, promoted a critical review and the development of new diagnosis tools. These tools will allow make decisions that ensure the accessibility and the use of friendly spaces with elderly promoting active ageing. Among the conclusions, the clear deficiencies in the thermal behavior of the envelope, but above all accessibility of buildings, have highlighted the need for urgent intervention. In this article the results obtained in relation to the supervision of the basic safety requirements of use and accessibility, from new Inspection Sheets considered as a tool for development and improvement is exposed.

Begoña Blandón-González, Pedro Gómez de Terreros-Guardiola, Angela Barrios-Padura, Marta Molina-Huelva

Steps Towards the Integration of Regeneration Processes Obsolete Buildings Envelope Spanish in the Paradigm of Sustainable Development

The[aut]Mercader Moyano, María del Pilaraim[aut]Ramos Martín, Manuel of the following communication is to carry out a short review of those regulatory and legislative aspects that limit the intervention on the envelope of our buildings on energy rehabilitationEnergy rehabilitation through improvements on the envelope of buildings; determine the international scene regarding the evaluation of sustainability in rehabilitation and establish a set of conclusions. Thus this article will be divided into three thematic sections: (1) “Climate changeClimate change, greenhouse gases and sustainable development”, where the connection of political and institutional interest in reducing GHG emissions with measures established European and Spanish level, with particular emphasis on mechanisms and tools for determining energy efficiencyEnergy Efficiency; (2) “The sustainability assessmentAssessment of buildings”, carried out a review of these assessment tools and/or certification of sustainability, as well as those based on an environmental study, and sometimes economic, policy through LCA and adaptations of this methodology to the complex reality of the buildings; and (3) “Energy efficiency and sustainable constructionConstruction in the rehabilitation of buildings” section in which conclusions are drawn about the integration of energy rehabilitation processes within the paradigm of sustainable developmentSustainable development and its potential implementation in BIMBuilding Information Modelling (BIM) tools.

Manuel Ramos Martín, Pilar Mercader-Moyano

From Recovery Constructively Towards the Social Reactivation. The Integrated Knowledge of Traditional Architecture as a Sustainable Strategy

Relational[aut]Domínguez Ruiz, Victoria interest between Traditional ArchitectureArchitecture and the current society offers a landscape full of possibilities for searching of local development strategies in sustainability. Decision-making in the area of Conservation, Protection or Urban integration, as well as, in ConstructionConstruction, proposals of right solutions or, in the other hand, adapting new uses for obsolete parts, must pass obligatorily by the integrated knowledge of the built heritageBuilt heritage and their environmentEnvironment. In this article we think about improving the understanding of some small hydraulic constructions—that have nowadays become obsolete and in a state of considerable deterioration—as part of a complex system past, integrating research methodologies, teaching and practice of architecture. The study of features such as the materiality, the functional typology, passive solutions of use of energy or the traditional construction techniques, is proposed as a vehicle for the knowledge for future policies of intervention, conservation and ultimately to their sociocultural reactivation. The article integrates various disciplinary approaches and, with the use of an inclusive analysis tool such as Arc GISGeographic Information System (GIS), arises, in the architectural scale, the analysis of the configuration of the spaces, techniques and construction materials employees. At the territorial level there are characterized things such as: the accesses and enclaves of each architectural object, the connections with the centres of population or the proximity to archaeological remains (among others). In social aspects, we identify new possible uses for these obsolete architectures, as well as the detection of susceptible areas to the recovery of its built heritageBuilt heritage. The methodology developed allows a systematized identification of this heritageHeritage at risk at inventory data sheets that we created. It achieves a first basis for preservation actions or intervention, transferable to other cases of architecture of local traditionTradition. To include the cultural heritage built within the assessmentAssessment procedures for sustainableSustainable development, research necessarily implies the consideration of this as part of the common heritage of a place, which must be protected by the policies of safeguarding, disclosed by the educational institutions and known for generations to come.

