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Exposure conditions are one of the main causes of a number of defects in concrete structures. The degree of exposure anticipated for the concrete during its service life together with other relevant factors relating to mix composition, workmanship, and design must be considered. In mild exposure conditions, minor cracking or some minor defect in concrete quality (but not chloride contamination) may not lead to serious trouble. However, in severe exposure like freezing, heavy rains, sea splash, or alternate wetting and drying especially in hot arid climates, only the highest quality of undamaged concrete with proper cover to reinforcement should be expected to give satisfactory performance in the long run.
This chapter addresses some of the exposure conditions, to which the concrete may be exposed during its service life along with effects of these exposure conditions and possible remedies. The exposure conditions discussed are freezing and thawing, wetting and drying, leaching, abrasion, overloading, settlement, fire resistance, and restraint against movement. Various types of concrete joints and sealants, their failures, and remedies are also covered in this chapter.
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- External Factors
- Chapter 8