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2023 | Buch

Formal Methods in Architecture

Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Formal Methods in Architecture (6FMA), A Coruña 2022

herausgegeben von: Plácido Lizancos Mora, David Leite Viana, Franklim Morais, Jorge Vieira Vaz

Verlag: Springer Nature Singapore

Buchreihe : Digital Innovations in Architecture, Engineering and Construction


Über dieses Buch

This book comprises the select proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Formal Methods in Architecture (6FMA), A Coruña 2022. The contents focus on the use of methodologies, especially those that have witnessed recent developments stemming from mathematical and computer sciences and are developed in a collaborative way with architecture and related fields. This book constitutes a contribution to the debate and to the introduction of new methodologies and tools in the mentioned fields that derive from the application of formal methods in the creation of new explicit languages for problem-solving in architecture and urbanism. Some of the themes in the book are CAD and BIM, mixed realities, photogrammetry and 3D scan, architectural design automation, urban and building performance analysis, SCAVA-space configuration, accessibility and visibility analysis. This book proves a valuable resource for those in academia and industry.



Statements by the Keynote Speakers and the Chairs of the 6FMA

The Formalization of Architecture as a Social Dialogical Tool: An Introduction to Innovative Theoretical Frames in Architectural Design
The formalization of architectural design today supports the impact of the use of the computer in the architectural design and urban designs practices, from the parametric representations of buildings and cities until the artificial intelligence more sophisticated languages. My proposal starts with the definition of the professor Jonas Langer’s tree between ontogenesis, phylogenesis, and topogenesis and finishes with the definition of a cognitive human dialogic interaction between brains and computers, that could be useful, both, in architectural education, in the architectural and urban design activities and, finally, in the incorporation of the human interlocative powers of architecture in the cultural and historical development of the human minds. This discourse demands an enlargement of our theoretical foundations related to architecture and urban planning, starting with the criticism of the exclusive power of the Heidegger fundamentalistic phenomenology, in order to include the works by Edmund Husserl, Georg Simmel, Mikhail Bakhtin, Paul Ricoeur, and Lewis Mumford, opening an innovative way of PhD Research Dissertations and projects where social participation and real use are no more dangers or inconvenient issues, but crucial facts. Then, we will understand the origin of the good and healthy architectural design practices, and the history of human cultures will be clarified, the political pressures with fundamentalist historical explanations will be released, and the architectural and urban research of different points of view could develop in freedom again.
Josep Muntañola Thornberg, Regina Garcia
The Architectonics of Form: Intelligibility of Space and Form in Space–Time
In this chapter I explore how certain aspects of the dynamics of form and embodied vision in three-dimensional spatial experience can be rendered in 3D. I take isovists along a path and plot in succession the fluctuation of their variables in three dimensions. The work builds on previous research by Psarra and Grajewski (2001, 2003) Lazaridou and Psarra (2017, 2021) and Psarra and Maldonado (ongoing). Our findings consist of prototypes and digital images, each one modelling a building by selected architects. Such modelling can provide systematic ways to compare a corpus of buildings of different styles, or buildings by the same architect over a period of time. Another advantage of this work is that it can facilitate the study of social factors in terms of interfaces between different categories of people, examining whether spatial experiences look different from the view-point of different users.
Sophia Psarra
Research, Diffusion and Transfer in Architecture—The European Context
At the present time, scientific research and innovation are gradually becoming strategic factors for the competitiveness and the identity of the European Union. Because of these principles, the Horizon Europe Programme aims to strengthen the interaction between the European policies and science by fostering investment opportunities for new products and services to increase productivity and employment. Architecture research must adapt to this impact-driven Framework Programme, which provides many opportunities for interacting and exchanging ideas with other scientific areas. This contribution explores how architecture research can achieve the desired scientific, societal and economic-technological impacts.
Pilar Chias
Some Controversies Around Formalization in Architecture
Formal Methods is a designation that has its origin in the computer sciences, where it is widely used. Due to the increasing importance of computer systems, and their growth in scope and complexity, formal methods are expanding within these disciplines.
Plácido Lizancos Mora, Catarina Ruivo, David Leite Viana, Franklim Morais, Jorge Vieira Vaz, Vicente López-Chao

