Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Individuals have heterogeneous preferences for food consumption, physical activity, and body weight, which may be shaped by environmental and market factors. These factors have also contributed to changes in household budget and time constraints in ways that have encouraged consumers to make choices consistent with gaining weight. In particular, changes in income, prices, the opportunity cost of time, and the quantity of time required to prepare and consume certain types of food have affected choices of physical activity and food consumption. In this chapter we examine the roles of these external factors, including environmental factors such as public transportation and food access, and market factors, such as food marketing, and the prices and availability of different options for food and exercise.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Akee, R., E. Simeonova, W. Copeland, A. Angold, and E.J. Costello. 2013. “Young Adult Obesity and Household Income: Effects of Unconditional Cash Transfers.” American Economic Journal of Applied Economics 5(2): 1–28. CrossRef
Alston, J.M., and P.G. Pardey. 2008. “Public Funding for Research into Specialty Crops.” HortScience 43(5): 1461–1470.
Alston, J.M., D.A. Sumner, and S.A. Vosti. 2006. “Are Agricultural Policies Making Us Fat? Likely Links between Agricultural Policies and Human Nutrition and Obesity, and Their Policy Implications.” Review of Agricultural Economics 28(3): 313–322. CrossRef
Alston, J.M., D.A. Sumner, and S.A. Vosti. 2008. “Farm Subsidies and Obesity in the United States: National Evidence and International Comparisons.” Food Policy 33(6): 470–479. CrossRef
Alston, J.M., J.M. Beddow, and P.G. Pardey. 2009b. “Agricultural Research, Productivity and Food Prices in the Long Run.” Science 325(4): 1209–1210. CrossRef
Anderson, P.M. 2012. “Paternal Employment, Family Routines and Childhood Obesity.” Economics and Human Biology 10: 340–351. CrossRef
Anderson, M.L., and D.A. Matsa. 2011. “Are Restaurants Really Supersizing American?.” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 3: 152–188.
Anderson, P.M., K.F. Butcher, and P.B. Levine. 2003. “Maternal Employment and Overweight Children.” Journal of Health Economics 22: 477–504. CrossRef
Beaulac, J., E. Kristjansson, and S. Cummins. 2009. “A Systematic Review of Food Deserts, 1966–2007.” Preventing Chronic Disease 6(3): A105. http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2009/jul/08_0163.htm.
Becker, G.S., and K.M. Murphy. 1988. “A Theory of Rational Addiction.” Journal of Political Economy 96(4): 675–700. CrossRef
Beghin, J.C., and H.H. Jensen. 2008. “Farm Policies and Added Sugars in US Diets.” Food Policy 33(6): 480–488. CrossRef
Bhattacharya, J., K. Bundorf, N. Pace, and N. Sood. 2011. “Does Health Insurance Make You Fat?,” Chapter 2 in M. Grossman and N.H. Mocan eds. Economic Aspects of Obesity. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Bleich, S., D. Cutler, C. Murray, and A. Adams. 2008. “Why is the Developed World Obese?.” Annual Reviews of Public Health 29: 273–295. CrossRef
Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2015. Consumer Price Index Database. Available at: http://www.bls.gov/cpi/.
Byrne, P. J., O. Capps Jr., and A. Saha. 1996. “Analysis of Food-Away-from-Home Expenditure Patterns for U.S. Households, 1982–1989.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 78(3): 614–627. CrossRef
Cairns, G., K. Angus, and G. Hastings. 2009. “The Extent, Nature and Effects of Food Promotion to Children: A Review of the Evidence”. World Health Organization. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2009/9789241598835_eng.pdf?ua=1.
