Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Display technology has had three basic phases in its history starting with monochrome vector CRT, going through monochrome raster CRT to color raster CRT, and then using color raster LCD and OLED. CRTs are either vector, or raster. A vector, or electrostatic CRT, (sometimes referred to as “random scan”) was first used as a used in computer systems from the 1940s to as late as the late 1980s and were replaced by electromagnetic deflection raster scan displays (sometimes referred to as “all points addressable” APA display). Vector displays were round, and usually large, 20–24-in. in diameter. Raster displays, based on TV tubes, were rectangular, ranging in size from as small as 9-in., up to 27-in., in the 2000s 30-in. raster-scan LCD computer monitors became available. Generally, if you see a picture of an old computer you can tell what kind of display it has by its shape. A special class of vector display was developed in 1968 called a storage tube. The Direct View Storage Tube emerged as a graphics screen that maintained an image without requiring refreshing (However, the entire screen had to be redrawn for any change). Vector graphics terminals, which evolved from oscilloscopes, required constant refreshing of the image—one of the reasons the storage tube display terminals were so popular.
The first production color picture tube was a 15-in. round screen CRT, made in 1954 by RCA. Raster scan displays for graphics were initially limited to X–Y resolutions such as 256 × 256 to 512 × 512, or 480 × 640 due to the cost of the memory in the frame buffer, and they were slow due to the difficulty of the processing required for scan conversion.
Display standards for the PC were developed by IBM and can still be found in use today (in the form of the venerable VGA standard). Today its alphabet-soup with standards such as DVI, HDMI, DP, and others.
Projectors have gotten small and low cost making very large displays using multiple projectors possible. New technologies in the form of nano-crystals called quantum dots will probably be the final surface display technology until holographic displays become practical.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Lyon, R. F. (2006, January 1). Digital photography II—invited paper. IS&T/SPIE symposium on electronic imaging (pp. 15–19). Paper EI 6069, San Jose, CA.
Nipkow, P. (1884, January). Elektrisches Teleskop. German Patent No. 30105. (Electrical Telescopes).
Vogel, H. W. (1874). Die chemischen Wirkungen des Lichts und die Photographie in ihrer Anwendung in Kunst, Wissenschaft und Industrie. Leipzig: F. A. Brockhaus (The chemical effects of light and the photograph in its application in art, science and industry).
Crookes, W. (1878, December). On the illumination of lines of molecular pressure, and the trajectory of molecules. Philosophical Transactions, 170, 135–164. doi:10.1098/rstl.1879.0065. CrossRef
Davis, E. A., & Falconer, I. (1997). J.J. Thomson and the discovery of the electron. London/Bristol: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-7484-0696-8.
Jules Antoine Lissajous. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jules_Antoine_Lissajous.
Nathaniel Bowditch. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nathaniel_Bowditch.
Laposky, B. F. (1953). Oscillons:Electronic abstractions. Copyright 1953 by, Published by Cherokee: Ben F. Laposky.
Lavington, S. (1998). A history of Manchester computers (2 ed.). Swindon: The British Computer Society. ISBN Special: BookSources: 0-902505-01-8|0-902505-01-8.
Toward the classical computer, the first stored program, Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/130429/computer/216045/Toward-the-classical-computer#ref=ref723678.
Thomson, J. J. (1897, February 8). On the cathode rays. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 9, 243.
Whitaker, J. (2001). Video display engineering. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Redmond, K. C., & Smith, T. M. (2000, October 16). From whirlwind to MITRE: The R&D story of The SAGE air defense computer (History of computing). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. ISBN 10: 0262182017.
Early development of the United States defensive missile system. By Raul Colon. Aeroflight.
AN/FYQ-47 RADAR data processing system. Radomes, Inc. Retrieved on July 18, 2007.
Casteel, D. E., Captain, USAF (ret). Recollections of the SAGE system. http://ed-thelen.org/comp-hist/CasteelSageRecollections.html.
Maloney, S. M. (2007). Learning to love the bomb: Canada’s nuclear weapons during the cold war. Washington: Potomac Books, Inc.. ISBN 13: 978-1-57488-616-0.
The SAGE air defense system. http://www.ll.mit.edu/about/History/SAGEairdefensesystem.html.
Campbell-Kelly, M., & Aspray, W. (2004). Computer: A history of the information machine. Boulder: Westwood Press.
