Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
The illegal shipment of electrical and electronic waste, also called e-waste, from the European Union to China provides an example of a complex and serious environmental crime. Over the past decade or more, cross-border transport of e-waste from advanced economies to developing and newly industrialised economies has increased significantly and China represents the largest downstream destination for e-waste exported from Europe. Despite the fact that the import of e-waste into China has been officially banned since 2000, vast amounts of e-waste are still imported illegally into China every year and much of this enters the informal e-waste processing sector, where dismantling and recycling techniques are rudimentary compared to the formal sector and do not comply with health and environmental safety standards. Employing large numbers of local and migrant workers, the e-waste shipment and informal recycling sectors have also transformed social realities for people living in parts of China. The current EU legislative framework to fight illegal e-waste shipments, which translates the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal into EU law, primarily includes the Waste Shipment Regulation (WSR) and the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive. Even though the WSR forbids the export of e-waste to non-OECD countries and extensive amendments have been recently introduced to both legislative instruments in order to improve enforcement and inspection, gaps and weaknesses still remain. These amendments have the potential to improve inspection and enforcement on the ground. Whether these will be effective will however depend on the willingness of the individual member states to provide the necessary resources (such as budget and staff) to implement the new provisions in a meaningful way. This chapter describes the illegal e-waste shipments from the EU to China, highlighting the estimated volumes of illegally exported e-waste, the key actors involved in the illegal activities, the victims and the harms they suffer, and the legal framework of both the EU and China aiming to tackle this environmental crime. As a conclusion, a set of policy recommendations is outlined that aim to support the fight against these illegal shipments.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Algemene Rekenkamer (2013). Coordinated audit on the enforcement of the European waste shipment regulation: Joint report based on eight national audits. The Hague: Algemene Rekenkamer/Netherlands Court of Audit. http://www.eca.europa.eu/sites/cc/Lists/CCDocuments/other%20publications/Coordinated_audit_on_the_enforcement_of_the_European_Waste_Shipment_Regulation.pdf.
Baird J., Curry, R., Cruz, P. (2014). An overview of waste crime, its characteristics, and the vulnerability of the EU waste sector. Waste Management & Research, 32, 97–105. CrossRef
BAN, & SVTC (2002). Exporting harm: The high-tech trashing of Asia. US: The Basel Action Network (BAN) and Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition (SVTC). http://www.ban.org/E-waste/technotrashfinalcomp.pdf.
Basel Convention (2014). Basel convention ban amendment. http://www.basel.int/Implementation/LegalMatters/BanAmendment/Overview/tabid/1484/Default.aspx. date Accessed 25 November 2014.
Bisschop, L. (2012). Is it all going to waste? Illegal transports of e-waste in a European trade hub. Crime, Law and Social Change, 58(2012), 221–249. CrossRef
Breivik, K., Armitage, J. M., Wania, F., & Jones, K. C. (2014). Tracking the global generation and exports of e-waste. Do existing estimates add up? Environmental science & technology, 48(15), 8735–8743. CrossRef
Brigden, K., Labunska, I., Santillo, D., Allsopp, M. (2005). Recycling of electronic wastes in China & India: Workplace & environmental contamination. Amsterdam: Greenpeace International. http://www.greenpeace.org/international/PageFiles/25134/recycling-of-electronic-waste.pdf.
China Labour Bulletin (2005). The plight of China’s e-waste workers. http://www.clb.org.hk/en/node/16058/print.
CWIT (2014). Countering WEEE illegal trade project workshop Lyon 16 & 17 October 2014. http://www.cwitproject.eu/cwit-workshop/.
Cwitproject.eu (2016). Countering WEEE Illegal Trade. http://www.cwitproject.eu/, date accessed 11 January 2016.
Deng, W., Louie, P., Liu, W., Bi, X., Fu, J., Wong, M. (2007). Distribution of PBDEs in air particles from an electronic waste recycling site compared with Guangzhou and Hong Kong, South China. Environment International, 33(8), 1063–1069. CrossRef
EC (2013). Commission staff working paper: Impact assessment accompanying document to a legislative proposal and additional non-legislative measures strengthening the inspections and enforcement of regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 of the European parliament and of the council of 14 June 2006 on shipments of waste. Brussels: EU. SWD(2013) 268.
EEA. (2009). Waste without borders in the EU? Transboundary shipments of waste. Copenhagen: European Environment Agency. http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/waste-without-borders-in-the-eu-transboundary-shipments-of-waste.
Efface.eu (2016). EFFACE – a research project on environmental crime. http://www.efface.eu. date Accessed 11 January 2016.