Capps, O., J.R. Tedford, and J. Havlicek. 1985. “Household Demand for Convenience and Nonconvenience Foods.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 67(4): 862–869. CrossRef
Cawley, J., J. Moran, and K. Simon. 2010. “The Impact of Income on the Weight of Elderly Americans.” Health Economics 19: 979–993. CrossRef
Chandon, P., and B. Wansink. 2007a. “The Biasing Health Halos of Fast-Food Restaurant Health Claims: Lower Calorie Estimates and Higher Side-Dish Consumption Intentions.” Journal of Consumer Research 34(3): 301–314. CrossRef
Chandon, P., and B. Wansink. 2007b. “Is Obesity Caused by Calorie Underestimation? A Psychophysical Model of Meal Size Estimation.” Journal of Marketing Research 44(1): 84–99. CrossRef
Chen, S., R.J.G.M. Florax, S. Snyder, and C.C. Miller. 2012. “Obesity and Access to Chain Grocers.” Economic Geography 86(4): 431–452. CrossRef
Chou, S.-Y, M. Grossman, and H. Saffer. 2004. “An Economic Analysis of Adult Obesity: Results from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.” Journal of Health Economics 23: 565–587. CrossRef
Chriqui, J.F., S.S. Eidson, H. Bates, S. Kowalczyk, and F.J. Chaloupka. 2008. “State Sales Tax Rates for Soft Drinks and Snacks Sold Through Grocery Stores and Vending Machines.” Journal of Public Health Policy 29(2): 226–249. CrossRef
Christakis, N.A., and J.H. Fowler. 2007. “The Spread of Obesity in a Large Social Network Over 32 Years.” The New England Journal of Medicine 357: 370–379. CrossRef
Christian, T., and I. Rashad “Trends in U.S. Food Prices, 1950–2007.” Economics and Human Biology 7(1): 113–120.
Cohen-Cole, E., and J.M. Fletcher. 2008. “Is Obesity Contagious? Social Networks vs. Environmental Factors in the Obesity Epidemic.” Journal of Health Economics 27(5): 1382–1387. CrossRef
Costa, D., and R. Steckel. 1997. “Long-Term Trends in Health, Welfare, and Economic Growth in the United States,” in R. Floud and R. Steckel eds. Health and Welfare during Industrialization. Chicago: University of Chicago Press for National Bureau of Economic Research, pp. 47–89.
Courtemanche, C. 2009. “Longer Hours and Larger Waistlines? The Relationship between Work Hours and Obesity.” Forum for Health Economics and Policy 12(2): 1–31. CrossRef
Courtemanche, C. and A. Carden. 2011. “Supersizing Supercenters? The Impact of Walmart Supercenters on Body Mass Index and Obesity.” Journal of Urban Economics 69: 165–181. CrossRef
Currie, J., S. DellaVigna, E. Moretti, and V. Pathania. 2010. “The Effect of Fast Food Restaurants on Obesity and Weight Gain.” American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 2(3): 32–63.
Cutler, D., E. Glaeser, and J. Shapiro. 2003. “Why Have Americans Become More Obese?.” The Journal of Economic Perspectives 17(3): 93–118. CrossRef
Drewnowski, A., and S. Specter. 2004. “Poverty and Obesity: The Role of Energy Density and Energy Costs.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79(1): 6–16.
Dunn, R.A. 2010. “The Effect of Fast-Food Availability on Obesity: An Analysis by Gender, Race and Residential Location.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 92(4): 1149–1164. CrossRef
Dunn, R.A., J.R. Sharkey, and S. Horel. 2012. “The Effect of Fast-Food Availability on Fast-Food Consumption and Obesity in Rural Residents: An Analysis by Race/Ethnicity.” Economics and Human Biology 10: 1–13.
Eid, J. H.G. Overman, D. Puga, and M.A. Turner. 2008. “Fat City: Questioning the Relationship Between Urban Sprawl and Obesity.” Journal of Urban Economics 63: 385–404. CrossRef
Federal Trade Commission. 2012. A Review of Food Marketing to Children and Adolescents. Washington, DC: Federal Trade Commission.