The evolution to aerospace defense (1959–1979). http://www.uspoliticsonline.net/science-technology/25952-aesa-technology-next-generation-RADAR-3.html.
BUIC fact sheet. http://www.radomes.org/museum/buicfacts.html.
Thornhjll, D. E., Stotz, R. H., Ross, D. T., & Ward, J. E. (1968, December). An integrated hardware- software system for computer graphics in time- sharing. Report, Nos. ESL-R-356, MAC-T R-56.
Fano, M., & Corbató, F. J. (1966). Time-sharing on computers. Scientific American, 215, 128–140. CrossRef
According to Wikipedia ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kludge) the term “kludge” (or kluge) refers to an inelegant, yet effective, solution to a software or hardware problem. The Oxford English Dictionary Online (2nd edn.) gives a similar definition. It is not clear why the epithet came to be attached to the ESL display console.
Francoeur, E. (2002). Cyrus Levinthal, the Kluge and the origins of interactive molecular graphics, Elsevier Science Ltd. Endeavour, 26(4), 127–131. CrossRef
Kálmán Tihanyi. http://www.hungarianhistory.com/mszh/etihanyi.htm.
Bissell, D. (1988). Was the IDIION the first stand-alone CAD platform? IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, 20(2), 14–19.
Vector Group Ltd. – Company Profile, Information, Business Description, History, Background Information on Vector Group Ltd. http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/history2/92/Vector-Group-Ltd.html.
Stotz, R. H., et al. (1967, July). A low-cost graphic display for a computer time sharing console. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Contract No. Nonr-4 102(01) DSR 79474.
Nashua Telegraph Monday, 1974, October 28.
Computerworld, 1977, November 28, p. 1 and 6.
Fuchs, H. (1987). An introduction to pixel-planes and other VLSI-intensive graphics systems. NATO International Advanced Study Institute, Theoretical Foundations of Computer Graphics and CAD, II Ciocco International Center, Castelvecchio Pascoli, Lucca, Tuscany, Italy, July 4–17, 1987.
Machover, C. (1972). Computer graphics terminals: A backward look. Proceeding AFIPS ’72 (Spring) proceedings of the May 16–18, 1972, spring joint computer conference (pp. 439–446). New York: ACM.
Carl Machover, computer graphics pioneer. http://www.prweb.com/releases/2012/3/prweb9259598.htm.
Frederic Calland Williams; Pre-war years at Manchester and Oxford. http://www.computer50.org/mark1/williams.html.
Mayer, H. (2005). Planting high- technology seeds: Tektronix’s role in the creation of Portland’s silicon forest. Portland: Oregon Historical Society.
Haeff, A. V. (1947, Sept). The memory tube: A novel electronic recording and reproducing device. (Box 4, folder 7) (pp. 80–83). Electronics, McGraw-Hill.
Direct-view bistable storage tubes, Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Direct-View_Bistable_Storage_Tubes.
Lee, M. (1986). Winning with people: The first 40 years of Tektronix. Portland: Tektronix, Inc.
Moore, G. E. (1965, April 19). Cramming more components onto integrated circuits. Electronics, 38(8), 144.
Peddie, J. (1993, August). High-resolution graphics display systems. New York: Windcrest. ISBN 10: 0830642927.
CIE. (1932). Commission internationale de l’Eclairage proceedings, 1931. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Poynton, C. (2002). Gamma FAQ – frequently asked questions about gamma. http://www.poynton.com/notes/colour_and_gamma/GammaFAQ.html.
Baecker, R. (1979). Digital video display systems and dynamic graphics. International conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques archive, proceedings of the 6th annual conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques (pp 48–56), Chicago.
Foley, J. D., & van Dam, A. (1984). Fundamentals of interactive computer graphics. Boston: Addison-Wesley.
Cohen, D. (1969). Fast drawing of curves for computer display. In T. M. P. Lee (Ed.), AFIPS joint computer conferences, proceedings of the May 14–16, 1969, spring joint computer conference. Cambridge: Harvard University.
Lee, T. M. P. (1969, April 30). Three- dimensional curves and surfaces for rapid computer. Advanced Research Projects Agency, AD 696176.
Carlson, W. (2003). A critical history of computer graphics and animation. The Ohio State University. http://design.osu.edu/carlson/history/lessons.html.
- Development of Displays: Getting to See 3D
- Springer London