Developments in Space Configuration, Accessibility and Visibility Analysis

A Spatial Analysis Proposal for Activity Affordance in Exhibition Halls
Traditional methods of syntactic analysis are briefly explained to address their limitations in analyzing single-room scenarios. In this paper is proposed a different method to analyze space using a hexagonal lattice to represent relations of permeability among contiguous portions of peripersonal space portraying the human scale. Five study cases in two museums of Mexico City are assessed. A data sheet is used to compute the radius of analysis of one and two steps and to associate the hexagonal mesh with Cartesian coordinates. Statistics show similar representations of space for the two radiuses of analysis, as well as a tendency to position additional obstacles in the center or available space within museum halls. Calculated valences are compared visually and statistically to Variance as calculated by Isovist_App 2.4.6.
Mariana Yollohtzin Tafoya García
VISSOP: A Tool for Visibility-Based Analysis
This paper presents and briefly describes VISSOP, a visibility-based analysis application dedicated to space syntax methodologies. It has been developed as a set of custom Operator Type Library (OTL) modules, within the Surface Operator (SOP) and geometry context of SideFX Houdini. VISSOP allows to perform two- and three-dimensional visibility-based analyses with high precession and performance. The focus of VISSOP is on the analysis of architectural interior space in order to investigate the relationship between the geometric shape and visual appearance of space and human experience and behavior. To achieve this, it combines geometrical, topological, and image-based methods to calculate a large number of quantitative measures as proposed by various authors in the space syntax literature. In order to take important visual properties such as light and color into account, VISSOP utilizes lightmap and texture baking techniques, as well as saliency detection models from the field of computer vision.
Christoph Opperer
Restructuring Urban Form Through Restructuring Accessibility: An Integrated Urban Network Approach
Urban form and socio-economic activities are mutually impacted and reinforced through the medium of human movement. Prior literature has paid much attention to the interrelations between physical space and socio-economic activities regarding the shaping and reshaping process of urban form. Regrettably, limited attempts have highlighted the role of underground morphological elements in this regard. This research introduces an integrated urban network structure that combines the road network with the metro network which represents one of the most representative elements of underground morphology. We use the space syntax approach to examine both the traditional road network model and the proposed integrated urban network model. Using accessibility as the primary indicator to gauge the changes associated with this integration, we argue that underground morphology plays a critical role in restructuring accessibility, thereby affecting the existing urban form. Facilitated by Point of Interests data, this research also explores to what extent can the built environment impact the socio-economic development of cities. This research is based in the City of Xi’an, China, and all the data are collected from open sources, such as OpenStreetMap and BaiduMap API. This research contributes to the existing literature threefold: (1) theoretically, it adds to the conceptual framework of urban morphology with an underground layer; (2) empirically, it shows how metro lines impact the urban form through restructuring accessibility; and (3) practically, it cautions urban practitioners of the importance of incorporating underground morphological elements in their decision-making process.
Chen Yang, Zhu Qian
Urban Design, Architecture and Space Syntax in the Conception of Public Spaces—A Look at Luanda’S Revitalization
The imagery of sub—Saharan African cities often depicts challenges of infrastructural deficiencies and the prevalence of informal settlements. However, that setup does not represent the entirety of these cities, as is the case of Luanda in Angola. Although the city presents a formal and informal urban settlements duality and extensive urban sprawl, public open spaces in the city centre of Luanda offer few opportunities for trivial encounters and socialisation. The Bay of Luanda is the largest and widely recognized option for a public open space providing opportunities for social interaction. The revitalisation of formal, preserved but underutilised or privatised public open spaces in Luanda sets the starting point of this paper, which looks at urban revitalisation at a micro-scale where communities and the private sector may contribute. Although it is vital to pursue urban infrastructural improvements, it