Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
This chapter offers a review, critique, and survey of the implications of culture and its dimensions for management, tracking its development as an autonomous academic field and outlining contemporary reflections on potential future trajectories, themes, and methodologies. The chapter acknowledges the effects of the globalization process, which poses tough challenges for small firms, and provides specific approaches to go beyond national boundaries by recognizing the multi-faceted, multi-layered, and dynamic nature of culture. In particular, international business studies agree that managers need the flexibility to respond positively and effectively to different practices and values in order to succeed in global business. As a consequence, cultural differences call for differences in management practices. The chapter explores the concept of culture and its evolution, by focusing on socio-cultural systems, cultural dimensions, and how they rely on the main managerial issues firms must face when dealing with international contexts. The fact that management practices must be adapted to the different local environments is also illustrated by examples with which most managers are familiar. The chapter also analyzes the main theoretical approaches to culture developed by Edward T. Hall, Florence R. Kluckhohn and Fred L. Strodtbeck, Geert H. Hofstede, Fons Trompenaars and Charles Hampden-Turner, Shalom H. Schwartz, the GLOBE project, and Tony Fang.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Acton, H. B. (1967). Dialectic materialism. In P. Edwards (Ed.), The encyclopaedia of philosophy (pp. 389–397). New York: Macmillan and the Free Press.
Adair, W. L., Hideg, I., & Spence, J. R. (2013). The culturally intelligent team: The impact of team cultural intelligence and cultural heterogeneity on team shared values. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 44, 941–962. CrossRef
Adler, N. J. (2002). International dimension of organizational behavior. Cincinnati: South-Western.
Almaney, A. (1974). Intercultural communication and the MNC executive. Columbia Journal of World Business, 9(4), 23–28.
Alon, I., & Higgins, J. M. (2005). Global leadership success through emotional and cultural intelligences. Business Horizons, 48(6), 501–512. CrossRef
Alon, I., Boulanger, M., Meyers, J., & Taras, V. (2016). The development and validation of the business cultural intelligence quotient. Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, 23(1), 78–100. CrossRef
Ang, S., & Inkpen, A. C. (2008). Cultural intelligence and offshore outsourcing success: A framework of firm-level intercultural capability. Decision Sciences, 39, 337–358. CrossRef
Ang, S., & Van Dyne, L. (2008). Conceptualization of cultural intelligence: Definition, distinctiveness, and nomological network. In S. Ang & L. Van Dyne (Eds.), Handbook of cultural intelligence: Theory, measurement, and applications (pp. 3–15). Armonk: M. E. Sharpe.
Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., Koh, C. K. S., Ng, K. Y., Templer, K. J., Tay, C., et al. (2007). Cultural intelligence: Its measurement and effects on cultural judgment and decision making, cultural adaptation, and task performance. Management and Organization Review, 3, 335–371. CrossRef
Bandura, A. (2002). Social cognitive theory in a cultural context. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 51, 269–290. CrossRef
Bilsky, W., & Jehn, K. A. (2002). Organizational culture and individual values: Evidence for a common structure. In M. Myrtek (Ed.), The person in the biological and social context (pp. 211–228). Goettingen: Hogrefe Press.
Bird, A., & Fang, T. (2009). Cross cultural management in the age of globalization. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 9(2), 139–143. CrossRef
Bourdieu, P. (1993). La Misère du monde. Paris: Seuil.
Bourdieu, P. (1972). Esquisse d’une théorie de la pratique précedé de Trois études d’ethnologie kabile. Paris: Seuil.
Bottomore, T. B., & Nisbet, R. A. (1978). A history of sociological analysis. New York: Basic Books.
Brislin, R., Worthley, R., & MacNab, B. (2006). Cultural intelligence: Understanding behaviors that serve people’s goals. Group and Organization Management, 31(1), 40–55. CrossRef
Browaeys, M.-J., & Price, R. (2008). Understanding cross-cultural management. Harlow: Prentice Hall.
Bücker, J., & Poutsma, E. (2010). How to assess global management competencies: An investigation of existing instruments. Management Revue, 21(3), 263–291.
