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Über dieses Buch

This book presents a wealth of images of shock wave phenomena, gathered by the author over the past 40 years. Shadowgrams and interferograms of basic shock-dynamic topics such as reflection, diffraction, refraction, and focusing of shock waves in gases and liquids are sequentially displayed. Though the images themselves are self-explanatory, brief explanations of the experimental conditions are included, so as to facilitate analysis and numerical reproduction of the image data.

In addition, the book presents interferometric observations of underwater shock wave/bubble interactions, and highlights the multifaceted applications of shock wave phenomena to medicine and industry. Given its scope, the book offers a unique resource for students and researchers who are interested in shock wave phenomena. However, the content has also been specifically prepared for the benefit of readers who are interested in gas dynamics and medical applications of shock waves, and are looking for reliable experimental images.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Holographic Visualization of Shock Wave Phenomena

Abstract
Gabor (1948), for the first time, presented the concept holography. In 1971, the Nobel Prize in physics was awarded on him for his invention of holography, which opened a new era in the flow visualization. This was a long time before the advent of the lasers. Encouraged by the development of lasers, Light beams are characterized by their amplitude and phase angle. Leith and Upatnieks (1962) developed off-axis holography in which object and reference beams, OB and RB, illuminate on a holographic film with an off-axial direction and became a basis of modern holographic interferometry.
Kazuyoshi Takayama

Chapter 2. Shock Waves in Gases

Abstract
When a shock wave is reflected from a steep wedge, the reflected patter of the incident shock wave, or in short IS, forms a V shaped wave pattern. This pattern is similar to a sound wave reflection from a plane wall and hence is named as a “regular reflection”, and in short RR. A head-on-collision of a shock wave with a plane wall is an extreme case of the RR.
Kazuyoshi Takayama

Chapter 3. Shock Wave Diffraction

Abstract
In the 18th ISSW, a poster session regarding diffraction of shock wave of Ms = 1.50 in air at a 90° sharp corner was organized. Results of 16 numerical simulations and 3 visualizations were presented.
Kazuyoshi Takayama

Chapter 4. Shock Wave Interaction with Bodies of Various Shapes

Abstract
Shock wave interactions with cylinders and other bodies are one of the fundamental topics of shock-dynamics. In this chapter results of flow visualizations over these body are presented.
Kazuyoshi Takayama

Chapter 5. Shock Wave Focusing in Gases

Abstract
The two-dimensional shock wave focusing is divided into two patterns: the reflection from concave walls and; the convergence of curved incident shock waves, which is called implosion. This is a reverse process of an explosion.
Kazuyoshi Takayama

Chapter 6. Shock Wave Mitigation

Abstract
Shock wave mitigation in air is one of the important research topics of the shock-wave research. Strong or moderate shock waves can be attenuated in a relatively straightforward manner, whereas weak shock waves take a longer process to be attenuated to sound waves. In this chapter experimental results of shock wave mitigations are presented.
Kazuyoshi Takayama

Chapter 7. Shock Wave Interaction with Gaseous Interface

Abstract
Shock wave interaction with a gaseous interface is one of basic topics of the shock wave research.
Kazuyoshi Takayama

Chapter 8. Explosion in Gases

Abstract
In 1980, the shock wave laboratory received a license that permitted to used a small amount of explosives in scientific experiments.
Kazuyoshi Takayama

Chapter 9. Underwater Shock Waves

Abstract
Liquids are less compressible than gases. The compressibility is the measure of volume change when compressed by pressure.
Kazuyoshi Takayama

Chapter 10. Applications of Underwater Shock Wave Research to Medicine

Abstract
In 1981, Professor M. Kuwahara of the Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Tohoku University invited us to develop a prototype lithotripter using micro explosions. Then the collaboration started applying results of the basic experiments to design a lithotripsy for clinical use.
Kazuyoshi Takayama

Chapter 11. Miscellaneous Topics

Abstract
In the advent of the space exploitation, the shock tube supported the atmospheric re-entry of space vehicles. Hence the space technology owed its success immensely to the shock wave research. Initially the design of the heat shield of re-entry vehicles became a main topic in the shock wave research but later it was shifted to hypersonic propulsions of SCRAM jet engines.
Kazuyoshi Takayama

Chapter 12. Concluding Remarks

Abstract
This book summarized results of the shock wave research the author was involved since 1973. He visualized shock wave phenomena at first by conventional direct shadowgraphs and became interested in double exposure holographic interferometry.
Kazuyoshi Takayama
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