Victoria Domínguez Ruiz

Energy Retrofitting and Social Housing Instrumentation Attending Passive Criteria. Case Study in Winter

ThisGomez Melgar, Sergio paper analyzesAndújar Jose Manuel the conditions of interior comfortComfort in passive houses in winter, depending on the daily variation of indoor air temperature under sealed envelope conditions. Shows, based on data obtained by real-time instrumentation of the rehabilitated housing, that is possible to achieve comfort conditions compatible with energy povertyEnergy poverty situations in winter, without active cooling systems. Proposes the adaptation of passivhausPassivHaus standard for energy rehabilitationEnergy rehabilitation of existing buildings, focusing actions on improving the quality and continuity of the thermal envelope, minimizing air infiltration and ensuring indoor air quality by installing an air ventilation system with double flow heat recovery.

S. G. Melgar, J. M. Andújar, M. A. Bohórquez

Assessment Method of Urban Intervention in Social Housing Developments: The Rehabilitation of Caño Roto (Madrid) Case Study

This[aut]Cervero Sánchez, Noelia paper presents the results of wider research that outlines a method used to assess the condition of the state and interventions in social housing developments built in Spain between 1939 and 1976. The method is applied to a case study: the rehabilitation of the Caño Roto (Madrid) social housing project. This urban intervention assessmentAssessment model condenses items or key points to determine the condition of the housing developments just before an intervention commences, the variables that define the intervention and the effects it will have. The superposition of problems affecting these areas both physically, conceptually and socially, mean that it is essential to perform an assessment when an integrated urban regenerationUrban regeneration is implemented. Therefore, to ascertain the degree to which an intervention is sustainableSustainable, urban planning, environmental, constructionConstruction, socio-economic, political and management factors are taken into account. The verification of the assessment method in this case study is considered the beginning of its application to all types of similar operations in other cities.

Noelia Cervero Sánchez

Environmental Assessment and Energy Certification for the Sustainable Restoration of a Traditional Residential Building

This[aut]López-Alonso, Silviapaper presents[aut]Morales-Conde, Mª Jesúsa study[aut]Pérez Gálvez, Filomenaof[aut]Rubio-de Hita, Palomaa residential[aut]Rodríguez-Liñán, Carmen building located in the historical centre of the city of Seville, Spain. It is a typical example of the domestic architectureArchitecture that dates from the 17th to 19th centuries. Two restoration proposals (Model B and C) were analysed from an eco-efficiencyEfficiency and sustainability perspective. Model B was executed by the architects in strict compliance with planning rules, whereas Model C is an alternative restoration plan proposed by the authors, in which sustainabilitySustainability and eco-efficiency criteria are guided by the choice of suitable materials and constructionConstruction solutions. In both cases, we carried out a study of the materials and an energy survey by quantifying the KgCO2/m2 emissions. The results show that the materials and the construction solutions applied in Model C reduce KgCO2/m2 emissions from 21.9 to 14.4, thus raising the building’s certification level from E to D. In conclusion, any restoration project must be seen as an opportunity to make use of traditional building systems and to promote a new construction model with sustainability as the centrepiece of the architectural refurbishment.

Carmen Rodríguez-Liñán, Mª Jesús Morales-Conde, Filomena Pérez-Gálvez, Paloma Rubio-de Hita, Silvia López-Alonso

Social Rent Housing Refurbishment Demonstrator of LIFE Project “New4Old” (LIFE10 ENV/ES/439)

This[aut]de Luxán, Margaritaecoefficient[aut]Gómez, Gloria renovation of two buildings[aut]Román, Emilia of social housingSocial housing for rent is located in the historic center of Zaragoza and has been carried out among 2013 and 2015. It emerges from the conclusions and strategies developed for the NewSolutions4OldHousingHousing project (LIFE10 ENV/ES/439), funded by the European Commission. The general objective of LIFE project is to define the most appropriate methodology for the rehabilitationRehabilitation of social housing with criteria of energy and environmental sustainability and application of innovative technologies to combat climate changeClimate change. The application of passive strategiesPassive strategies in the refurbishmentRefurbishment of these Demonstrator Buildings has helped to achieve thermal and lighting comfortComfort with less energy-consumption, with savings above 70% in demand and about 25% in real consumption. These data are particularly relevant when the residents are renters with very limited incomes, vulnerable to problems such as energy povertyEnergy poverty. Therefore, the proposed action serves to improve the passive behaviour of the building and to achieve greater thermal and lighting comfort and liability without increasing the financial costs related to energy consumption.