Feng, J., T.A. Glass, F.C. Curriero, W.F. Stewart, and B.S. Schwartz. 2010. “The Built Environment and Obesity: A Systematic Review of the Epidemiologic Evidence.” Health & Place 16(2): 175–190. CrossRef
Fletcher, A., C. Bonel, and A. Sorhaindo. 2011. “You Are What Your Friends Eat: Systematic Review of Social Network Analyses of Young People’s Eating Behaviors and Bodyweight.” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 65: 548–555. CrossRef
Ford, P.B., and D.A. Dzewaltowski. 2008. “Disparities In Obesity Prevalence Due to Variation in the Retail Food Environment: Three Testable Hypotheses.” Nutrition Reviews 66: 216–228. CrossRef
Franck, C., S.M. Grandi, and M.J. Eisenberg. 2013. “Agricultural Subsidies and the American Obesity Epidemic.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 45(3): 327–333. CrossRef
Frank, L.D., B.E. Saelens, K.E. Powell, and J.E. Chapman. 2007. “Stepping Towards Causation: Do Built Environments or Neighborhood and Travel Preferences Explain Physical Activity, Driving and Obesity?.” Social Science and Medicine 65: 1898–1914. CrossRef
Frederick, S., G. Loewenstein, and T. O’Donoghue. 2002. “Time Discounting and Time Preference: A Critical Review.” Journal of Economic Literature 40(2): 351–401. CrossRef
Frieden, T., W. Dietz, and J. Collins. 2010. “Reducing Childhood Obesity Through Policy Change: Acting Now to Prevent Obesity.” Health Affairs 29(3): 357–363. CrossRef
Gordon-Larson, P., K.M. Harris, D.S. Ward, and B.M. Popkin. 2003. “Acculturation and Overweight-Related Behaviors among Hispanic Immigrants to the US: The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.” Social Science and Medicine 57(11): 2023–2034. CrossRef
Gallo, A. 1999. “Food Advertising in the United States,” in E. Frazao ed. America’s Eating Habits: Changes and Consequences. Agriculture Information Bulletin 750.Washington, DC: USDA Economic Research Service,pp. 173–180.
Gelbach, J.B., J. Klick, and T. Stratmann. 2009. “Cheap Donuts and Expensive Broccoli: The Effect of Relative Prices on Obesity.” Social Science and Research Network. Available at: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=976484.
Ghosh-Dastidar, B., D. Cohen, G. Hunter, S.N. Zenk, C. Huang, R. Beckman, and T. Dubowitz. 2014. “Distance to Store, Food Prices, and Obesity in Urban Food Deserts.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 47(5): 587–595. CrossRef
Goldman, D., D. Lakdawalla, and Y. Zheng. 2011. “Food Prices and the Dynamics of Body Weight,” in M. Grossman and N.H. Mocan eds. Economic Aspects of Obesity. University of Chicago Press, pp. 65–90.
Grandi, S.M., and C. Franck. 2012. “Agricultural Subsidies: Are They a Contributing Factor to the American Obesity Epidemic ?.” Archives of Internal Medicine 172(22): 1754–1755. CrossRef
Grossman, M., E. Tekin, and R. Wada. 2014. “Food Prices and Body Fatness Among Youths.” Economics and Human Biology 12: 4–19. CrossRef
Heien, D. 1983. “Productivity in U.S. Food Processing and Distribution.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 65(2): 297–302. CrossRef
Huang, K.S. 2003. Food Manufacturing Productivity and Its Economic Implications. Technical Bulletin 1905. Economic Research Service Tech. Bull. No. 1905. Available at: http://www.ers.usda.gov/media/1913289/tb1905.pdf.
Jensen, H.H., and S.T. Yen. 1996. “Food Expenditures Away From Home by Type of Meal.” Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics 44(1): 67–80. CrossRef
Jetter, K., and D. Cassady. 2006. “The Availability and Cost of Healthier Food Alternatives.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 30: 38–44. CrossRef
Jolliffe, D. 2011. “Overweight and Poor? On The Relationship Between Income and Body Mass Index.” Economics and Human Biology 9(4): 342–355. CrossRef
Juhn, C., and S. Potter. 2006. “Changes in Labor Force Participation in the United States.” The Journal of Economic Perspectives 20(3): 27–46. CrossRef
King, R. P, E.S. Leibtag, and A.S. Behl. 2004. Supermarket Characteristics and Operating Costs in Low Income Areas. Agricultural Economic Report 839. Washington, DC: USDA Economic Research Service.