EFSA Assessment and Methodological Support (2009). Guidance of the scientific committee on use of the benchmark dose approach in risk assessment . EFSA Journal, 1150, doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1150.
EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (2010). Scientific opinion on lead in food. EFSA Journal, 8(4), 1570, doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1570. CrossRef
EIA (2011). System failure: The UK’s harmful trade in electronic waste. London: Environmental Investigation Agency. http://www.greencustoms.org/docs/EIA_E-waste_report_0511_WEB.pdf.
EU Parliament and EU Council (2003). Directive 2002/96/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 2003 on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE). OJ L 37. 13.2.2003, 24–38.
EU Parliament and EU Council (2006). Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 June 2006 on shipments of waste. OJ L 190, 12.7.2006, 1.
EU Parliament and EU Council (2008). Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives. OJ L 312. 22.11.2008, 3–30.
EU Parliament and EU Council (2012). Directive 2012/19/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 July 2012 on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). OJ L 197. 24.7.2012, 38–71.
EU Parliament and EU Council (2014). Regulation (EU) No 660/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 May 2014 amending Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 on shipments of waste. OJ L 189, 27.6.2014, 135–142.
Eurojust (2014). Strategic project on environmental crime. The Hague: Eurojust. http://www.eurojust.europa.eu/doclibrary/Eurojust-framework/Casework/Strategic%20project%20on%20environmental%20crime%20%28October%202014%29/environmental-crime-report_2014-11-21-EN.pdf.
Europol (2011). OCTA 2011. EU organised crime threat assessment. European Police Office. https://www.europol.europa.eu/content/publication/octa-2011-eu-organised-crime-threat-assesment-1465.
Fajardo, T. (2014). Legal analysis of international instruments on organised crime in the perspective of fighting environmental crime. Study in the framework of the EFFACE research project. Granada: University of Granada.
Geeraerts, K., Illés, A., Schweizer, J-P. (2015). Illegal shipment of e-waste from the EU: A case study on illegal e-waste export from the EU to China. A study compiled as part of the EFFACE project. London: Institute for European Environmental Policy.
Geeraerts, K., Mutafoglu, K. and Illés, A. (2015). Illegal e-waste shipments from the eu to china. quantitative and monetary analysis of illegal shipments and its environmental, social and economic impacts. A study compiled as part of the EFFACE project. London: Institute for European Environmental Policy.
Grant, K., Goldizen, F.C., Sly, P.D., Brune, M.N., Neira, M., van den Berg, M., Norman, R.E. (2013). Health consequences of exposure to e-waste: A systematic review. Lancet Global Health, 1, 350–361. CrossRef
Hicks, C., Dietmar, R., Eugster, M. (2005). The recycling and disposal of electrical and electronic waste in China—legislative and market responses. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 25, 459–471. CrossRef
Huisman, J., Botezatu, I., Herreras, L., Liddane, M., Hintsa, J., Luda di Cortemiglia, V., Leroy, P., Vermeersch, E., Mohanty, S., van den Brink, S., Ghenciu, B., Dimitrova, D., Nash, E., Shryane, T., Wieting, M., Kehoe, J., Baldé, C.P., Magalini, F., Zanasi, A., Ruini, F., Männistö, T., Bonzio, A. (2015). Countering WEEE illegal trade (CWIT) summary report, market assessment, legal analysis, crime analysis and recommendations roadmap, August 30, 2015, Lyon, France, http://www.cwitproject.eu/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/CWIT-Final-Report.pdf.
Huisman J., Magalini, F., Kuehr, R., Maurer, C., Oglivie, S., Poll, J., Delgado, C., Artim, E., Szlezak, J., Stevels, A. (2008). 2008 review of directive 2002/96 on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)—Final report. Bonn: United Nations University.
ILO (2012). The global impact of e-waste: Addressing the challenge. Geneva: International Labour Office. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_dialogue/---sector/documents/publication/wcms_196105.pdf.
Interpol (2009). Electronic waste and organised crime: Assessing the link (Phase II Report for the Interpol Pollution Crime Working Group). http://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas/Environmental-crime/Resources.
Kennedy, J. (2015). China’s role in illegal trade of toxic e-waste rising sharply. https://www.chinafile.com/reporting-opinion/environment/chinas-role-illegal-trade-toxic-e-waste-rising-sharply.
LeBlanc, R. (2015). Operation green fence: Key questions addressed. http://recycling.about.com/od/Resources/tp/Operation-Green-Fence-Key-Questions-Answered.htm.
