Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Everyone knows that comics—or, at least, properties based on them—are big business today. But, like creative labor in general, the work behind this success is often misunderstood by the general public and even by many dedicated comics readers. The average fan of North American comics, for instance, probably knows that Siegel and Shuster, Jack Kirby and other writers and artists were denied—or signed away for significantly less than their value—ownership of characters that have since generated billions of dollars for media conglomerates. They may know that some creators have ended up in penury, since the freelance model of work does not provide health insurance or pensions. But, then again, they may also know that some creators (John Byrne or the Image founders, say) made millions in royalties, and that others successfully licensed their creations for television, film and merchandising. Similarly, many fans probably have ideas about what the day-to-day working life of a comics creator is like, but the accuracy of these ideas varies widely. Do they imagine spending hours with pencil and brush at a drawing table, or working on a Wacom tablet with Photoshop or Manga Studio? Do they think of attending editorial summits and postconvention parties, or of frantically photocopying, folding and stapling minicomics late into the night?
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Asselin, Janelle. 2014. How Big of a Problem Is Harassment at Comic Conventions? Very Big. Bitch Media, July 22. http://bitchmagazine.org/post/how-big-a-problem-is-harassment-at-comic-conventions-very-big-survey-sdcc-emerald-city-cosplay-consent
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Booth, John. 2014. Comic Book Artists: Next Generation—A Visit to The RAID Studio. GeekDad (blog), November 3. http://geekdad.com/2014/11/comic-book-artists-next-generation/
Brienza, Casey. 2010. Producing Comics Culture: A Sociological Approach to the Study of Comics. Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics 1(2): 105–119. CrossRef
Caldwell, John Thornton. 2008. Production Culture: Industrial Reflexivity and Critical Practice in Film and Television. Durham: Duke University Press. CrossRef
Campbell, Miranda. 2013. Out of the Basement: Youth Cultural Production in Practice and in Policy. Kingston and Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.
Deuze, Mark. 2014. Work in the Media. Media Industries 1(2): 1–4.
Farmer, Clark. 2006. Comic Book Color and the Digital Revolution. International Journal of Comic Art 8(2): 330–346.
Foucault, Michel. 1977. What Is an Author? In Language, Counter-Memory, Practice: Selected Essays and Interviews, ed. Donald F. Bouchard, 113–138. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Hatfield, Charles. 2011. Hand of Fire: The Comics Art of Jack Kirby. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. CrossRef
Kalleberg, Arne L., Barbara F. Reskin, and Ken Hudson. 2000. Bad Jobs in America: Standard and Nonstandard Employment Relations and Job Quality in the United States. American Sociological Review 65(2): 256–278. CrossRef
Lefèvre, Pascal, and Morgan Di Salvia. 2011. A Creative Culture Where It Is Hard to Make a Living: The Socio-Economic Situation of Comics Authors and Illustrators in Belgium. European Comic Art 4(1): 59–80. CrossRef
MacDonald, Heidi. 2014. Watch Comic Book Artists: The Next Generation for Free. The Beat (blog), October 21. http://www.comicsbeat.com/watch-comic-book-artists-the-next-generation-for-free/
———. 2015. The Devastator/Beat Convention Exhibitor Survey Is Out: Which Cons Are Loved, Which Are Hated. The Beat (blog), January 18. http://www.comicsbeat.com/the-devastatorbeat-convention-exhibitor-survey-is-out-which-cons-are-loved-which-are-hated/
McKeon, Lauren. 2015. 30 Under 30: Rachel Richey & Hope Nicholson. FLARE, March 9. http://www.flare.com/culture/30-under-30-rachel-richey-hope-nicholson-comic-book-publishers/
Morris, Michael W., Daniel R. Ames, and Eric D. Knowles. 2001. What We Theorize When We Theorize That We Theorize: Examining the ‘Implicit Theory’ Construct from a Cross-Disciplinary Perspective. In Cognitive Social Psychology: The Princeton Symposium on the Legacy and Future of Social Cognition, ed. Gordon B. Moskowitz, Electronic reproduction, 143–161. Boulder: NetLibrary.
Murray, Padmini Ray. 2013. Behind the Panel: Examining Invisible Labour in the Comics Publishing Industry. Publishing Research Quarterly 29(4): 336–343. CrossRef
Norcliffe, Glen, and Olivero Rendace. 2003. New Geographies of Comic Book Production in North America: The New Artisan, Distancing, and the Periodic Social Economy. Economic Geography 79(3): 241–263. CrossRef
Priego, Ernesto. 2014. Comic Books: Art Made in the Assembly Line. Graphixia, February 4. http://www.graphixia.cssgn.org/2014/02/04/comic-books-art-made-in-the-assembly-line/
Rogers, Mark C. 2006. Understanding Production: The Stylistic Impact of Artisan and Industrial Methods. International Journal of Comic Art 8(1): 509–517.
Ross, Andrew. 2006. Nice Work If You Can Get It: The Mercurial Career of Creative Industries Policy. Work Organisation, Labour and Globalisation 1(1): 13–30.
Steinbeiser, Andrew. 2014. Comic Book Artists: The Next Generation Reveals Life as a Comic Artist. Comicbook.com , October 23. http://comicbook.com/2014/10/23/comic-book-artists-the-next-generation-reveals-life-as-a-comic-a/
Taylor, Charles. 2004. Modern Social Imaginaries. Durham: Duke University Press.
Taylor, Stephanie, and Karen Littleton. 2012. Contemporary Identities of Creativity and Creative Work. Farnham, UK: Ashgate.
Woo, Benjamin. 2013. Why Is It So Hard to Think About Comics as Labour? Comics Forum (blog), December 9. http://comicsforum.org/2013/12/09/why-is-it-so-hard-to-think-about-comics-as-labour-by-benjamin-woo/
- To the Studio! Comic Book Artists: The Next Generation and the Occupational Imaginary of Comics Work
- Palgrave Macmillan US
- Chapter 13