Chee, H., & West, C. (2007). Myths about doing business in China. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossRef
Chen, G., Kirkman, B. L., Kim, K., Farh, C. I. C., & Tangirala, S. (2010). When does cross cultural motivation enhance expatriate effectiveness? A multilevel investigation of the moderating roles of subsidiary support and cultural distance. Academy of Management Journal, 53, 1110–1130. CrossRef
Chevrier, S. (2009). Is national culture still relevant to management in a global context? The case of Switzerland. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 9(2), 169–184. CrossRef
Chhokar, J. S., Brodbeck, F. C., & House, R. J. (Eds.). (2013). Culture and leadership across the world: The GLOBE book of in-depth studies of 25 societies. London: Routledge.
Chinese Culture Connection. (1987). Chinese values and the search for culture-free dimensions of culture. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 18(1), 143–164. CrossRef
Chua, R. Y. J., Morris, M. W., & Mor, S. (2012). Collaborating across cultures: Cultural metacognition and affect-based trust in creative collaboration. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 118, 116–131. CrossRef
Cohen, S. L. (2010). Effective global leadership requires a global mindset. Industrial and Commercial Training, 42(1), 3–10. CrossRef
Cox, T. (1993). Cultural diversity in organizations: Theory, research & practice. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
Cox, T., & Blake, S. (1991). Managing cultural diversity: Implications for organizational competitiveness. The Executive, 5(3), 45–56. CrossRef
Crowne, K. A. (2009). The relationships among social intelligence, emotional intelligence and cultural intelligence. Organization Management Journal, 6, 148–163. CrossRef
Dahl, S. (2004). Intercultural research: The current state of knowledge. Middlesex University Business School Discussion Paper, 26. Middlesex University.
Debebe, G. (2008). Cross-cultural competence and power-based rules: A native American case study. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 32, 399–414. CrossRef
Earley, P. C. (2002). Redefining interactions across cultures and organizations: Moving forward with cultural intelligence. Research in Organizational Behavior, 24, 271–299. CrossRef
Earley, P. C., & Ang, S. (2003). Cultural Intelligence: Individual Interactions Across Cultures. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.
Earley, P. C., & Gardner, H. K. (2005). Internal dynamics and cultural intelligence in multinational teams. Advances in International Management, 18, 3–31. CrossRef
Earley, P. C., & Peterson, R. S. (2004). The elusive cultural chameleon: Cultural intelligence as a new approach to intercultural training for the global manager. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 3, 100–115. CrossRef
Fang, T. (2012). Yin Yang: A new perspective on culture. Management and Organization Review, 8(1), 25–50. CrossRef
Fang, T. (2010). Asian management research needs more self-confidence: Reflection on Hofstede (2007) and beyond. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 27(1), 155–170. CrossRef
Fang, T. (2006). Negotiation: The Chinese style. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 21(1), 50–60. CrossRef
Fang, T. (2005–2006). From ‘onion’ to ‘ocean’: Change and paradox in national cultures. International Studies of Management and Organization, 35(4), 71–90.
Fang, T. (2003). A critique of Hofstede’s fifth national culture dimension. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 3(3), 347–368. CrossRef
Fernandez, D. R., Carlson, D. S., Stepina, L. P., & Nicholson, J. D. (1997). Hofstede’s country classification 25 years later. The Journal of Social Psychology, 137(1), 43–54. CrossRef
Gabrenya, W. K., Griffith, R. L., Moukarzel, R. G., & Pomerance, M. H. (2011). Theoretical and practical advances in the assessment of cross-cultural competence. Melbourne: Florida Institute of Technology.
Gallagher, T. (2001). The value orientation Method: A tool to help understand cultural differences. Journal of Extension, 39(6), 165–177.
Gassmann, O. (2001). Multi-cultural teams: Increasing creativity and innovation by diversity. Creativity and Innovation Management, 10(2), 88–95. CrossRef
Geertz, C. (2000). The interpretation of cultures. New York: Basic Books.
Gelfand, M. J., Nishii, L. H., Holcombe, K. M., Dyer, N., Ohbuchi, K., & Fukuno, M. (2001). Cultural influences on cognitive representations of conflict: Interpretations of conflict episodes in the United States and Japan. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(6), 1059–1074. CrossRef
Goodenough, W. H. (1957). Cultural anthropology and linguistics. In P. L. Garvin (Ed.), Report of the seventh annual round table meeting on linguistics and language study. Monograph series on languages and linguistics (Vol. 9, pp. 109–173). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Groves, K. S., & Feyerherm, A. E. (2011). Leader cultural intelligence in context: Testing the moderating effects of team cultural diversity on leader and team performance. Group and Organization Management, 36, 535–566. CrossRef
Gudykunst, W. B. (1993). Toward a theory of interpersonal and intergroup communication: An anxiety⁄uncertainty management (AUM) perspective. In R. Wiseman & J. Koester (Eds.), Intercultural communication competence (pp. 33–71). Newbury Park: Sage.
Hall, E. T. (1989a). Beyond culture. New York: Doubleday.
Hall, E. T. (1989b). The dance of life. The other dimension of time. New York: Doubleday.
Hall, E. T. (1966). The hidden dimension. Garden City: Doubleday.
Hall, E. T. (1959). The silent language. New York: Anchor Books.
Hall, E. T., & Reed Hall, M. (1990). Understanding cultural differences. Germans, French and Americans. Yarmouth: Intercultural Press Inc.
Harris, M. (1968). The rise of anthropological theory. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co.
Harris, P. R. (2005). Managing the knowledge culture: A guide for human resource professionals and managers in the 21st century workplace. Amherst: HRD Press.
Hart, W. B. (1999). Interdisciplinary influences in the study of intercultural relations: A citation analysis of the international journal of intercultural relations. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 23(4), 575–589. CrossRef
Hartenian, L. S., & Gudmundson, D. E. (2000). Cultural diversity in small business: Implications for firm performance. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 5(3), 209–219.
Herring, C. (2009). Does diversity pay? Race, gender, and the business case for diversity. American Sociological Review, 74(2), 208–224. CrossRef
Herskovits, M. J., & Willey, M. M. (1923). The cultural approach to sociology. The American Journal of Sociology, 29(2), 188–199. CrossRef
Hills, M. D. (2002). Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck’s values orientation theory. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 4(4).
Hofstede, G. H. (2017). National culture. Retrieved October 16, 2017, from https://www.hofstede-insights.com/models/national-culture.
Hofstede, G. H. (2011). Dimensionalizing cultures: The Hofstede model in context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1).
Hofstede, G. H. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Hofstede, G. H. (1991). Cultures and organizations. Software of the mind. Intercultural cooperation and its importance for survival. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill.
Hofstede, G. H. (1983). National cultures revisited. Cross-Cultural Research, 18(4), 285–305.
Hofstede, G. H. (1980). Culture’s consequences. International differences in work-related values. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.
Hofstede, G. H., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. New York: McGraw-Hill.
House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P. W., & Gupta, V. (2004). Culture, leadership, and organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 societies. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Imai, L., & Gelfand, M. J. (2010). The culturally intelligent negotiator: The impact of cultural intelligence (CQ) on negotiation sequences and outcomes. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 112, 83–98. CrossRef
Inglehart, R. (1977). The silent revolution: Changing values and political styles among Western publics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Inglehart, R., & Welzel, C. (2010). Changing mass priorities: The link between modernization and democracy. Perspectives on Politics, 8(2), 551–567. CrossRef
Inkeles, A. (1997). National character: A psycho-social perspective. New Brunswick: Transaction Publisher.
Janssens, M., & Brett, J. M. (2006). Cultural intelligence in global teams: A fusion model of collaboration. Group and Organization Management, 31, 124–153. CrossRef
Janssens, M., & Cappellen, T. (2008). Contextualizing cultural intelligence: The case of global managers. In S. Ang & L. Van Dyne (Eds.), Handbook of cultural intelligence: Theory, measurement, and applications (pp. 356–371). Armonk: M.E. Sharpe.
Ji, L. J., Nisbett, R. E., & Su, Y. (2001). Culture, change, and prediction. Psychological Science, 12(6), 450–456. CrossRef
Jyoti, J., & Kour, S. (2015). Assessing the cultural intelligence and task performance equation: Mediating role of cultural adjustment. Cross Cultural Management, 22(2), 236–258. CrossRef
Kanfer, R., & Heggestad, E. D. (1997). Motivational traits and skills: A person-centered approach to work motivation. Research in Organizational Behavior, 19, 1–56.
Keesing, R. M. (1974). Theories of Culture. Annual Review of Anthropology, 3, 73–97. CrossRef
Kim, K., Kirkman, B. L., & Chen, G. (2008). Cultural intelligence and international assignment effectiveness: A conceptual model and preliminary findings. In S. Ang & L. Van Dyne (Eds.), Handbook of cultural intelligence: Theory, measurement, and applications (pp. 71–90). Armonk: ME Sharpe.
Kirkman, B. L., Lowe, K. B., & Gibson, C. B. (2006). A quarter century of culture’s consequences: A review of empirical research incorporating Hofstede’s cultural values framework. Journal of International Business Studies, 37, 285–320. CrossRef
Klemm, G. (1852). Allgemeine Cultur-Geschichte der Menschheit. Leipzig: Leubner.
Kluckhohn, C. (1951). Values and value-orientations in the theory of action: An exploration in definition and classification. In T. Parsons & E. Shils (Eds.), Toward a general theory of action (pp. 388–433). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Kluckhohn, F. R., & Strodtbeck, F. L. (1961). Variations in value orientations. Evanston: Row, Peterson.
Kohls, R. L. (2001). Survival kit for overseas living for Americans planning to live and work abroad. Yarmouth: Intercultural Press Inc.
Kohls, R. L., & Knight, J. M. (1994). Developing intercultural awareness: A cross-cultural training handbook. Yarmouth: Intercultural Press Inc.
Kroeber, A. L., & Kluckhohn, C. (1952). Culture: A critical review of concepts and definitions . Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archeology and Ethnology. Cambridge: Harvard University.
Lessem, R. (1998). Management development through cultural diversity. London: Routledge.
Leung, K., Ang, S., & Tan, M. L. (2014). Intercultural competence. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 1, 489–519. CrossRef
Levi-Strauss, C. (1990). The naked man: Mythologiques. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Li, P. P. (2016). Global implications of the indigenous epistemological system from the east: How to apply Yin-Yang balancing to paradox management. Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, 23(1), 42–77. CrossRef
Licht, A. N., Goldschmidt, C., & Schwartz, S. H. (2005). Culture, law and corporate governance. International Review of Law and Economics, 25(2), 229–255. CrossRef
Lin, Y.-C., Angela, S.-Y. C., & Song, Y.-C. (2012). Does your intelligence help to survive in a foreign jungle? The effects of cultural intelligence and emotional intelligence on cross cultural adjustment. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36(4), 541–552. CrossRef
Lord, R. G., & Maher, K. J. (1991). Leadership and information processing. Boston: Routledge.
Luo, Y., & Zheng, Q. (2016). Competing in complex cross-cultural world: Philosophical insights from Yin-Yang. Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, 23(2), 386–392. CrossRef
Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98(2), 224–253. CrossRef
Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2000). Models of emotional intelligence. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of intelligence (pp. 396–420). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
McSweeney, B. (2015). Globe, Hofstede, Huntington, Trompenaars: Common foundations, common flaws. In Y. Sáchez & C. F. Brühwiller (Eds.), Transculturalism and business in the BRIC States: A handbook (pp. 13–58). Farnham: Aldershot Gower.
Meggers, B. J. (1999). Amazonia: hombre y cultura en un paraísoilusorio. Madrid: SigloVeintiuno de EspañaEditores.
Minkov, M. (2007). What makes us different and similar: A new interpretation of the World Values Survey and other cross-cultural data. Sofia: KlasikaiStil Publishing House.
Molinsky, A. (2007). Cross-cultural code-switching: The psychological challenges of adapting behavior in foreign cultural interactions. Academy of Management Review, 32, 622–640. CrossRef
Moon, T. (2010). Organizational cultural intelligence: Dynamic capability perspective. Group and Organization Management, 35, 456–493. CrossRef
Morris, C. (1956). Varieties of human value. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. CrossRef
Ng, K. Y., & Earley, P. C. (2006). Culture and intelligence old constructs, new frontiers. Group and Organization Management, 31, 4–19. CrossRef
Ng, K. Y., Van Dyne, L., & Ang, S. (2009). From experience to experiential learning: Cultural intelligence as a learning capability for global leader development. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 8, 511–526. CrossRef
Osland, J. S., & Bird, A. (2000). Beyond sophisticated stereotyping: Cross-cultural sensemaking in context. Academy of Management Executive, 14, 1–12.
Paige, R. M. (2004). Instrumentation in intercultural training. In D. Landis, J. M. Bennett, & M. J. Bennett (Eds.), Handbook of intercultural training (pp. 85–128). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. CrossRef
Parsons, T. E. F. (2007). Social structure & person. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Richardson, P. (2005). Managing cultural diversity for competitive success. Engineering Management, 15(2), 24–27. CrossRef
Rockstuhl, T., & Ng, K.-Y. (2008). The effects of cultural intelligence on interpersonal trust in multicultural teams. In S. Ang & L. Van Dyne (Eds.), Handbook of cultural intelligence: Theory, measurement, and applications (pp. 206–220). Armonk: ME Sharpe.
Rockstuhl, T., Seiler, S., Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., & Annen, H. (2011). Beyond EQ and IQ: The role of cultural intelligence in cross-border leadership effectiveness in a globalized world. Journal of Social Issues, 67, 825–840. CrossRef
Rokeach, M. (1973). The nature of human values. New York: Free Press.
Sacco, J. M., & Schmitt, N. (2005). A dynamic multilevel model of demographic diversity and misfit effects. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(2), 203–231. CrossRef
Schein, E. H. (1991). Organizational culture and leadership. A dynamic view. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Schneider, D. M. (1980). American kinship: A cultural account. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Schwartz, S. H. (2005). Basic human values: An overview. In Proceedings of the Conference “Il valore dei valori”, Catania, 7–8 October 2005.
Schwartz, S. H. (1999). A theory of cultural values and some implications for work. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 48(1), 23–47.
Schwartz, S. H. (1997). Values and culture. In D. Munro, J. F. Schumacher & S. C. Carr (Eds.), Motivation and culture (pp. 69–84). New York: Routledge.
Schwartz, S. H. (1968). Awareness of consequences and the influence of moral norms on interpersonal behavior. Sociometry, 31(4), 355–369. CrossRef
Schwartz, S. H., & Bardi, A. (1996). Relations among sociopolitical values in Eastern Europe: Effects of the communist experience? Political Psychology, 17(3), 525–549. CrossRef
Schwartz, S. H., & Barnea, M. F. (1998). Values and voting. Political Psychology, 19(1), 17–40. CrossRef
Schwartz, S. H., & Bilsky, W. (2008). Measuring motivations: Integrating content and method. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 1738–1751. CrossRef
Schwartz, S. H., & Boehnke, K. (2004). Evaluating the structure of human values with confirmatory factor analysis. Journal of Research in Personality, 38, 230–255. CrossRef
Schwartz, S. H., & Davis, S. (1981). Matching corporate culture to business strategy. Organizational Dynamics, 10(1), 30–48. CrossRef
Schwartz, S. H., & Huismans, S. (1995). Value priorities and religiosity in four Western religions. Social Psychology Quarterly, 58(2), 88–107. CrossRef
Schwartz, S. H., & Munene, J. (2000). Cultural values and development in Uganda. NIRP Research for Policy Series, 5. Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute.
Schwartz, S. H., & Prince-Gibson, E. (1998). Value priorities and gender. Social Psychology Quarterly, 61(1), 49–67. CrossRef
Schwartz, S. H., & Sagie, G. (2000). Value consensus and importance: A cross-national study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31, 465–497. CrossRef
Schwartz, S. H., & Sagiv, L. (2000). A new look at national culture: Illustrative applications to role stress and managerial behavior. In N. M. Ashkanasy, C. P. M. Wilderom, & M. F. Peterson (Eds.), Handbook of organizational culture & climate (pp. 417–436). London: Sage Publications.
Schwartz, S. H., Siegel, J. I., & Licht, A. N. (2006). Egalitarianism and international investment. In Proceedings of the Conference “Challenges to the European Welfare State”. The Minda de Gunzburg Center for European Studies at Harvard University, 5 May 2006.
Schwartz, S. H., Smith, P. B., & Peterson, M. F. (2002). Cultural values, sources of guidance and their relevance to managerial behavior: A 47-nation study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 33, 188–208. CrossRef
Schwartz, S. H., Struch, N., & Bilsky, W. (1990). Values and intergroup social motives: A study of Israeli and German students. Social Psychology Quarterly, 53(3), 185–198. CrossRef
Shannon, L. M., & Begley, T. M. (2008). Antecedents of the four-factor model of cultural intelligence. In S. Ang & L. Van Dyne (Eds.), Handbook of cultural intelligence: Theory, measurement, and applications (pp. 41–55). Armonk: ME Sharpe.