Lakdawalla, D., and T. Philipson. 2009. “The Growth of Obesity and Technological Change.” Economics and Human Biology 7(3): 283–293. CrossRef
Lakdawalla, D., T. Philipson, and J. Bhattacharya. 2005. “Welfare-Enhancing Technological Change and the Growth of Obesity.” American Economic Review: Papers and Proceedings 92(2): 253–257. CrossRef
Lin, B.-H., M. Ver Ploeg, P. Kasteridis, and S.T. Yen. 2014. “The Role of Food Prices and Food Access in Determining Food Purchases of Low-Income Households.” Journal of Policy Modeling 36: 938–952. CrossRef
Ludwig, D.S., and H.A. Pollack. 2009. “Obesity and the Economy: From Crisis to Opportunity.” Journal of the American Medical Association 301(5): 533–535. CrossRef
Ludwig, J., L. Sanbonmatsu, L. Gennetian, E. Adam, G.J. Duncan, L.F. Katz, R.C. Kessler, J.R. King, S.T. Lindau, R.C. Whitaker, and T.W. McDade. 2011. “Neighborhoods, Obesity and Diabetes—A Randomized Social Experiment.” The New England Journal of Medicine 365: 1509–1519. CrossRef
MacDonald, J.M., and P.E. Nelson. 1991. “Do the Poor Still Pay More? Food Price Variations in Large Metropolitan Areas.” Journal of Urban Economics 30: 344–359. CrossRef
Mancino, L., F. Kuchler, and E. Leibtag. 2008. “Getting Consumers to Eat More Whole Grains: The Role of Policy, Information, and Manufacturers.” Food Policy 33: 489–496. CrossRef
Manganello, J.A., K. Clegg Smith, K. Sudakow, and A.C. Summers. 2013. “A Content Analysis of Food Advertisements Appearing in Parenting Magazines.” Public Health Nutrition 16: 2188–2196. CrossRef
Martin, A., D. Ogilvie, and M. Suhrcke. 2014. “Evaluating Causal Relationships between Urban Built Environment Characteristics and Obesity: A Methodological Review of Observational Studies.” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 11: 142. Available at: https://ijbnpa.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12966-014-0142-8. CrossRef
Martinez, S. 2013. “Obesity and Other Health Concerns Lead Food Companies to Step Up Health and Nutrient Claims.” Amber Waves July 1. Available at http://www.ers.usda.gov/amber-waves/2013-july/obesity-and-other-health-concerns-lead-food-companies-to-step-up-health-and-nutrient-claims.aspx#.V-B025MrJBy.
McCracken, V. A., and J.A. Brandt. 1987. “Household Consumption of Food-Away-from-Home: Total Expenditure and by Type of Food Facility.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 69(2): 274–284. CrossRef
McLaren, L. 2007. “Socioeconomic Status and Obesity.” Epidemiologic Reviews 29: 29–48. CrossRef
Miljkovic, D., W. Nganje, and H. De Chastenet. 2008. “Economic Factors Affecting the Increase in Obesity in the United States: Differential Response to Price?.” Food Policy 33: 48–60. CrossRef
Milkman, K.L., T. Rogers, and M.H. Bazerman. 2010. “I’ll Have the Ice Cream Soon and the Vegetables Later: A Study of Online Grocery Purchases and Order Lead Time.” Marketing Letters 21(1): 17–35. CrossRef
Miller, J.C., and K.H. Coble. 2007. “Cheap Food Policy: Fact or Rhetoric?.” Food Policy 32: 98–111. CrossRef
Miller, J.C., and K.H. Coble. 2008. “An International Comparison of the Effects of Government Agricultural Support on Food Budget Shares.” Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics 40(2): 551–558. CrossRef
Morrison, C.J. 1997. “Structural Change, Capital Investment and Productivity in the Food Processing Industry.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 79: 110–125. CrossRef
Moss, M. 2013. Salt Sugar Fat. New York: Random House.
Nayga, R.M. 1996. “Wife’s Labor Force Participation and Family Expenditures for Prepared Food, Food Prepared at Home, and Food Away from Home.” Agricultural and Resource Economics Review 25: 1068–2805. CrossRef
Nelson, M.C., P. Gordon-Larsen, Y. Song, and B.M. Popkin. 2006. “Built and Social Environments Associations with Adolescent Overweight and Activity.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 31(2): 109–117. CrossRef
Nestle, M. 2002. Food Politics. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Nielsen, S.J., and B.M. Popkin. 2004. “Changes in Beverage Intake Between 1977 and 2001.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 27(3): 205–210. CrossRef
O’Donoghue, T., and M. Rabin. 2006. “Optimal Sin Taxes.” Journal of Public Economics 90: 1825–1849. CrossRef
Okrent, A.M., and A. Kumcu. 2016. “US Households’ Demand for Convenience Foods”. Economic Research Report 211. Washington, DC: USDA Economic Research Service. Available at: http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/err-economic-research-report/err211.aspx.
Park, J.L., and O. Capps. 1997. “Demand for Prepared Meals by U.S. Households.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 79: 814–824. CrossRef
Philipson, T.J., and R.A. Posner. 2003. “The Long-Run Growth in Obesity as a Function of Technological Change.” Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 46(3): S87–S107. CrossRef
Philipson, T., and R. Posner. 2008. “Is the Obesity Epidemic a Public Health Problem? A Decade of Research on the Economics of Obesity.” NBER Working Paper No. 14010. National Bureau of Economic Research. Available at: http://www.nber.org/papers/w14010.
Plantinga, A.J., and S. Bernell. 2007. “Can Urban Planning Reduce Obesity? The Role of Self-Selection in Explaining the Link between Weight and Urban Sprawl.” Review of Agricultural Economics 29(3): 557–563. CrossRef
Pollan, M. 2003. “The (Agri)Cultural Contradictions of Obesity.” The New York Times, October 12. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2003/10/12/magazine/12WWLN.html?pagewanted=all.
Pollan, M. 2007a. “You Are What You Grow.” The New York Times, April 22. Available at: http://michaelpollan.com/articles-archive/you-are-what-you-grow/.
Popkin, B.M. 2011. “Agricultural Policies, Food and Public Health.” EMBO Reports 12(1): 11–18. CrossRef
Popkin, B.M., and J.R. Udry. 1998. “Adolescent Obesity Increases Significantly in Second and Third Generation U.S. Immigrants: The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.” Journal of Nutrition 128(4): 701–706.
Powell, L.M. 2009. “Fast Food Costs and Adolescent Body Mass Index: Evidence from Panel Data.” Journal of Health Economics 28(5): 963–970. CrossRef
Powell, L.M., and Y. Bao. 2009. “Food Prices, Access to Food Outlets and Child Weight.” Economics and Human Biology 7: 64–72. CrossRef
Prochaska, F.J., and R.A. Schrimper. 1973. “Opportunity Cost of Time and Other Socioeconomic Effects on Away-from Home Food Consumption.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 55(4, part 1): 595–603. CrossRef
Rashad, I., and S. Markowitz. 2010. “Incentives in Obesity and Health Insurance.” Inquiry 46(4): 418–432.