Emilia Román, Gloria Gómez, Margarita de Luxán

Using Mappable Indicators for Prioritizing the Refurbishment of Social Housing. A Case Study of Zaragoza (Spain)

Nowadays[aut]López-Mesa, Belindacities[aut]Monzón, Marta include degraded, or even vulnerable, areas that need public efforts to be made to reintegrate them into the city. These areas contain dwellings that are now longer attractive for the market, and a selective depopulation phenomenon occurs that can expose their inhabitants to more than probable social exclusion. In addition, residential buildings accumulate physical degradation, like high energy consumption, lack of accessibility or exterior noise. Some of these areas are social housingSocial housing estates built during Spain´s postwar period, which are currently embedded in cities, but are often not properly integrated into them. Public economic investment should focus on the most disadvantaged buildings. Therefore, collecting data about diagnosing the building sector is a priority for Public Authorities [1]. This communication conducts a study on existing mappable indicatorsIndicators for prioritizing the refurbishmentRefurbishment of social housing estates in the Spanish city of Zaragoza and for diagnosing any possible gaps in these indicators.

Marta Monzón, Belinda López-Mesa

Minimizing the Consumption of Material Resources

Frontmatter

Assessment of the Relationship Between Diameter and Tensile Strength of Piassaba (Aphandra natalia) Fibers

SustainableSustainable development of materials is a triangle between the ecological, economic[aut]Balcázar, Cristian and social that aims to reduce the extraction and use of conventional materials, through the use of regenerable natural materials that cause minimal impact or like the incorporation of waste and by-products that can be recycledRecycled. Natural fibers have characteristics of technical and economic solution, an important source for its use are the palms, considered one of the most economically important plants group. Of this variety, piassabaPiassaba is the name of the hard fibers brown, considered as a non-timber forest product, which can be obtained from three species of palm: Leopoldinia piassaba Wallace, Attalea funifera andAphandra nataliaAphandra natalia. Piassaba of Aphandra natalia displays mechanical properties similar to Leopoldinia piassaba and Attalea Funifera already tested of composite materialsComposite materials. Like any other natural fiber, the Aphandra natalia fibers have different diameters even in each fiber. In several lignocellulosic fibers has been found that the dimension of the diameter it affect value of the tensile strengthTensile strength. In this work a Weibull analysisWeibull analysis of sisal fibers tensile strength was performed to find a correlation with the diameter. It was determined that a smaller diameter of the largest fiber tensile strength, indicating a hyperbolic equation between average strength and diameter.

Cristian Balcázar-Arciniega, Francisco Hernández-Olivares

Selection of Criteria for the Systematization of Technologies for a Sustainable Urban Water Cycle Management

The[aut]Prieto-Thomas, Ana need to enhance research on hydric resources management in our cities in order to address the increasing unsustainabilitySustainability of traditional urban models developed along the past decades in the Mediterranean region is already a fact, as confirmed by multiple national and international institutions and projects—such as the European SWITCH Project Managing Water for theCityCityof the Future (2006–2011) that carries out a deep comparative study between the conventional Urban Water Cycle management and the new view of this management from a holistic perspective. Proceeding from this need, the implementation of hydro-efficient strategies and technologies in inhabited spaces, that should always be based on Sustainability, is a priority as well as their approach, on an urgent basis, to the stakeholders involved in urban planning. With a view to fulfill this last aim, the systematization of the information presently available on those strategies and technologies is considered of great interest in order to facilitate a better knowledge of them to the abovementioned technical actors and, thus, increases the chances of their implementation, on a real level, in architectural and urban projects in our settlements. Finally, in order to increase the effectiveness of this action, a careful analysis and selection of the criteria used for such systematization has been judged fundamental. For that reason, this issue has already been addressed by the author in previous works, initially with the multidisciplinary research team Aqua-Riba (2013-2015) and subsequently on an individual basis (Prieto-Thomas 2015).