Li, G.-M. (2012). WEEE management in China. In V. Goodship, & A. Stevels (Eds.), Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) handbook, 526–549. Oxford: Philips Woodhead Publishing. CrossRef
Li, H., Yu, L., Sheng, G., Fu, J., Peng, P. (2007). Severe PCDD/F and PBDD/F Pollution in air around an electronic waste dismantling area in China. Environmental Science and Technology, 41(16), 5641–5646. CrossRef
Liddick, D.R. (2011). Crimes against nature: Illegal industries and the global environment. Santa Barbara: Praeger.
Morf, L.S., Tremp, J., Gloor, R., Schuppisser, F., Stengele, M., Taverna, R. (2007). Metals, non-metals and PCB in electrical and electronic waste—actual levels in Switzerland. Waste Management 2007, 27, 1306–1316.
Ni, H.-G., & Zeng, E.Y. (2009). Law enforcement and global collaboration are the keys to containing e-waste tsunami in China. Environmental Science & Technology, 43(2009), 3991–3994. CrossRef
Odeyingbo, O.A. (2011). Assessment of the flow and driving forces of used electrical and electronic equipment into Nigeria and within Nigeria. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. BTU Cottbus: Cottbus.
OECD (2012). Illegal trade in environmentally sensitive goods. OECD trade policy studies. OECD Publishing. http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/trade/illegal-trade-in-environmentally-sensitive-goods_9789264174238-en.
Ogunseitan, O.A. (2013). The Basel convention and e-waste: Translation of scientific uncertainty to protective policy. Lancet Global Health, 1, 313–314. CrossRef
Robinson, B.H. (2009). E-waste: An assessment of global production and environmental impacts. Science of the Total Environment, 408, 183–191. CrossRef
Salehabadi, D. (2013). Transboundary movements of discarded electrical and electronic equipment. StEP Green Paper Series. http://www.step-initiative.org/files/step-2014/Publications/Green%20and%20White%20Papers/StEP_GP_TBM_20130325.pdf.
Sander, K., & Schilling, S. (2010). Transboundary shipment of waste electrical and electronic equipment / Electronic scrap—optimization of material flows and control. Dessau-Roßlau: Umwelt Bundesamt. http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/sites/default/files/medien/461/publikationen/k3933.pdf.
Science Communication Unit, University of the West of England, Bristol (2013). Science for environment policy in-depth report: Soil contamination: Impacts on human health. Report produced for the European Commission DG Environment, September 2013, http://ec.europa.eu/science-environment-policy.
Sepúlveda, A., Schluep, M., Renaud, F.G., Streicher, M., Kuehr, R., Hagelüken, C., Gerecke, A.C. (2010). A review of the environmental fate and effects of hazardous substances released from electrical and electronic equipments during recycling: Examples from China and India. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 30, 28–41. CrossRef
Song, Q., & Li, J. (2014). Environmental effects of heavy metals derived from the e-waste recycling activities in China: A systematic review. Waste Management, 34, 2587–2594. CrossRef
StEP (2015). StEP E-waste WorldMap, European Union, overview of e-waste related information. http://www.step-initiative.org/step-e-waste-world-map.html. Accessed 26 April 2016.
UNEP (1989). Basel convention on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal. http://www.basel.int/portals/4/basel%20convention/docs/text/baselconventiontext-e.pdf.
UNODC (2009). Transnational trafficking and the rule of law in West Africa: A threat assessment. Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. https://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/Studies/West_Africa_Report_2009.pdf.
Walters, A., & Santillo, D. (2008). Evidence of environmental and health impacts of electronics recycling in China: An update. Amsterdam: Greenpeace International.
Wang, F., Kuehr, R., Ahlquist, D., Li, J. (2013). E-waste in China: A country report. StEP Green Paper Series. http://ewasteguide.info/files/Wang_2013_StEP.pdf.
White, R. (2009). Researching transnational environmental harm: Toward an eco‐global criminology. International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice, 33(2), 229–248. CrossRef
Wong, C., Duzgoren-Aydin, N., Aydin, A., Wong, M. (2007). Evidence of excessive releases of metals from primitive e-waste processing in Guiyu. Environment Pollution, 148, 62–72. CrossRef
Zoeteman, B., Krikke, H.R., Venselaar, J. (2009). Handling electronic waste flows: On the effectiveness of producer responsibility in a globalizing world. CentER Discussion Paper Series No. 2009–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1476332.
- Illegal Shipments of E–waste from the EU to China
- Palgrave Macmillan UK
Systemische Notwendigkeit zur Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen