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Über dieses Buch

This third annual volume of the International Place Branding Yearbook looks at the case for applying brand and marketing strategies to the economic, social, political and cultural development of cities, towns and regions around the world to help them compete in the global, national and local markets. It focuses on sustainability and smart growth.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Introduction

Introduction

Abstract
Was Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations wrong? Jane Jacobs (1984) thinks so. She claims that cities rather than nations have been the constituent elements of a developing economy since the dawn of civilization through “explosive” import replacement. Cities are transformed through a variety of material, socio-economic and symbolic interventions, manifest amongst others in place brands, to become exports; and these, in turn, finance imports. For example, growth machine theory attributes the role of the capability of business elites to the use of public resources for achieving their own private objectives. In contrast, location theory is concerned with the microeconomics of space, taking input costs and transportation costs of finished goods and services to markets, particularly those with a favorable cost structure, into account as the stimulus of economic growth. On the other hand institutional theory holds that urban and regional economic activities driving growth are embedded in social networks and focus on the interactions between firms rather than within individual firms.
Frank M. Go, Robert Govers

Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Sustainable Place Branding

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Four Readings of Place and Brand Leadership

Abstract
In a review of trends and conceptual models, Kavaratzis (2005) offers a reading of place branding as the application of marketing practices beyond physical goods and services, in the context of deindustrialization. Branding is conceived as a form of communication, in which brand identities mediate between the activities of brand owners and consumer perceptions. Considered as a form of place management, place branding is thus positioned as the attempt to alter the way that places are perceived by specific groups of people – to develop and disseminate a recognizable identity for a place in order to promote processes considered desirable, such as inward financial investment, tourism or the development of political capital (Kavaratzis and Ashworth 2005). These concerns inform Hankinson’s (2007) principles for destination brand management and Gnoth’s (2007) functional, experiential and symbolic dimensions of destination brands. While branding as place management might appeal to those charged with supporting regional growth and sustainability, the task is far from simple. Unlike product markets, notions of place exist in the minds of a wide variety of actors prior to attempts to brand them. Thus the branding of places – neighborhoods, cities, regions – as attractive and sustainable requires collaborative networking, entrepreneurship and innovation, knowledge sharing and cross-boundary learning. In short, the complexity and political dimensions of the task implies a need for leadership. While reconceptualizing “place” in this way has immediate consequences for the nature of leadership required, place leadership is itself a field which remains relatively under-theorized to date. Our intention in this chapter is to propose discourse as a fresh and theoretically informed way to explore the leadership of place branding. By offering four different “readings”, we begin to identify contested assumptions of what is required to lead effectively in complex, sometimes chaotic, policy environments, working across institutional, professional, territorial and community boundaries.
Chris Mabey, Tim Freeman

Chapter 2. Beyond Place Branding

Abstract
In spite of the long history of places promoting their virtues to visitors, commentators and investors, the concept of place branding is relatively new. In this context, the idea that there should already be a “beyond” might seem hasty. However, we will argue in this chapter that much place branding as it has been practiced has really been place marketing, concerned more with creating an image through external communication than developing the experience of a place. This has tended to make place branding seem superficial and short-termist – more concerned with visitor numbers, reputation indices and growth figures than connecting with the needs and wants of citizens. So here we will turn place branding inwards and focus on three trends that are creating the opportunity to promote citizen participation and to develop more sustainable approaches to brand building that can deliver well-being for all – the sort of benefits that Robert F. Kennedy observed in a 1968 speech and which tend to go unmeasured in statistics:
Nicholas Ind, Erling Dokk Holm

Chapter 3. Crisis Communication and Sustainable Place Marketing: A Preliminary Analysis before Choosing a Restorative Media Strategy

Abstract
In the field of image restoration, it is customary to distinguish between two types of negative destination images. The first type is a negative image caused by an unexpected crisis, such as terror attack, natural disaster or sudden epidemic. The second is a prolonged negative image generated by long-lasting problems, such as economic hardship, high crime rates, continuous war or political instability. The question of how to restore a place’s positive image was dealt with in a number of academic and practical publications in the field of “crisis communication”. The variety of techniques and strategies proposed were important in creating a block of knowledge in image restoration; however, the same solutions were offered for places that differ greatly from one another. Moreover, the solutions proposed did not take into account the type of crisis experienced or the characteristics of the target audiences to be addressed. This is problematic, because clearly countries that are located on the margins of global tourism, such as Somalia, for example, cannot adopt the same image-restoration strategies as that of a country that is a major world tourism player, even if each experienced the same crisis, such as a terrorist event or an epidemic. Somalia’s location, its previous image, the availability of resources and its target audience are all very different elements from those characterizing that other country.
Eli Avraham

Chapter 4. A Perspective on Planning, Smart Growth and Place Branding

Abstract
In this chapter, we argue that planning strategies sensitive for place branding could increase the appeal of smart growth projects by creating value for places and for things in those places. We develop a perspective on the potential synergy between smart growth and place branding that can be valuable in various contexts – in the US, the EU and communities elsewhere – since many encounter obstacles to comprehensive planning that could be reduced by paying closer attention to how value can be affected by planning.
Kristof van Assche, Ming Chien Lo, Raoul Beunen

Chapters on Particular Cases

Frontmatter

Chapter 5. Case A Sex and the City: City Branding in Spanish Cities

Abstract
The concept of place branding has been pervasively adopted by communities, cities, regions and nations (Gertner 2011); branding and brand management can be said to have been one of the leading areas of focus both for marketing academics and practitioners during the final two decades of the 20th century (Hankinson 2001). There is, however, an evident confusion in the use of the term (Kavaratzis 2004; 2005). Branding and marketing are managerial tools precisely defined in business management literature (Aaker 1991; Kotler et al. 1993). Both tools share a common philosophy: to connect certain positive values to a product in order to make it unique and, through this, to gain relevance in a competitive environment. As globalization has increased competition between cities, marketing and branding have broadened their scopes from the corporate world to urban management, expanding the design of public policies for sustainable urban growth (Kotler and Levy 1969). Initially, the application of branding and marketing to cities took the form of a simple promotion of the city but, very soon, more complex and sophisticated approaches were developed, including spatial-functional, organizational and financial measures (Ashworth and Voodg 1990).
Gildo Seisdedos, Pablo Vaggione

Chapter 6. Case B A Common Agenda for Place Branding: Made in Torino

Abstract
The image of a place is a co-creation of public and private stakeholders. Local authorities, businesses and citizens share a collective interest in having an attractive place brand, since soft, intangible location factors become increasingly decisive in the global competition between regions. In line with behavioral location theories residents, firms, investors and tourists choose particular locations because of their perceived qualities, though these are often different from the actual qualities.
Alexander Otgaar

Chapter 7. Case C Sustaining a Brand through Proactive Repair: The Case of Manchester

Abstract
The current global recession has created economic and social pressures on governments at national and local level. Currently regional and urban governments in England are under pressure from two directions – the national government’s rejection of regional development mechanisms in the form of regional development agencies and their replacement with ad hoc “local enterprise partnerships”, and the bottom-up dissatisfaction and unrest resulting from the consequences of severe austerity measures.
Stephen E. Little

Chapter 8. Case D Social Media: An Insight into the “Public Mood” of Places? A Case Study of the City of Johannesburg

Abstract
Traditionally, the reputation of a location is measured by considering how individuals, organizations and “external” stakeholders feel, think and make decisions. “Reputation of place” measurement, including country and city, is emerging as a domain for inter-disciplinary analysis. While all these have absolute merits and are an integral part of any place’s efforts to improve its global reputation, what is often overlooked is the importance of “domestic reputation management”, including “public mood”.
Wadim Schreiner, Frank M. Go

Chapter 9. Case E Turning a Gemstone into a Diamond: A Green Design and Branding Strategy for The City of Bucharest

Abstract
Today, more than half of the world’s population are urban dwellers, this number being forecast by the United Nations to increase to 69 percent by 2050. Cities are the biggest consumers of electricity, gas and heat (Urban Investment Network 2011). This, along with demographic change and the fact that 80 percent of world economic growth is powered by cities and that 75 percent of the emissions are coming from urban locations (Fox-Martin 2009), have made city leaders realize the importance of sustainable development and that the fate of our global climate lies in the future actions of cities (Tyndall Center for Climate Change Research 2008). As FrankLee (2011), Head of Holding Funds and Advisory, states: “cities ought to play a crucial role in accomplishing climate change objectives and energy efficiency, so the new trend is directed towards sustainability”.
Iulia Gramon-Suba, Chris Holt