is also important to cater for the preservation of historic urban centres, which have challenges of their own and have the potential to promote inclusive public life through vibrant public spaces. Furthermore, Public Open Spaces (POSs) are essential in promoting social interactions and walkability, thus generating vibrant public life, which is the core objective of an urban revitalisation strategy. Moreover, local cultural, social and economic dynamics are crucial in urban revitalisation. Although space syntax is a valuable tool for urban design and interventions, it is not a substitute for public participation. The historical backgrounds of the locale, and the cultural richness of the community embedded in the built environment, encapsulate de poetic complexity and layers of the architectural and urban design of the place through time. Although the process cannot be entirely perceptive to the eye, it is from POSs that we see it best. This paper aims to present an overview of the urban revitalisation background and the importance of built fabric configuration for urban vitality as theoretical frameworks for an urban revitalisation strategy. It then introduces the usefulness of Space Syntax as a tool to anticipate human spatial behaviours and aid in locating different activities to enhance public life by taking advantage of the space syntax methodology. Finally, a speculative analysis of the configuration-function relationship employing space syntax methods was applied to understand how the urban system functions and bring analytical, evidence-based rigour. Preliminary conclusions suggest that since one of the challenges of urban revitalisation is the unpredictability of the outcome and the heavy upfront financial burden, space syntax represents a valuable tool of predictability for these interventions. Furthermore, the research underpins the importance of POSs for city branding and tourism, to promote the micro-economy, and essentially promote social interaction and inclusion, which is the focus of this paper.
Ana Cristina Inglês, Luísa Cannas, Teresa Heitor
Integrating Formal Methodologies in a Multi-Layered Analysis for Management Policies for the Pedestrian Use of Public Space
Taking advantage of the opportunity to carry out a project of analysis of municipal intervention in the public space of the city of Porto, it was possible to test and disseminate a set of formal and digital methodologies, comparing them with more traditional methodologies.
Catarina Ruivo, Franklim Morais, Joaquim Flores, Jorge Vieira Vaz
Space Syntax as a Distributed Artificial Intelligence System: A Framework for a Multi-Agent System Development
Thomas Schelling developed the first social agent-based simulation in 1978.
Ana Cocho Bermejo
Examination of the Diffusion of COVID-19 Cases in Viçosa, Minas Gerais (Brazil): A Configurational Approach
The urban space has been recognised, worldwide, as one of the main factors affecting the spread of infectious diseases. Severe acute respiratory syndrome Sars-Cov-2, which causes COVID-19, is much more transmissible than the respiratory viruses already known from previous pandemics. The role the urban space configuration played in the COVID-19 dissemination is highlighted, due to the social dynamics and physical contacts happening within it. In order to understand the configurational influence in the infection propagation process, this study used morphological analysis techniques derived from Space Syntax. As such, the research focussed on the urban space and the spatial spread of COVID-19 cases in Viçosa-MG (Brazil). A dataset of confirmed cases and corresponding locations were collected. Considering Space Syntax, Choice and Integration measures were selected as quantitative indicators for the urban space configuration. In addition, it was developed an overlapping process of syntactic analyses with the Kernel Density Estimator (also called Kernel Map), to estimate the density and concentration of confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the urban space. As a result, it was possible to reveal a strong relationship between the urban space configuration and the spread of COVID-19.
Marine Luíza de Oliveira Mattos, Arthur Dornellas Oliveira, David Leite Viana, Teresa Cristina de Almeida Faria
Applying a Morphological Approach into Istanbul’s Urban Landscape