Ravussin, E., M.E. Valencia, J. Esparza, P.H. Bennett, and O. Schulz. 1994. “Effects of a Traditional Lifestyle on Obesity in Pima Indians.” Diabetes Care 17: 1067–1074. CrossRef
Read, D., and B. Van Leeuwen. 1998. “Predicting Hunger: The Effects of Appetite and Delay on Choice.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 76(2): 189–205. CrossRef
Renna, F., I. B. Grafova, and N. Thakur. 2008. “The Effect of Friends on Adolescent Body Weight.” Economics & Human Biology 6(3): 377–387. CrossRef
Richards, T., and P. Patterson. 2006. “Native American Obesity: An Economic Model of the Thrifty Gene Theory.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 88(3): 542–560. CrossRef
Richards, T.J., P.M. Patterson, and A. Tegene. 2007. “Obesity and Nutrient Consumption: A Rational Addiction?” Contemporary Economic Policy 25(3): 309–324. CrossRef
Rickard, B.J., A.M. Okrent, and J.M. Alston. 2013. “How Have Agricultural Policies Influenced Calorie Consumption and Obesity in the United States?” Health Economics 22(3): 316–339. CrossRef
Rolls, B.J., L.S. Roe, J.S. Meengs, and D.E. Wall. 2004a. “Increasing the Portion Size of a Sandwich Increases Energy Intake.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association 104: 367–372. CrossRef
Rolls, B.J., L.S. Roe, and J.S. Meengs. 2006. “Larger Portion Sizes Lead to a Sustained Increase in Energy Intake Over 2 Days.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association 106(4): 543–549. CrossRef
Rolls, B.J., L.S. Roe, and J.S. Meengs. 2007. “The Effect of Large Portion Sizes on Energy Intake is Sustained for 11 Days.” Obesity 15(6): 1535–43. CrossRef
Ruhm, C. 2008. “Maternal Employment and Adolescent Development.” Labour Economics 15(5): 958–983. CrossRef
Schmeiser, M.D. 2009. “Expanding Wallets and Waistlines: The Impact of Family Income on the BMI of Women and Men Eligible for the Earned Income Tax Credit.” Health Economics 18: 1277–1294. CrossRef
Schulz, L.O., P.H. Bennett, E. Ravussin, J.R. Kidd, K.K. Kidd, J. Esparza, and M.E. Valencia. 2006. “Effects of Traditional and Western Environments on Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in Pima Indians in Mexico and the U.S.” Diabetes Care 29(8): 1866–1871. CrossRef
Sexauer, B. 1979. “The Effect of Demographic Shifts in Changes in the Income Distribution on Food-Away-from-Home Expenditure.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 61(5): 1046–1057. CrossRef
Siegel, K.R., K.M. Bullard, G. Imperatore, H.S. Kahn, A.D. Stein, M.K. Ali, and K.M. Narayan. 2016. “Association of Higher Consumption of Foods Derived From Subsidized Commodities With Adverse Cardiometabolic Risk Among US Adults.” JAMA Internal Medicine 176(8): 1124–1132. CrossRef
Smith, C.J., R.G. Nelson, S.A. Hardy, E.M. Manahan, P.H. Bennett, and W.C. Knowler. 1996. “Survey of the Diet of Pima Indians Using Quantitative Food Frequency Assessment and 24-Hour Recall.” Diabetic Renal Disease Study 96(8): 778–784.