Ana Prieto-Thomas

Study of Fine Mortar Powder from Different Waste Sources for Recycled Concrete Production

Searching[aut]Hernández Olivares, Francisco new options to exploit crushing concrete[aut]Aguirre Maldonado, EduardowasteConcrete waste or recycledRecycled mortar powder fines (RMF) has lead the development of new processes for recycling concrete. By heat treatments allow reincorporates concrete waste material into new concrete manufacturing process. The current research determines chemical composition of burned recycled mortar powder fines (BRMF) obtained from different sources. Also, this experimental research, analyzes how BRMF in addition to cement, affects to compressive strengthCompressive strength of composite. Using a 30% BRMF ratio for replacing Ordinary Portland CementCement (OPC), the study determined that the direct use of this material, decreases compressive strength of composite, reaching 21–54% of normal strength in most specimens. Based in Ca/Si ratio study, is observed how compressive strength is related to Ca/Si balance of the mixture, where the specimens with Ca/Si higher radio reach at 72% of normal compressive strength, compared to mixtures using only cement. Thus, experimental study noticed that the main criterion for assessing the use of RMF is the concentration of CaO, there are no significant differences between RFM from concrete or mortar prepared and put in work, unlike waste or special premixed mortars.

Eduardo Aguirre-Maldonado, Francisco Hernández-Olivares

Concrete Sustainable Light and of High Performance

The[aut]Hidalgo, Pilarresearch[aut]Miñano, Isabelis born[aut]Parra, Carlos J.of the[aut]Benito, Francisco J. problematic environmental that is derived of the production, storage and generation in large quantities daily of waste industrial. This is proposed re-use of by-products plastics, wood and sludge of the paper industry for the manufacture of high performanceHigh performance (HP)-recycled concrete and lightweight concreteLightweight concrete (ECOHUL). In addition nanomolecules of silica and active additions (fly ash) are used to increase the durability of the concretes. The main advantages of this new material are its low density, making it ideal for its function in areas seismic and a high impermeability. The use of aggregates light recycledRecycled varies substantially the density of them concretes and their resistance to compression (of form practically linear). However, and of form very positive, is has found that the dosages taken, with and without waste, is have behaved of form similar in them trials of durability-chlorides, carbonation and absorption capillary-highlighting the small carbonation, and low penetrations of chlorides (minor of 1 cm) in all them concretes studied.

Isabel Miñano, Francisco J. Benito, Carlos J. Parra, Pilar Hidalgo

Sustainable Engineering

Frontmatter

Project AURA: Sustainable Social Housing

The[aut]Cordero, SebastiánProyecto[aut]Herrera, RafaelAura[aut]López-Escamilla, Álvarostarts[aut]Pineda, Palomawith[aut]Roa, Jorge the aim of developing a research line focused on sustainable social housingSocial housing. That research is developed within the School of ArchitectureArchitecture of the Universidad de Sevilla, in general, and in the research group HUM-965_TRAnSHUMANCIAS in particular. The invitation received to participate in the competition of sustainable architecture “Solar Decathlon Latin America & Caribbean 2015” (Bonilla in Plataforma Arquitectura, 2015) becomes the perfect platform to materialize in a building, the work developed by the research team. In the proposal also participate researchers from other groups, both of the University of Seville and abroad. In this edition, the premises that traditionally were the fundamentals of this competition among Universities around the world, and that guided teams in search of an eco-efficientEco-Efficient prototype, change. The new focus is the reflection on sustainabilitySustainability under well-defined boundary conditions and the location: the tropical climateClimateenvironmentEnvironment and the problematic of social housing and urban growth in the city of Cali. In this paper, the strategy for the building characterization as well as the planning of the building process is described.

Rafael Herrera, Paloma Pineda, Jorge Roa, Sebastián Cordero, Álvaro López-Escamilla

Structural Refurbishment Projects. The Sustainability of Reinforcements Using Composite Materials

Repair[aut]González, Victoriano works of reinforced concrete structures are complex, expensive, and with a strong impact on the environmentEnvironment. Repair solutions with composite materialsComposite materials, FRP (Fibre Reinforced Polymer), are the most efficient, if we consider mechanical characteristics and lightness. To assess its sustainability it is necessary to analyze this type of structural rehabilitationRehabilitation operations from environmental and economic criteria, but mainly social, considering people living in buildings and using infrastructure, as well as workers. Through a documentary work in three Andalusian companies: Vorsevi, Labrum and Azul Construcción, about different investigations, studies and works of carbon fiber reinforcements CFRP (Carbon FibreCarbon fibre Reinforced Polymer), an analysis of the circumstances and the complexity of works, environmental impacts and over citizen, and issues related to quality controlQuality control to ensure proper operation, durability, and long-term impacts amortization, was developed. It is included a comparative analysis between CFRP reinforcements and other most commonly reinforcements used in constructionConstruction.

Victoriano González, Angela Barrios-Padura, Marta Molina-Huelva

Rethinking Ephemeral Architecture. Advanced Geometry for Citizen-Managed Spaces

In recent[aut]López-Martínez, Aliciayears[aut]Martín-Mariscal, Amanda there have been a high amount of citizen initiatives that address the complex problems of the contemporary city. There are empty or disused spaces that have been reused for urban gardens, for social use, to encourage integration and civic activities activation, etc. Traditional architectural processes do not provide realistic solutions to these initiatives that, along with limited financial resources, have led to the emergence of architecturesArchitecture and self-constructed facilities, almost as an emergency mode, without necessary planning, media and constructive knowledge. The democratization of technology, thanks to laboratories of digital production, offers new opportunities for the development of a lightweight, flexible and low impact architecture, very according to the needs of citizens’ initiatives that naturally arise in our cities. The new existing scenario contemplates the figure of the architect, or engineer, not only as an agent of the market, but as a professional able to propose efficient solutions to problems from within, bringing their specific knowledge and serving as bridges between the new technological solutions and the challenges of society. Providing, through knowledge in advanced geometry, parametric design and digital manufacturing, tools for the development of new architectural mechanisms required in citizen-managed spaces.

Andrés Martín-Pastor, Amanda Martín-Mariscal, Alicia López-Martínez

NESS®, an Alternative System to Double Strand of Hot Water that Saves Water and Energy

The[aut]Dueñas Ladrón de Guevara, Eduardo J.workLadrón de Guevara Muñoz, M. Carmenpresented[aut]Martín Martínez, Luishere[aut]Ortega Ramírez, Marcos aims to establish the main differences between two water saving systems: the double strand of hot water and an alternative solution that is able to recirculate all water normally wasted while waiting for hot water but employing conventional cold and hot water pipes installed at any building. This alternative system enables saving the same amount of water than the double strand of hot water, that is to say, all the cold water stored in the hot water pipe after a while without using hot water. This amount rises to approximately 27% of water usage in housing. The main difference with regard to the double strand of hot water is the energy consumption required to make each system work: while NESS® works under the user’s demand, the double strand of hot water is continuously or periodically working in order to keep the water over a certain temperature around 50 °C, whether there is hot water demand or not. NESS® is able to generate significant energy savings with regard to double strand of hot water, by employing 35% of the energy required by the second. In addition, NESS® presents various enhancing properties for both, professionals and those interested in sustainabilitySustainability such as its cost reduced to half the installation cost of double strand system or a third of the installation time.

M. Carmen Ladrón de Guevara Muñoz, Eduardo J. Dueñas Ladrón de Guevara, Marcos Ortega Rodríguez, Luis Martín Martínez

Vegetation as a Design Element to Recover Green Areas in Settlements Developed on Contaminated Soils

Some[aut]Contreras Lopez, Christhopher mining cities in Mexico have recently undergone a rapid demographic expansion which has led to its urban spots expand to places where there are deposits of mining waste and occupy these places for human settlement. The contaminated soils of Pachuca, Hidalgo, induce that in these places cannot develop the vegetation due the changes of physical and chemical parameters of soil. These problems induce to these places to become in inhospitable places, without quality and isolated, besides to cause problems in human health. Through a factorial experiment we tested seven plant species against four types of contaminated soil brought from mining city of Pachuca, Hidalgo, these contaminated soils have been improved with different concentrations of topsoil. We made studies about physical and chemical properties of soil, besides we measure three variable of the development of vegetationVegetation month by month: height, coverage and vigor. We tested seven plants and four of them have low variation in their development and they can be established on contaminated soils. The plant palettePlant palette we tested on a factorial experiment satisfies an environmental and aesthetic purpose because the plants we proposed are ornamental plants and they can be used to design greenGreen areas areas. The plant palette can offer habitabilityHabitability in the inhospitable places in settlements developed on contaminated soils and if we used the plant palette, it can offer technical data to choose the plants to design green areasGreen areas on contaminated soils.