This paper proposes a methodology based on the concept of morphological region and the method of morphological regionalization. The concept has been proposed by M.R.G. Conzen in the early 1960s, and promoted by J.W.R. Whitehand and his colleagues at the University of Birmingham mainly from the late 1980s. A morphological region is an area that has unity in respect of its form that distinguishes it from surrounding areas, based on a combination of town-plan, building fabric, and land and building utilization (Conzen’s tripartite division of the urban landscape). The methodology is based on a set of criteria considering the tripartite division of the urban landscape. Age of streets, streets geometry, plot layout, and building coverage are four criteria offered on the basis of the town-plan. Architectural style, building material, and height are proposed on the basis of the building fabric. Finally, land and building utilization is used to design the methodology. The methodology is applied to the Fatih District, the historical core of Istanbul. A four-tier hierarchy of regions is identified. The map of first-order morphological regions can offer the basis to produce a map of planning zones—a key tool to guide urban landscape management. Lower order regions can support the formulation of regulations for each planning zone, framing the design of new forms, assuring a strong relationship with extant urban forms. These ideas, detailed in the paper, are of great relevance for spatial planning, particularly for Turkish planning, where regulations are very generic and do not acknowledge the specific character of each urban landscape.
Muzaffer Ali Arat, Vitor Oliveira
Evaluating Urbanity by Measuring Urban Morphology Attributes
This study analyzes the performance of urban spaces from the qualitative assessment of morphological attributes. It is intended to demonstrate that the performative quality is a factor that finds its opportunity in the attributes of the urban form and spatial configuration. The goal is to find whether some attributes play or not a determinant role in establishing the conditions of urbanity. The term urbanity here is used as the characteristics of the “urbis” that promote civility, human presence, and the natural appropriation of spaces for different types of open space activities. This definition of urbanity is assumed to describe a “positive” dynamic use of urban space, promoting social interaction, security, economic activities, and pleasant spaces for walking. The underlying hypothesis is that urbanity (or positive urban condition) can occur only when specific attributes meet within a specific urban area. These attributes are mainly of morphological and configurational nature, and therefore, they may inform us on how to design better public spaces and cities in general. Thus, we propose a methodology that studies socio-spatial relationships in confrontation with morphological characteristics, seeking to establish relationships between them. The methodology proposes to confront an automated morphological-type description with a set of performance metrics (or measures), calculated using indicators based on the concepts and principles of contemporary urbanism found in the recent scientific literature in this area of knowledge and consensually considered qualifying factors of urban space. The chosen indicators express the accessibility of the network, the compactness of the urban model, the participation of facades in activating the sociable urban space, and the safety of its use. We calculate these measures through a semi-automated modeling of all information and use a statistical approach to enable the classification of type-morphological characteristics as adequate or inadequate. The research is organized into four fundamental steps. The first identifies the set of performance measures or attributes capable of qualifying urban space and urbanity. The selection of attributes is based on a critical assessment of indicators employing a literature review. The second step identifies the range of variation of attributes that correspond to positive performance based on either reference cases or previous research found in the literature review, pointing towards specific systems of value that can be used for qualitative interpretation of measures that we shall call reference parameters or performance indicators. In the third step, we develop a morphological classification of urban samples based on their morphological attributes. In the last step, we search for correlations between morphological attributes and reference parameters to identify which ones are more prone to develop positive qualities in terms of a possible capacity of inducing urbanity. We analyzed two sets of urban fabric samples: one set taken from reference cases in Lisbon, Portugal, and a second set from Recife, Brazil. Morphological attributes and reference performance indicators are calculated for all samples and analyzed through a correlation matrix from which we can extract the correlation values between morphological attributes and performance indicators. The correlation analysis opens a new vision towards what morphological features may induce better urbanity. This paper focuses on the first two steps, i.e., the definition of the system of values that provides the interpretation of measurements. The following paper will complete the conclusions of the fourth step of this research.
Samira Elias, José Nuno Beirão