Sobal, J., and A. Stunkard. 1989. “Socioeconomic Status and Obesity: Review of the Literature.” Psychological Bulletin 105: 260–275. CrossRef
Soberon-Ferrer, H., and R. Dardis. 1991. “Determinants of Household Expenditures for Services.” Journal of Consumer Research 17(4): 385–397. CrossRef
Sonntag, D., S. Schneider, N. Mdege, S. Ali, and B. Schmidt. 2015. “Beyond Food Promotion: A Systematic Review on the Influence of the Food Industry on Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviour among Children.” Nutrients 7: 8565–8576. CrossRef
Stewart, H., and S.T. Yen. 2004. “Changing Household Characteristics and the Away-from-Home Food Market: A Censored Equation System Approach.” Food Policy 29: 643–658. CrossRef
Sturm, R., and A. Datar. 2005. “Body Mass Index in Elementary School Children, Metropolitan Area Food Prices and Food Outlet Density.” Public Health 119: 1059–1068. CrossRef
Sturm, R., and A. Datar. 2008. “Food Prices and Weight Gain During Elementary School: 5 Year Update.” Public Health 122: 1140–1143. CrossRef
Swinburn, B., G. Egger, and P. Raza. 1999. “Dissecting Obesogenic Environments: The Development and Application of a Framework for Identifying and Prioritizing Environmental Interventions for Obesity.” Preventative Medicine 29: 563–570. CrossRef
Tillotson, J.E. 2004. “America’s Obesity: Conflicting Public Policies, Industrial Economic Development and Unintended Human Consequences.” Annual Review of Nutrition 24: 617–643. CrossRef
Trogdon, J.G., E.A. Finkelstein, T. Hylands, P.S. Dellea, and S.J. Kamal-Bahl. 2008. “Indirect Costs of Obesity: A Review of the Current Literature.” Obesity Reviews 9: 489–500. CrossRef
Urban, L.E., S.B. Roberts, J.L. Fierstein, C.E. Gary, and A.H. Lichtenstein. 2014. “Temporal Trends in Fast-Food Restaurant Energy, Sodium, Saturated Fat and Trans Fat Content, United States, 1996–2013.” Preventing Chronic Disease 11: 17.
Ver Ploeg, M, V. Breneman, T. Farrigan, K. Hamrick, D. Hopkins, P. Kaufman, B.-H. Lin, M. Nord, T.A. Smith, R. Williams, K. Kinnison, C. Olander, A. Singh, and E. Tuckermanty. 2009. Access to Affordable and Nutritious Food: Measuring and Understanding Food Deserts and Their Consequences: Report to Congress. Administrative Publication No. AP-036, Washington, DC: USDA Economic Research Service, June.
Volpe, R., A. Okrent, and E. Leibtag. 2013. “The Effect of Supercenter-Format Stores on the Healthfulness of Consumers’ Grocery Purchases.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 95(3): 568–589. CrossRef
Wansink, B., and J. Kim. 2005. “Bad Popcorn in Big Buckets: Portion Size Can Influence Intake as Much as Taste.” Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 37(5): 242–245. CrossRef
Wansink, B., and P. Chandon. 2006. “Can ‘Low Fat’ Nutrition Labels Lead to Obesity?.” Journal of Marketing Research 43(4): 605–617. CrossRef
Wansink, B., J.E. Painter, and J. North. 2005. “Bottomless Bowls: Why Visual Cues of Portion Size May Influence Intake.” Obesity Research 13(1): 93–100. CrossRef
Wansink, B., K. Van Ittersum, and J.E. Painter. 2006b. ““Ice Cream Illusions: Bowls, Spoons, and Self-Served Portion Sizes.” American Journal of Preventative Medicine 31(3): 240–243. CrossRef
Yen, S. T. 1993. “Working Wives and Food Away from Home: The Box-Cox Double Hurdle Model.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 75(4): 884–895. CrossRef
Young, L., and M. Nestle. 2007. “Portion Sizes and Obesity: Responses of Fast-Food Companies.” Journal of Public Health Policy 28: 238–248. CrossRef
Zhao, Z., and R. Kaestner. 2010. “Effects of Urban Sprawl on Obesity.” Journal of Health Economics 29: 779–787. CrossRef
Zick, C.D., H. Hanson, J.X. Fan, K.R. Smith, L. Kowalwski-Jones, B.B. Brown, and I. Yamada. 2013. “Revisiting the Relationship Between Neighborhood Environment and BMI: An Instrumental Variables Approach to Correcting for Residential Selection Bias.” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 10(27): 1–10.
- Causes of Obesity: External Influences
Julian M. Alston
Abigail M. Okrent
- Palgrave Macmillan US
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, digitale Transformation/© Maksym Yemelyanov | Fotolia