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Sooner or later, people develop a fairly stable set of ways for thinking, judging and responding; this is called one's habitual domain. Our habitual domains (HDs) grow and go wherever we go and have great impact on our behavior and decision making. When we are vital and growing our HDs are expanding and flexible; and when we find ourselves in ruts, not growing, it is because our HDs have become rigid and inflexible, as in death. This book discusses all aspects of habitual domains: their foundations, expansion, dynamics and applications to various nontrivial decision problems in our lives, including effective decision making, effective goal setting, cooperation, conflict resolution, negotiation and career management. Based on an integration of psychology, system science, management and common sense and wisdom, the book provides a simple but unified set of tools in terms of habitual domains and the behavior mechanism. The tools can be applied to expand and sharpen our capacity for knowing ourselves, our coworkers, our rivals, and our environments, and to form winning strategies for solving our problems. To make the book fun to read and the concepts introduced easy to understand and apply, the book is written in plain language with many lively and interesting examples as illustrations. The first half of the book focuses on general descriptions of the behavior mechanism and habitual domains, the second half on applications.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
How much do you value yourself? Would you trade both your hands for $10,000? Imagine the pain and inconvenience of having no hands. If your answer is no, how about$100,000? If your answer is still no, how about $1,000,000? In this way you will reach a value for your two hands or conclude that your hands are invaluable to you. Now let us consider the value of your two legs. Again, imagine the pain and inconvenience of having no legs. Would you trade them for$100,000? or \$1,000,000? etc. In this way, you will again reach a value for your two legs or conclude that they are invaluable to you. Now, consider repeating the process for the values of your nose, eyes, ears, skin, lungs, heart, brain, . . ., etc. Pretty soon, by considering the values of the components of your valuable body, you will most likely conclude that the value of your life is at least worth ten million dollars, or one billion dollars or of infinite value. Yes, each of us is, at least, an endowed millionaire.
Po L. Yu, Carl A. Scupin

Chapter 2. Behavior Mechanism 1: Brain, Memory and Thoughts

Abstract
Human behaviors are undoubtedly dynamic, evolving, interactive and adaptive processes. These complex processes have a common denominator resulting from a common behavior mechanism. The mechanism depicts what triggers a specific behavior and illustrates how it works.
Po L. Yu, Carl A. Scupin

Chapter 3. Behavior Mechanism 2: Charges, Attention and Actions

Abstract
In this chapter we will discuss the existence of life goals and their mechanism of ideal setting and evaluations. The mechanism leads to dynamic charge structures which not only dictate our attention allocation of time, but also command the action to be taken. This part of the behavior mechanism is related to how our mind works. We shall use four hypotheses in four sections to summarize the main concepts. At the end of this chapter, we also summarize the entire eight hypotheses and offer some interesting human behavior for the reader to integrate the behavior mechanism.
Po L. Yu, Carl A. Scupin

Chapter 4. Common Behavior Tendencies and Applications

Abstract
According to the previous two chapters we know that each of us has a common procedure or process for our micro-behavior. Although we may vary the parameters in each function of the behavior mechanism and show uniqueness in our behavior, the common denominator of this behavior mechanism remains the same. From this common behavior mechanism, irrespective of the individual’s unique parameters, we could derive common tendencies in human behavior. These common tendencies have been observed and studied by many social psychologists (see [F5, Z4]). Although applicable to most people and to many situations, these common tendencies do reserve uniqueness for each individual. Throughout this chapter the reader is reminded that the common behavior tendencies described are valid only in general situations, not in all situations in the absolute sense.
Po L. Yu, Carl A. Scupin

Chapter 5. Habitual Domains: Formation and Properties

Abstract
We shall in this and in subsequent chapters discuss the concepts of habitual domains. In this chapter we focus on a general introduction (Section 5.1), formation (Section 5.2), decomposition (Section 5.3), properties (Section 5.4) and expansion (Section 5.5) of habitual domains. In the next chapter we shall discuss methods for effective expansion and interactions of habitual domains. A summary of habitual domains is provided in Section 6.6. Chapter 10 describes dimensions and methods for assessing habitual domains.
Po L. Yu, Carl A. Scupin