Developments in Architectural Design Automation

Plausible Layout Generation Using Machine Learning, Evolutionary Optimisation and Parametric Methods
Testing the preliminary design of a building is usually carried out to ensure that the requirements for its programme, space sizes, adjacencies, travel distances and access to daylight are satisfactorily met. Increasingly, this task is being implemented through automated plan layout generation tools. However, these tools struggle to create realistic and functional floor plans. In this paper, our aim is to generate plausible floor plans with fully functional circulation systems by combining Machine Learning (ML), evolutionary optimisation and parametric methods. We focused on generating buildings with functioning circulation, consisting of primary circulation with building entrances, horizontal and vertical connections and secondary circulation that connects all the rooms. We started by analysing school buildings, as a test case scenario, which showed that their zoning, circulation and topological relationships consistently follow design patterns. This enabled us to specify algorithmic rules for room placement. The floor plans also allowed us to generate the dataset needed to train a neural network and a decision tree. To achieve this, we traced the overall zones (functional and circulation spaces) of the ground floor layout and encoded it with its main features such as its area-to-perimeter ratio and the shape of its convex hull. We also varied the geometry of the layout without modifying its topology to add more training test cases for the neural network. Once the neural network and decision tree have been trained, our implementation proceeded in three main phases. First, the user inputs the approximate building shape using a simple closed curve. Selecting either the trained neural network or the decision tree, the user is presented with a matching building layout from a gallery which is geometrically transformed to closely fit the user’s sketch. Second, the spatial program is packed into the overall layout parametrically, using an algorithm based on the aforementioned set of rules. Finally, three fitness criteria (adjacencies, travel distances and daylight) are measured and optimised using an evolutionary solver. The result is a novel and optimised plausible floor plan with a functional circulation system. While the current workflow is designed to generate only the ground floor, we plan to expand it to generate multi-storey buildings. Our analysis has found that extracting design patterns, matching sketches using ML and optimising the result using an evolutionary solver is significantly more efficient than manual processes. The paper concludes with a discussion of the potential of integrating artificial intelligence in the early phases of design and the need to share standardised and richer building data beyond architectural projection drawings.
Daiva Marcinkeviciute, Wassim Jabi
Experimental Form-Finding Method. Case Study: ‘Weather Pavilion’
The paper presents an experimental digital form-finding method demonstrated on a tensegrity pavilion design. The creation process is driven by biological inspiration, relating the architectural design to the natural organism’s adaptation to its surroundings. In the Grasshopper parametric environment, we interrelate weather data, expressed through one Forming Force, with the process of form-finding. Employing Python scripts, the topological, structural, and geometric relations of the emerging 3D geometry are transformed under the influence of the weather. In an iterating loop, the tensegrity-like units gradually duplicate (grow), creating the ‘Weather Pavilion’. Through receiving environmental information, a weather-responsive structure simultaneously emerges. The resulting architectural form integrates the influence of the meteorological data and converts it to the optimal reaction to the specific microclimate. On a case study pavilion in Košice, the weather-driven design method is demonstrated, which (1) aims at improving climate-collaborative, sustainable building design in the future, (2) blends the Grasshopper-integrated techniques: form-finding employing a new plug-in Anisoptera (which integrates the weather information to the design process), and structural analysis through Karamba 3D, with architectural design.
Tomáš Baroš, Lenka Kabošová, Martin Baroš, Dušan Katunský
Modelling the Relationships Between Ground and Buildings Using 3D Architectural Topological Models Utilising Graph Machine Learning
Historically, architects have established different approaches to constructing their buildings on the ground. Classifying the building/ground relationship enables the architect to make informed design decisions during the early design stages. Manual handling of this task is time-consuming, complex as well as prone to errors. This paper leveraged Machine Learning (ML) methods to overcome this difficulty by applying Graph Machine Learning (GML) to 3D topological models, to classify the building and ground relationship. The paper workflow comprised two stages. The first stage involved generating 3D synthetic architectural precedents and created a dataset of their dual graph using Topologic, which is software that computes the spatial relationships between elements. The second stage ran the Deep Graph Convolutional Neural Network (DGCNN) using PyTorch, which is a Python machine learning library developed by Facebook. The paper’s results demonstrate that the system effectively classifies the relationship between building and ground, with the ability to predict a new previously unseen architectural building/ground relationship with high accuracy measurement that aligns with DGCNNs benchmark graphs. The paper concludes by reflecting on the advantages and disadvantages of generating a sizeable synthetic dataset with embedded semantic topological graphs as a formal design method, in addition to outlining future work.
Abdulrahman Alymani, Wassim Jabi, Padraig Corcoran
Associative Synthesis with Deep Neural Networks for Architectural Design
