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Many governments worldwide are setting more stringent targets for reductions in energy use in government/public buildings. Buildings constructed more than 10 years ago account for a major share of energy used by the building stock. However, the funding and “know-how” (applied knowledge) available for owner-directed energy retrofit projects has not kept pace with new requirements. With typical retrofit projects, reduction of energy use varies between 10 and 20%, while actual executed renovation projects show that energy use reduction can exceed 50%, and can cost-effectively achieve the Passive House standard or even approach net zero-energy status (EBC Annex 61 2017a, Hermelink and Müller 2010; NBI 2014; RICS 2013; Shonder and Nasseri 2015; Miller and Higgins 2015; Emmerich et al. 2011).

Building energy efficiency (EE) ranks first in approaches with resource efficiency potential with a total resource benefit of approximately $700 billion until 2030. EE is by far the cheapest way to cut CO2 emissions (McKinsey 2011, IPCC 2007). However, according to an IEA study (IEA 2014a), more than 80% of savings potential in building sector remains untapped. Thus, the share of deployed EE in the building sector is lower than in the Industry, Transport, and Energy generation sectors. Estimates for the deep renovation potentials show: €600-900bn investment potential, €1000-1300bn savings potential, 70% energy-saving potential, and 90% CO2 reduction potential.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
Many governments worldwide are setting more stringent targets for reduction in energy use in government/public buildings. Buildings constructed more than 10 years ago account for a major share of energy used by the building stock.
Alexander Zhivov, Rüdiger Lohse

Chapter 2. Deep Energy Retrofit in Public Buildings—EBC Annex 61 Approach

Abstract
Research under the IEA EBC Annex 61 has been conducted with a goal of providing a framework, selected tools, and guidelines to significantly reduce energy use (by more than 50%) in government and public buildings constructed before the 1980s with low internal loads (e.g., office buildings, dormitories, barracks, public housing, and educational buildings) undergoing major renovation.
Alexander Zhivov, Rüdiger Lohse

Chapter 3. What is Deep Energy Retrofit?

Abstract
Although the term “Deep Energy Retrofit” is currently widely used, there is no established global definition. Since the energy crisis of the 1970s, energy requirements pertaining to new construction and building renovation worldwide have significantly improved. Since the 1980s, building energy use requirements in the United States have improved by more than 50% (calculated without consideration of plug loads).
Alexander Zhivov, Rüdiger Lohse

Chapter 4. Deep Energy Retrofit Versus Shallow Renovation

Abstract
Current studies show that the typical approach to refurbishing the building stock is to follow a “shallow renovation” track that focuses on single measures; partial refurbishments; primarily on lighting retrofits, HVAC replacement, and retro-commissioning; and other ECMs that provide low risk and short payback periods.
Alexander Zhivov, Rüdiger Lohse

Chapter 5. Major Renovation and Deep Energy Retrofit

Abstract
Typical energy efficiency improvement projects are planned as follows:
Alexander Zhivov, Rüdiger Lohse

Chapter 6. Product Delivery Quality Assurance Process

Abstract
To increase a building’s value and improve its indoor climate and thermal comfort, DER must adopt a QA process that, in addition to conventional understanding of QA, includes.
Alexander Zhivov, Rüdiger Lohse

Chapter 7. How to Make DER Cost-Effective?

Abstract
The scope of a DER project and its attractiveness to investors depends on the project’s cost-effectiveness. The standard method to analyze a project’s cost-effectiveness is by performing a life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA), which accounts for present and future costs of the project
Alexander Zhivov, Rüdiger Lohse

Chapter 8. Business Models for DER

Abstract
This section of the DER Technical Guide describes four business models that are available for energy efficiency retrofit projects to public and commercial sectors. For each business model, a product's value proposition, infrastructure, customers, and finances are described.
Alexander Zhivov, Rüdiger Lohse

Chapter 9. DER Financing

Abstract
DER requires cost-effective financing of high investment costs. For public entities, the impact of financing instruments on the balance sheet is relevant for decision-making.
Alexander Zhivov, Rüdiger Lohse

Chapter 10. Lessons Learned from Pilot Projects

Abstract
Some of the concepts developed under the EBC Annex 61 and described in the Technical and Business Guides and their combinations have been tested and further studied as a part of the EBC Annex 61 pilot projects, conducted in Germany, Denmark, the United States, and Estonia.
Alexander Zhivov, Rüdiger Lohse

Chapter 11. Conclusions

Abstract
Setting up a major renovation in the public building stock involves the allocation of a large amount of scarce public funding.
Alexander Zhivov, Rüdiger Lohse

Backmatter

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