Chapter 6. Habitual Domains: Expansion and Interactions

Abstract
In this chapter we shall discuss five topics related to the expansion and interaction of habitual domains. Section 6.1 focuses on general methods for expanding our HDs, Section 6.2 describes ideas and operators that can catch our attention, Section 6.3 describes arriving ideas and operators that are hard to catch our attention and be accepted, Section 6.4 looks at proper attitudes in the interaction of HDs and Section 6.5 treats expansion of HDs as a learning process. Finally, Section 6.6 provides a summary on what we have discussed on HDs.
Po L. Yu, Carl A. Scupin

Chapter 7. Understanding Decision Making

Abstract
Why are some hunters not afraid of lions or tigers? Probably because they think they have the ability to act quickly and effectively to protect themselves.
Po L. Yu, Carl A. Scupin

Chapter 8. Effective Decision Making

Abstract
Recall from Section 7.1, that for each decision problem E, there is a perceived competence set HD*(E), a collection of ideas, knowledge and skills for its effective solution. When the decision maker believes that he/she has already acquired and mastered HD*(E), he/she would feel comfortable and confident about making a decision. Otherwise, he/she would hesitate to make a decision, especially when it involves high stakes. The perception, acquisition and mastering of HD*(E) thus play important roles in determining how fast and how effective a decision is made and executed. These topics and their applications will be the focus of study in this chapter. In particular, we shall discuss decision cycles in Section 8.1; core of habitual domains in Section 8.2; learning processes in Section 8.3; classes of decision problems in Section 8.4; decision quality, confidence, risk taking and ignorance in Section 8.5; effective decision making in Section 8.6; and decision assistance in Section 8.7. In the appendix (Section 8.8), decision situations and competence sets are further explored.
Po L. Yu, Carl A. Scupin

Chapter 9. Effective Goal Setting and Performance

Abstract
All living things come to life to perform. Some are colorful and fulfilling; others are not.
Po L. Yu, Carl A. Scupin

Chapter 10. Knowing Habitual Domains

Abstract
As discussed in Chapter 5, each one of us has a unique habitual domain (HD). Like snails carrying their shell wherever they go, we carry our HD wherever we go. As the HD is invisible, unwritten, unspoken, but always present, it affects our decisions and behavior continuously yet unconsciously.
Po L. Yu, Carl A. Scupin

Chapter 11. Understanding Games, Cooperation and Conflicts

Abstract
Understanding Games, Cooperation and Conflict As discussed in Chapter 6, each human, in addition to his/her visible physiological body, carries an invisible habitual domain (HD). Like the shells of snails, our HD goes wherever we go, and has great impact on our thoughts, judgments, behavior and decision making.
Po L. Yu, Carl A. Scupin

Chapter 12. Restructuring Games and Forming Winning Strategies

Abstract
In this chapter we shall focus on (i) restructuring games so that each player may claim a victory (Section 12.1); (ii) useful observations from the behavior mechanism for understanding and solving nontrivial game problems (Section 12.2); (iii) construction of conflict maps and perspectives to help us understand the nontrivial games more thoroughly (Section 12.3); and (iv) forming winning strategies for nontrivial games including making people like us, making suggestions effectively, bargaining and negotiation, and direct conflict and wars (Section 12.4).
Po L. Yu, Carl A. Scupin

Chapter 13. Career Management

Abstract
Career Management Which is more important to you: your life or your possessions? Your life or your reputation? For most people, life is more important than possessions and reputation. Without life, possessions and reputation are not important and are irrelevant.
Po L. Yu, Carl A. Scupin

Chapter 14. Ideal Habitual Domains

Abstract
Ideal Habitual Domains We have used the concepts of habitual domains to discuss a number of problems that can occur in our lives. In abstract, each living thing is represented by an HD. It is natural to ask what could be an ideal HD for life. This is a complex philosophic problem. As our HDs evolve with our own unique experience and learning, each one of us must have our own unique ideal HD, which itself may also evolve with time. The reader may want to pause to think what is his/her ideal HD for life.
Po L. Yu, Carl A. Scupin

Backmatter

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