Chapters on Particular Place Brand Themes

Frontmatter

Chapter 10. Overcoming the Risk of Stereotypes: How Strategic Communications Can Facilitate Sustainable Place Branding

Abstract
In this chapter I will illustrate how quickly individual events or clichés can destroy reputation and have a major influence on further economic development. In other words, how tourism and investments can fail to materialize in the economy in the wake of highly negative headlines. The chapter contains examples from three countries with a relatively high degree of media perception (Italy, Greece and France), as well as three countries with a low level of media interest (Bahrain, Austria and Vietnam). First, I will portray the behavior patterns of our six examples and how they are connected. Then I will propose a way as to how countries can effectively free themselves from their dependency on headlines in the future.
Roland Schatz

Chapter 11. Do National Green Reputations Matter? The Global Green Economy Index and Implications for Stakeholders in the Green Economy

Abstract
As the field of nation branding and country reputation management evolves, so do the tools available to country brand managers for measuring and evaluating the success, or lack thereof, of their strategic and tactical efforts. Up to this point, measurement frameworks employed different methodologies to look at generalized conceptions of country “brands” or “reputations”. In this chapter I introduce the point of view, methodology and results related to the Global Green Economy Index (GGEI), a specialized product designed to assess both the perceptions and performance of 27 national green economies. I will argue that green reputations are an increasingly important factor defining overall country brands and, as a result, national and city leaders face a growing incentive to improve upon or consolidate their “green” reputations.
Jeremy Tamanini

Chapter 12. Branding Brazilian Slums through “Freeware” Cultural Production: The Case of Rio de Janeiro

Abstract
Large cities in Latin America may well have been the cradle of post-colonial national societies, but at least since the beginning of the 20th century they have also concentrated the direst effects of uneven development, becoming the living image of democratic deficit (De Oliveira and Roberts 1996; Hoffmann and Centeno 2003; Davis 2006). The progressive concentration of “urban problems” in those areas also meant that the crisis of the 1990s has hit these areas hardest, accelerating their decline and inducing in some cases a reaction by progressive city governments who started to elaborate strategies for revitalization and regeneration, though, for the most part, these projects remained on paper or gave results below expectations (see Sosa 2010, for the case of Buenos Aires; Segre 2004, for the case of Rio de Janeiro; and Alves 2008, for case of São Paulo).
Antonio Paolo Russo

Chapter 13. Improved Public Infrastructure and Sustainable Place Branding

Abstract
In his superbly written book Soft City, novelist and travel writer Jonathan Raban makes the following observation: “in our city, it is easy to drift into a privacy of symbols, a domain of subjective illusions made concrete by the fact that two or three people have gathered together to conspire in them” (Raban 2008, p. 143). Raban was referring to the behavior of individual citizens and their means of engaging with a vast and labyrinthine metropolis that can be overwhelming if not tamed through certain psychological approaches. But his observation may also be applied to the unhealthy power exercised by small coteries of politicians and marketing professionals who take it upon themselves to decide upon the symbols and “subjective illusions” that are used in branding cities. Crass slogans and risible logos emerge, and taint the whole concept and practice of branding places. To counter the usual over-emphasis on slogans, logos, PR and advertising, in this chapter I show how sustainable place branding can be conducted not by superficial communications techniques, but by tangible improvements in public infrastructure that benefit all those who work in the city or visit it or invest in it.
Keith Dinnie

Conclusion

Conclusion

Abstract
In 2009, in order to understand the paradoxes, find answers to place brand puzzles and search for a paradigm, we embarked on a journey together with a set of contributors. They gracefully accepted our invitation to explore how “disruptive innovation”, reputation and sustainability are likely to cause both the deconstruction and the construction of the place branding process. Their ideas have been captured in the three volumes of this Yearbook series so far. The premise was that place brand managers require a more sophisticated grasp of how to grow, collectively, potential innovation through smart “coordination” of government, market and civil society to achieve a balanced-centric performance in terms of equity, efficiency and effectiveness (see Figure C.1). In an attempt to reflect the current status, we will conclude this series with three debates and a brief research agenda, linking effectiveness/reputation/consumption, efficiency/innovation/production and equity/sustainability/critical studies.
Frank M. Go, Robert Govers

Backmatter

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