Christhopher Contreras Lopez

Energy Efficiency

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Update of the Urban Heat Island of Madrid and Its Influence on the Building’s Energy Simulation

Despite great advances on building energy evaluation, available climateClimate data does not include the effects of the Urban Heat IslandHeat island (UHI). This phenomenon, which increases the temperature in urban areas, is variable in both time and space, and implies an important lack of accuracy when simulating within an urban context. During this research the relevance of the UHI in relation to the dwellings energy performance has been confirmed, as well as the existing barriers to integrate the current UHI representations into the dynamic energy simulationEnergy simulation process. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out an updateUpdate of the existing models, in order to implement it into the energy evaluation process. In this work, as a first stage of the study and based on current techniques of geolocation and the use of Geographic Information SystemsGeographic Information System (GIS) (GIS), it is established a methodology to acquire automatically an update of the UHI through isotherm maps. It is aimed to set up the starting point from which the integration of the UHI into the energy simulation process will happen.

Miguel Núñez Peiró, Carmen Sánchez-Guevara Sánchez, F. Javier Neila González

Thermal Energy Refurbishment of Envelope in Mass Neighbourhood Housing, Located in Semi-arid Climate of Argentina

In order to propose variants for improving the energy performance of the thermal envelope in massive neighborhood housing built in the Gran San Juan -oasis city set in semi-arid climateClimate of Argentina-, a three instances research is carried out, as they are: (a) climate analysis of a “typical year” formed by the average of 10 years, using different methods to determine the most appropriate design strategies for the region; (b) hygrothermal and energy dwelling’s characterization and diagnose, and also of their users, from stationary calculations, measurements and surveys in three witness-years; (c) Micro-Economic Evaluation in the Life Cycle (MEELC) of different selected alternatives, which contribute to greater thermal-energy efficiencyEnergy Efficiency of the housing. To reach this aim, specific procedures and tools were developed and implemented, being useful by similar studies. In the covered period of 14 years (1999–2013), energy consumption for air conditioning increased until 1121%, and the use of hot and cold air conditioning equipments grew by 386%. Building energy savings feasible to obtain vary between 20 and 60% depending on the level of invested capital. While in 1999 and 2006 MEELC indexes were not profitable, currently seems to be a more convenient panorama, because of the energy fluids prices increasing. Results show between 8 and 14 years for amortizations, calculated at an annual rate of 2% in 25 years, and recovery value of 15% of the initial investment.

Irene Blasco Lucas

Method for the Implementation of Active Solar Systems in Hospitals, in the Hospitalization Unit of the Hospital Clínico del Sur, Concepción, Chile

Health facilitiesHealth facilitieshave[aut]García Alvarado, Rodrigocomplex morphologiesComplex morphologieswith[aut]Nope Bernal, Alberto high concentrated energy requirements, therefore, solar power generation integrated in such buildings can be a significant contribution, but its proper implementation requires relating volumetric, demands and technologies. Methods used today to determine solar installations usually do not involve architectural, energy and economic aspects in a single process, which reduces the chances of the designer or consultant to address the implementation in an efficient manner, both in existing buildings, and in the early stages of design. This paper reviews currently suggested procedures to install solar equipment, identifying missing analysis, in order to present a comprehensive methodology in the hospitalization unit of the Hospital Clinico del Sur, Concepción, Chile. This process allowed to detect potentials of the envelope, and to evaluate three combined distributions of thermal and photovoltaic equipment on roof deck; determining an alternative with 131 thermal panels and 196 photovoltaic panels that can satisfy up to 70% of the domestic hot water supply and 91% of lighting, recovering the initial investment at 7.8 years. All of which determines a more complete analysis of the solar implementation, incorporating an assessmentAssessment of the energy performance, collecting surfaces, technical feasibility and economic evaluation that can contribute substantially in the functional needs, and suggest volumes and systems in new hospital buildings with greater active solar possibilities.