Shokef, E., & Erez, M. (2008). Cultural intelligence and global identity in multicultural teams. In S. Ang & L. Van Dyne (Eds.), Handbook of cultural intelligence: Theory, measurement, and applications (pp. 177–191). Armonk: ME Sharpe.
Spencer, H. (1867). First principles. London: Williams and Norgate.
Sternberg, R. J., & Detterman, D. K. (1986). What is intelligence? Contemporary viewpoints on its nature and definition. Norwood: Ablex.
Sternberg, R. J., Forsythe, G. B., Hedlund, J., Horvath, J., Snook, S., Williams, W. M., et al. (2000). Practical intelligence in everyday life. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Sully de Luque, M. F., & Sommer, S. M. (2000). The impact of culture on feedback-seeking behavior: An integrated model and propositions. The Academy of Management Review, 25(4), 829–849. CrossRef
Tang, L., & Koveos, P. E. (2008). A framework to update Hofstede’s cultural value indices: Economic dynamics and institutional stability. Journal of International Business Studies, 39, 1045–1063. CrossRef
Taras, V., & Steel, P. (2009). Beyond Hofstede: Challenging the 10 testaments of cross-cultural research. In C. Nakata (Ed.), Beyond Hofstede: Culture frameworks for global marketing and management (pp. 40–61). Chicago: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossRef
Templer, K., Tay, C., & Chandrasekar, N. A. (2006). Motivational cultural intelligence, realistic job preview, realistic living conditions preview, and cross-cultural adjustment. Group and Organization Management, 31(1), 154–173. CrossRef
Thomas, D. C., Elron, E., Stahl, G., Ekelund, B. Z., Ravlin, E. C., Cerdin, J. L., et al. (2008). Cultural intelligence: Domain and assessment. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 8(2), 123–143. CrossRef
Thorndike, R. L., & Stein, S. (1937). An evaluation of the attempts to measure social intelligence. Psychological Bulletin, 34, 275–285. CrossRef
Triandis, H. C. (2006). Cultural intelligence in organizations. Group and Organization Management, 31(1), 20–26. CrossRef
Triandis, H. C. (1994). Culture and social behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Trompenaars, F. (2003). Did the Pedestrian Die? Insights from the world’s greatest culture guru. Oxford: Capstone Publishing Ltd.
Trompenaars, F., & Hampden-Turner, C. (2000). Building cross-cultural competence. How to create wealth from conflicting values. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Trompenaars, F., & Hampden-Turner, C. (1998). Riding the waves of culture. Understanding diversity in global business. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Tsui, A. S., Egan, T. D., & O’Reilly, C. A., III. (1992). Being different: Relational demography and organizational attachment. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37(4), 549–579. CrossRef
Tylor, E. B. (1871). Primitive culture: Research into the development of mythology, philosophy, religion, art, and custom. London: John Murray.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (1982). World Conference on Cultural Policies. Mexico City, 26 July–6 August 1982.
Van Dyne, L., Ang, S., Ng, K. Y., Rockstuhl, T., Tan, M. L., & Koh, C. (2012). Sub-dimensions of the four factor model of cultural intelligence: Expanding the conceptualization and measurement of cultural intelligence. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 6(4), 295–313. CrossRef
Van Dyne, L., Ang, S., & Koh, C. (2008). Development and validation of the CQS: The cultural intelligence scale. In S. Ang & L. Van Dyne (Eds.), Handbook of cultural intelligence: Theory, measurement, and applications (pp. 16–38). Armonk: ME Sharpe.
Van Maanen, J., & Schein, E. H. (1979). Toward of theory of organizational socialization. Research in Organizational Behavior, 1, 209–264.
Wu, M. (2006). Hofstede’s cultural dimensions 30 years later: A study of Taiwan and the United States. Intercultural Communication Studies, 15, 33–42.
Yamazaki, Y., & Kayes, D. C. (2004). An experiential approach to cross-cultural learning: A review and integration of competencies for success expatriate adaptation. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 3, 362–379. CrossRef
- Culture and Its Dimensions: General Implications for Management
- Chapter 4
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww, Voraussetzungen für wirtschaftliche additive Fertigung/© Marco2811 | Fotolia