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Individuals have heterogeneous preferences for food consumption, physical activity, and body weight, which may be shaped by environmental and market factors. These factors have also contributed to changes in household budget and time constraints in ways that have encouraged consumers to make choices consistent with gaining weight. In particular, changes in income, prices, the opportunity cost of time, and the quantity of time required to prepare and consume certain types of food have affected choices of physical activity and food consumption. In this chapter we examine the roles of these external factors, including environmental factors such as public transportation and food access, and market factors, such as food marketing, and the prices and availability of different options for food and exercise.
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