Alberto Nope Bernal, Rodrigo García Alvarado, Ariel Bobadilla Moreno

Validation of a Dynamic Simulation of a Classroom HVAC System by Comparison with a Real Model

Schools[aut]Campano, Miguel Angerequire[aut]Pinto, Armando thermal comfortComfort in their classroomsClassrooms, but[aut]Sendra, Juan J. some uncertainty arises as[aut]Acosta, Ignacio how their HVAC systems will actually provide it, especially given their high internal loads and mechanical ventilation diffusion. Thus, it is necessary to resort to computational fluid dynamicsFluid dynamics (CFD)Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for developing predictive models; nevertheless, the reliability of the simulation tool has to be verified, so the main objective of this work is to define and perform the validation process of a thermal dynamic simulation tool by comparison with a real room. A validation protocol has been detailed for dynamic simulation tools, in medium-sized spaces with high internal loads, by comparing with the measured air temperature values of an existing standard classroom, according to ISO 7726:2002. The chosen standard classroom for this comparison belongs to “Eça de Queirós” secondary school of Lisbon (Portugal). To that effect, 80 thermocouple sensors were used for the characterization of its indoor thermal behaviour. A mean bias error (MBE) of 0.21 °C was obtained, with a maximum standard deviation of 0.47 °C, which is under the maximum limit of ±0.5 °C established by this standard. The application of this methodology for validating the Design Builder software proves the reliability of this tool in such type of venues.

Miguel Ángel Campano, Armando Pinto, Ignacio Acosta, Juan J. Sendra

Study on Envelope in Office Buildings Under the Influence of Climate Change in Santiago, Chile

In[aut]Rubio-Bellido, Carlosrecent years[aut]Pérez-Fargallo, Alexisclimate changeClimate changehas[aut]Pulido-Arcas, Jesús A. brought to light a rising interest on its potential impact amongst the various human activities, in which building sector is included. Local climateClimate determines the external conditions that buildings have to adapt to, having a direct influence on their energy demandEnergy demand for heating and cooling. In this context, computer aided simulation provides with handy tools that help in assessing this impact. This research investigates how a change in climate data for future scenarios will affect energy demand in office buildingsOffice buildings in the city of Santiago (Chile). Climate data has been generated for the years 2020, 2050 and 2080, following the acknowledged A2 ‘medium-high’ emissions Greenhouse Gases GHG scenario, according to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC. Predicted energy demand for buildings is calculated by means of an implementation of the calculation procedure of ISO-13790:2008, taking as external conditions the three aforementioned scenarios. Finally, the effect of climate change in the energy demand for office buildings is clarified and then optimized, based on iterations of its envelope and form. As a result, this research clarifies how future climate scenarios will affect energy demand for different types of office buildings and how their shape and enclosure can be optimized to counteract this effect.

Carlos Rubio-Bellido, Alexis Pérez-Fargallo, Jesús A. Pulido-Arcas

Methodology for the Optimisation of Thermal Performance and Daylight Access to the Retrofit of Hospital Rooms in Mediterranean Climate

The[aut]León Rodríguez, Ángel Luisproposal[aut]Pérez Téllez, Juan Diegoof potential[aut]Suárez Medina, Rafael strategies of Energy Conservation Measures for the improvement of the energy performance in hospitals, as established by the European policies of the Horizon 2020 Project, considerably challenges current knowledge and methodology. In this paper, we review state-of-the-art tools applied to energy models validated with onsite measured data, for energy consumption quantification and evaluation of different energy retrofitEnergy retrofit alternatives. The goal of this work is to propose a methodological approach adapted to the specific case of existing hospitals of Andalusia, focusing on the optimisation of the passive systems and thermal envelope against energy, comfortComfort and thermo-economic criteria. This methodology is based on geographic location, typology, constructionConstruction and functional characteristics of hospital buildings; and on the assessmentAssessment of energy performance by means of onsite data collection, monitoringMonitoring, construction and calibrationCalibration of energy models that allows the implementation of energy retrofitEnergy retrofit strategies for the existing hospital stock of the Mediterranean area.

