These proceedings contain the contributions of some of the participants in the "intensive research period" held at the De Giorgi Research Center in Pisa, during the period May-June 2010. The central theme of this research period was the study of configuration spaces from various points of view. This topic originated from the intersection of several classical theories: Braid groups and related topics, configurations of vectors (of great importance in Lie theory and representation theory), arrangements of hyperplanes and of subspaces, combinatorics, singularity theory. Recently, however, configuration spaces have acquired independent interest and indeed the contributions in this volume go far beyond the above subjects, making it attractive to a large audience of mathematicians.