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Über dieses Buch

Achieving the goals and objectives of sustainable development requires better information about the consequences of proposed actions. Partial information accounts for many failed efforts in the past. The financial implications for the proponent of the projects have often been more thoroughly analyzed than the implications for other actors. The impacts on biological diversity, or on the social fabric of local communities, have often been ignored. Decisi- makers may also focus more on the short-term consequences instead of long- term impacts, creating negative unintended consequences. It is clear that better decision-making processes are needed. Making better decisions requires identifying, obtaining, synthesizing and acting on larger and more diverse data sets, including information that has previously been overlooked in development decisions. The good news is that better processes are being developed and are becoming available. If the goal is to reach decisions that are broadly understood and accepted, affected communities need to be consulted. Early public participation in defining problems is a prerequisite to effective decision-making. There is no universal formula or checklist of information applicable to every proposed project. The scope of information required should not be determined from the start by small cadres of experts. It is unlikely that any individual or small group processes all of the expertise to achieve the kind of profound int- disciplinary synthesis that is needed.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
The life cycle analogy originates from biology. The life of an individual (higher) animal begins with conception — the fertilization of the egg — and proceeds through a series of stages including growth of the foetus in the womb, birth, infancy, adolescence, maturity, senescence and death. For most purposes the briefer characterization ‘from cradle to grave’ suffices (in biology), although in the present study we allow also for reincarnation (recycling). In the case of a metal such as copper one automatically thinks of the ‘cradle’ as the mine and the ‘grave’ as the ultimate disposal site, whether in a landfill or a sediment. Recycling is analogous to reincarnation, in the sense that it is the beginning of a second life.
Robert U. Ayres, Leslie W. Ayres, Ingrid Råde

Chapter 2. Copper: Sources and Supply

Abstract
Copper has atomic number 29, belongs to the same group (1B) as silver and gold, and shares some of their properties, including color, high electrical and thermal conductivity, high ductility (making it easy to draw into wire) and high malleability. Copper is second only to silver in electrical and thermal conductivity, and is significantly better than the third and fourth highest metals in both categories (gold and aluminum, respectively). Copper is also relatively corrosion resistant, although it does oxidize slowly in air. It has a high melting point (1083 C), with specific heat of 0.39 kJ/kg per degree C, and its melting heat is 343 kJ/kg, whence the theoretical heat requirement for melting pure copper is less than for competing metals such as iron and aluminum. It has a very high boiling point (2595 C) and has a very low tendency to fume, as compared to other non-ferrous metals such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc.
Robert U. Ayres, Leslie W. Ayres, Ingrid Råde

Chapter 3. Copper: Demand and Disposition

Abstract
As noted already in the historical introduction, the modern industrial era began with the advent of the electric telegraph and the associated use of copper wire. Telegraph lines and undersea cables were the initial users, followed in the 1880s by electric power generating and distribution systems, which grew even more rapidly.
Robert U. Ayres, Leslie W. Ayres, Ingrid Råde

Chapter 4. Lead, Zinc and Other Byproduct Metals

Abstract
Just as metals are rarely found in pure form, the same is true of minerals. Moreover, certain combinations are apparently preferred by nature. That is to say, certain minerals tend to be found together or in each other’s ores. This is especially true of the sulfide ores of heavy metals. Lead and zinc (and a number of other metals, discussed in this chapter) are almost invariably found in copper ores (in trace amounts, to be sure) and conversely. Most lead mines also produce zinc, and conversely. Molybdenum, nickel and cobalt are also commonly found with copper, though copper is generally a byproduct of these metals and not the primary product.
Robert U. Ayres, Leslie W. Ayres, Ingrid Råde

Chapter 5. The Future of Recycling

Abstract
It is well-known that the most (only) dynamic and profitable sector of the US steel industry is the so-called ‘mini-mills’ — exemplified by Nucor. These companies are essentially scrap processors and recyclers. At first they produced mainly rather low grades of steel products from iron and steel scrap. It is authoritatively estimated that 95 percent of the iron and steel embodied in products eventually returns as old scrap (Sibley et al. 1995). In recent years the recycling technology has improved significantly, and with it the quality of the products and the range of products in which recycled steel can be used. In the long run, as steel recycling technology improves further and global demand approaches saturation, it would seem that the so-called ‘integrated’ iron and steel producers, who start from iron ore, are facing gradual extinction, at least in the industrialized countries.
Robert U. Ayres, Leslie W. Ayres, Ingrid Råde

Chapter 6. Conclusions and Questions

Abstract
In this section we note the major conclusions and implications of the study, without attempting to summarize each chapter in detail. We consider long term supply, recovery technology, usage (and possible substitutes), recycling and environmental impact, in that order.
Robert U. Ayres, Leslie W. Ayres, Ingrid Råde

Backmatter

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