Juan Diego Pérez Téllez, Rafael Suárez Medina, Ángel Luis León Rodríguez

Urban Heat Island of Madrid and Its Influence over Urban Thermal Comfort

This work is part of the activities MODIFICA Project: Predictive model of the energy performance of residential buildings under conditions of urban heat islandHeat island (BIA2013-41732-R). This project is funded by the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through the R + D + i, 2013 program, and the authors are involved in their development, together with the research group Bioclimatic ArchitectureArchitecture in a Sustainable EnvironmentEnvironment—ABIO (UPM). The hypothesis of the project is the fact that the transformation of land for urban growth in the city of Madrid potentiates the effect of the urban heat island (UHI), which modifies substantially in the urban microclimate. The UHI is the result of the gradual replacement of natural surface by the urban area, whose surfaces absorb more solar radiation. This, coupled with other anthropogenic factors, increase the air temperature and cause an increase in local temperature. The consequence is a modification of the urban microclimate that affects to the comfortComfort conditions in urban space and to the energy performance of buildings and, therefore, to the quality of life of the inhabitants.

Emilia Román, Gloria Gómez, Margarita de Luxán

Threshold Values for Energy Loss in Building Façades Using Infrared Thermography

The[aut]Marín García, Davidmain[aut]Moyano Campos, Juan Joséfactor[aut]Rico Delgado, Fernando in energy savings is the thermal[aut]Antón García, Daniel envelope of buildings, where energy losses or gains with the exterior occur. This work proposes a new methodology to detect the most significant sectors in energy transmission through infrared thermographyInfrared thermography and the thermal intensity assessmentAssessment of each opaque area, building element or thermal bridge, taking into account different values of wind speed. Thermal intensityThermal intensity values are then compared with the corresponding thermal transmittance threshold given in the regulations for each country, depending on the climateClimate area. This method provides a specific view of the building elements and of the overall envelope in terms of energy loss using thermal intensity instead of the traditional heat transfer analysis. It thus results in quantitative energy loss through the shell. The main goal of this work is to select building elements or zones of a thermal envelope according to their energy losses in order to avoid an indiscriminate intervention on the opaque parts of envelopes. This research is significant as few studies have analysed global energy losses in buildings, quantitatively evaluating the thermal intensity of all the components of the opaque parts of façades. This study also advances in analysing the influence of different wind speeds in façades in order to assess the thermal behaviour of buildings when quasi-steady condition is lost.

Juan José Moyano Campos, Daniel Antón García, Fernando Rico Delgado, David Marín García

Assessment of the Energy Efficiency of a “Cool Roof” for Passive Cooling. Comparative Study of a Case of Tropical Climate and a Case of Southern Spanish Climate

The[aut]Domínguez Delgado, Antonioaim of this study[aut]Domínguez Torres, Carlos A is to analyze the energy efficiency resulting from the use of a type of Cool RoofCool roofs under climatic conditions operating in Southern Spain and Northern Colombia during the whole year by using typical meteorological monthly data. Specifically, the thermodynamic behaviors of a Cool Roof and a standard roof are compared in two climatic and geographical frameworks that might suggest the use of this kind of roofs: the Mediterranean climateClimate in Southern Spain and the Tropical Equatorial climate in Northern Colombia. Cool RoofsCool roofs are an affordable technology because the materials used are simple and easily available, such as paints, tiles and membranes and they provide a great rate of return as its use can significantly reduce cooling energy costs during the summer period in South European areas or even during the whole year in Tropical Climatic areas. From the energy performance analysis made for the considered roofs, that is, the Cool RoofCool roofs and a roof with a external layer of ceramic tiles, we conclude that in the case of Southern Spain the energy savings achieved during the hot season are counterbalanced by an increase of the heating charge in the cold season, although the global energy balance is favorable for the Cool Roof. In the case of the considered equatorial climate, the global energy balance is clearly favorable for the Cool RoofCool roofs since it achieves a substantial reduction in energy consumption when compared to the standard ceramic tiles roof.

Carlos A. Domínguez Torres, Antonio Domínguez Delgado

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