Our ways of seeing can be very different from that of deep neural networks, and consequently our ways of knowing and saying what these machines are trying to show us can be serendipitously creative as a result of novel design associations. Both ways of seeing come with their own priors. For the deep neural network, it is the explicit training set used and what it sees might be visualised computationally with saliency maps. For the human, it is his/her own personal implicit perception and knowledge of design and what he/she sees might be detected empirically with eye tracking heatmaps. This paper explores such an associative interplay in co-creating through the implementation of several deep learning models that readily lend themselves to architectural appropriations. These deep models include unsupervised generative models for design synthesis, supervised classification models for design analysis and models for understanding networks’ own predictions. In architecture, the implicit and explicit association of formal ideas is one of the reasons for the in-depth study of exemplary buildings from the past and present. Therefore, the case study of buildings conducted in all architecture schools is as much an analytical exercise as it is a creative one. It trains the architecture student to see beyond that which is visible in the two-dimensional photograph or drawing of a building, and to reconstruct in his/her mind’s eye the ‘plausible’ three-dimensional spatial configuration. The paper demonstrates a series of design research projects that leverages the imagery impressions synthesised by deep generative models and the formal interpretations translated by human architects. The projects to be presented include associative synthesis between sculptures and landscape architecture, between anime film and narrative architecture, and between iconic pavilions and interpretable architecture. The proposed framework thus takes advantages of the differing capacities in learning, perceiving and synthesising as afforded by humans and machines, in order to envision new forms of human–computer co-creation. Unlike previous works, rather than having the machine to act as a fully autonomous creative agent itself a task that remains difficult and elusive even today, the paper suggests that the co-creative process is messy and requires strategic labour distribution between the human and machine, where exchanges between both entities occur frequently throughout the design process. The projects discussed also serve as samples for envisioning an appropriate co-creative framework for architectural design as well as for teaching with deep neural networks. The paper aims to answer the main research question of ‘How might deep learning models be appropriated for architectural co-creation through an associative design synthesis process?’.
Immanuel Koh
Behind Algorithmic Geometric Patterns: A Framework for Facade Design Exploration
Architecture has always explored the latest technological advances both in terms of building design and fabrication. Among the recently adopted computational design approaches, Algorithmic Design (AD) shows great potential for the conception, analysis, and production of architecture, due to automating repetitive and time-consuming design tasks, facilitating design changes, increasing design freedom, and facilitating the search for better-performing solutions. These advantages are particularly important for the design of building facades, providing the flexibility needed to deal with the design complexity of this architectural element. However, AD is an abstract formal method that requires programming skills, which explains its still shy adoption in the field. Despite the AD tools released to smooth its learning curve, few successfully combine creative tasks with the need to respond to multiple requirements and almost none simplify the algorithmic task, forcing architects to build the necessary functionalities from scratch. This research addresses these problems by structuring an architectural-oriented theory considering the variability and context-specificity of architectural design practice and responding to its different esthetic, performance, and construction requirements. To make it useful for architects, the theory is implemented in an AD framework, whose application promises to decrease the time and effort needed to geometrically explore, analyze, and materialize new facade designs, while smoothing the transition between design stages and their different tools. In this paper, we focus on the mathematical implementation of three-dimensional unconventional facade elements, assessing the ability of the resulting formalisms to generate, transform, and materialize the produced solutions.
Inês Caetano, António Leitão
Formal Studies on the Parts and Wholes of Historical Bricklay Designs
This paper examines the computational relation between the pattern designs and the construction of historical brick wall panels. The general aim is to devise a method to integrate the geometric and constructional aspects of architectural knowledge in the digital modeling of heritage as part of the increasing interest and need for putting technology to use in practices of conservation and cultural sustainability. Parametric shape rules are computation tools and means for exposing and understanding the three-dimensional relations between the parts of an architectural structure as well as its generative system. We have been analyzing a particular series of brick panels from the Anatolian Seljuk period. In this genre, panels are composed of both plain and glazed bricks of different colors and shapes, materializing abstract geometric patterns in the way that they are placed vertically and horizontally. The plural ways in which different parts and wholes can be perceived on one panel are due to not only the constructional relations between individual bricks but also the geometric motifs formed by the groups of bricks. In this study, we expand the breadth and variety of the examples for more in-depth analysis. Existing architecture and construction history literature on the brick structures of the period provide inferences on the types of brick bonds, sizes, shapes, and surface finishing. Studying photographs, photogrammetry-based models, and survey drawings, we identify the parameters of this type of bricklaying based on these inferences and define the smallest number of shape rules either as pattern rules or brick rules, required for recreating the panels. Local deformations and minor divergences observable in the data are disregarded. The sequential application of sets of pattern rules and brick rules simulates the reconstruction of existing and novel panels in the said genre. We have tested and validated the syntactic accuracy of our grammar through an existing shape interpreter. We have also assessed the results of our generative system comparatively with the brick patterns of different panels of the said period and geography. Differently from the existing grammars that make visual styles explicit, the parametric definition and the sequencing of rules in our study facilitate the categorical documentation of the similarities and differences of patterns as part of a physical construction process. The proposed means to document existing structures and their design and construction, in pattern and brick rules, respectively, serves purposes of conservation and restoration and, in turn, the integration of cultural-historical knowledge with contemporary tools provides ground for designers to explore these issues today. Currently limited to flat surfaces, the parameters and rule sets can be expanded in future studies to similar designs observed on surfaces with various curvatures, making an even stronger connection to complex geometries.
Sevgi Altun, Mine Özkar

Experiences in Dissemination AND Teaching of Formal Methods in the Architectural Domain

A Data Workflow Approach for Pedagogical Sensitization to the BIM Concept
Facing the fast development of Building Information Modeling (BIM) concepts and activities, faculties/schools of architecture and engineering were obliged to develop pedagogical practices to integrate these themes. The integration process of these practices was complex. The situation is related to the convergences between conventional representation/modeling practices and those oriented toward data processing and exploitation. This paper presents three pedagogical experiments carried out in a faculty of architecture to ensure a progressive integration of data-oriented modeling practices from the first year of training. We present the methodologies, tools, and exercises used, the results as well as the limits and perspectives of these experiments.
Mohamed-Anis Gallas, Gregorio Saura Lorente, Etienne Godimus
Massing and Skin: A Pedagogical Experiment with Physical and Digital Design Media
The chapter describes a studio-based project for first-year architecture students that took place at the University of Thessaly in Greece as part of the curriculum for introduction to digital media. The project is part of a foundation course for computer-aided design courses that follow in consequent semesters and aims to prepare students for understanding 3D space, geometric and mathematical rules, representation techniques, while introducing them to digital tools for image editing and desktop publishing. The brief is based on the doctrines of constructionism requiring the students’ active involvement with physical models and digital tools for image processing. The students embark on a hands-on activity creating physical massing models with extruded polystyrene which they later photograph and digitally edit, by applying textures and building skin to create architectural representations.
Ioanna Symeonidou, Giorgos Kalaouzis, Alexandros Efstathiadis
An Experience Around the Rationalization of Architectural Analysis
Architectural design interrelates many aspects that must be treated with detail and exceptional skills. Architectural analysis is an emerging discipline that seeks to understand the architectural fact and communicate it to third parties, or to manage and verify information. As a graphic interface it complements the architectural project from the idea to the built fact, becoming a project design methodology. In the School of Architecture of the Universidade da Coruña—also known as ETSAC—the Architectural Analysis, formalized as a subject has applied a teaching proposal. It runs in the 2nd year of the 1993 syllabus of the BSc of Architecture. Its purpose is to rationalize the analysis of architecture since 1993. In these years, thousands of students have applied our methodology to hundreds of buildings, which has allowed us to test and adjust it. After a process of digitalization of graphic tools around 1995 current digital situation suggests thinking about automating the analysis process. Nowadays tools may address us to a new paradigm where architectonic analysis could be automatized. This chapter provides the conceptual foundation for automation.
Plácido Lizancos Mora, Vicente López-Chao
Changing Methods in Teaching for Strengthening the Relation Between Research and Practice
This paper addresses one fundamental challenge, how to strengthen the relation between morphological research and professional practice. Drawing on the acknowledgment of several weaknesses in the physical form of contemporary urban landscapes—with consequent impacts on the socioeconomic and environmental dimensions of cities—it is argued that effective change can take place through the improvement of knowledge and action of professionals in planning, urban design, and architecture. Furthermore, the paper sustains that the most effective ways of doing this are through the construction of effective processes (as opposed to single events of collaboration) and through education. After a brief literature review, the core of the paper is made of the presentation and discussion of an on-going research project, the Knowledge Alliance for Evidence Based Urban Practices (KAEBUP). The project includes eight European partners from academia and practice. The main objective of KAEBUP is to create an educational process offering participants the opportunity to engage with professional environments, learning how research can be the basis for innovative professional practices, and what enterprises in planning, urban design and architecture require from academia. KAEBUP pedagogic strategy is designed to achieve this main objective. The paper stresses one of its fundamental paths—to co-create urban knowledge through multiple modes of exchange and involvement of students, teaching and company staff in teaching, research, and practice. Particular attention is devoted to one of these activities, one of three Intensive Training Workshops.
Cláudia Monteiro, Vítor Oliveira
Proposal and Application of a Graphic Method for the Definition of New Qualitative Indicators of Architectural Education
Adding new indicators of the quality of teaching by using graphical methods is intention of this paper.
Luis Manuel Santalla Blanco

Other Formal Methods

Encoding Social Values of Local Communities in Algorithmic-Driven Design Methods
This study tackles one important but frequently ignored aspect of the housing crisis in the UK. We propose a computational method to encode the socio-cultural values and aspirations of residents in future housing developments. In this work, we address the question: how resident aspirations, values and living qualities of local communities can be encoded in algorithmic-driven design methods to ensure that the future UK housing design and developments will address resilient, net-zero and sustainable communities? To address this, we developed a model that generates housing urban configurations (massing) using a combination of factors that encode a combination of (i) residents’ social aspirations, (ii) housing regulations and policy-makers agendas and (iii) successful elements for resilient communities. We suggest a statistical linear method to inform the choice of inputs and suggest weights. The model combines these factors using a multi-objective optimisation strategy implemented through Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) to find the best trade-offs among competing factors. We present our final model with some testing and explain how the model can be used by designers (and potentially by city councils and developers) to include social aspects of local communities in the planning of new schemes and evaluation of existing ones. The presented model can be used to consider multi- and diverse communities in data-driven approaches to ensure that future housing schemes strongly cater for resilient, net-zero and sustainable communities. This aligns with UN and UK targets for net-zero communities, housing and sustainable living.
Silvio Carta, Tommaso Turchi, Neil Spencer, Miguel Vidal Calvet
Actors@BIM: A Hybrid Formal Model for Cognitive Buildings
Cognitive Buildings are a nascent area of research which envisions a paradigm shift from of a static notion of the building as a container of human activities to that of dynamic cyber-physical system capable of integrating, analysing and learning from the vast amount of sensor data generated from within a building and its environment. This paper presents a formal model called Actors@BIM capable of analysing static and dynamic constructs and configuration of a cognitive building. The model is hybrid as it combines two existing modelling frameworks, namely Building Information Model (BIM) and actors through a common formal meta-modelling framework of Bigraphical reactive systems (BRS). Combining BIM and actors within a single model provides a powerful abstraction to model both static and dynamic natures of modern building. The key idea of this formal model is that actors can reason about the spatial properties of a building and can take decisions about them. Since the model presented is a formal model, it is amenable to formal verification. In this modelling framework, the spatial aspects of the building are captured by a BIM model and the dynamic aspect of the cognitive building is captured through actors. These actors can be embedded within a spatial structure (i.e. BIM model). In essence, this formal model extends BIM by incorporating actors embedded within it, and they can reason about the static and dynamic properties of the space. The requirement of such a model is because of the emergence of cognitive/smart building and the lack of formal models to model, study and analyse static and dynamic constraints within such a set-up. Although there have been previous attempts to encode agents using BRS, they have not been studied in relation to BIM and cognitive buildings. Further, there have been previous attempts to model agents/actors which can reason about spatial structure; however, a cohesive model, encapsulating spatial structures and agents within those structures modelled using a common meta-modelling framework, is still lacking. We attempt to fill this gap in existing research through this work. The contributions of this paper are (a) A software library to model transform a BIM model to bigraph representation; (b) A formal semantics of the Actors@BIM Model; (c) A Domain-Specific Language to model dynamic agent behaviour within a cognitive building; and (d) Use case study of examples of formal verification of static and dynamic properties of a Cognitive Building using Actors@BIM
P. Govind Raj, Subrat Kar
Generation of a Large Synthetic Database of Office Tower's Energy Demand Using Simulation and Machine Learning 
Machine learning (ML) has proven to be an effective technique serving as a predictive surrogate model for evaluating the performance of buildings. This approach provides considerable benefits such as reduced processing time, simplified predictions and computational efficiency. This study presents an alternative approach using a decision tree (DT) model to predict the hourly cooling loads of adaptive façade (AF) in significantly less time than when applying building performance simulation (BPS). Due to the absence of real-world data, generative parametric modelling of a prototypical office tower with an adaptive façade shading system situated in an urban setting was carried out along with simulation of its energy demand using the Honeybee add-on for Rhino/Grasshopper software. The generated large synthetic datasets were fed in so as to train and test the decision tree model. The prediction results revealed an extremely accurate model capable of estimating cooling loads in a matter of seconds. The paper concludes by arguing that decision tree surrogate models can be effectively used by researchers and designers to assess their future adaptive façade design.
Ammar Alammar, Wassim Jabi
Strategies of Learning and Control of Robotic Manufacturing Methods in Architecture
Over the last decade, robotics applied to the Architecture and Construction sector has evolved through the support of new programming tools. The possibility of controlling robotic arms through visual programming languages has emerged as an opportunity to program industrial robots effectively, taking advantage of their multiple capabilities. This type of control turns the use of robotics accessible to non-specialists in the field of computation and robotics such as the generality of the construction professionals like architects, designers, and engineers. This paper presents the use, improvement, and programming of a small-scale robotic arm, based on the Arduino Tinker Kit Braccio with hardware modifications and software implementations that enable a workflow similar to a full-scale industrial robotic arm, aiming to broaden the access to practical applications by non-experts in teaching and research contexts. The use of an Arduino-controlled mini robotic arm is justified by the fact that not all academic institutions have industrial robots for practice and research, namely due to their high cost and maintenance. This paper is focused on strategies for controlling robotic manufacturing methods in Architecture through visual programming languages and analyzing the several problems and challenges in that process.
António Morais, Bruno Figueiredo, Paulo J. S. Cruz
Formal Methods in Architecture
herausgegeben von
Plácido Lizancos Mora
David Leite Viana
Franklim Morais
Jorge Vieira Vaz
Springer Nature Singapore
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