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Über dieses Buch

This work is an elementary but comprehensive textbook which provides the latest updates in the fields of Earthquake Engineering, Dynamics of Structures, Seismology and Seismic Design, introducing relevant new topics to the fields such as the Neodeterministic method. Its main purpose is to illustrate the application of energy methods and the analysis in the frequency domain with the corresponding visualization in the Gauss-Argant plan. However, emphasis is also given to the applications of numerical methods for the solution of the equation of motion and to the ground motion selection to be used in time history analysis of structures. As supplementary materials, this book provides “OPENSIGNAL", a rare and unique software for ground motion selection and processing that can be used by professionals to select the correct earthquake records that would run in the nonlinear analysis.
The book contains clear illustrations and figures to describe the subject in an intuitive way. It uses simple language and terminology and the math is limited only to cases where it is essential to understand the physical meaning of the system. Therefore, it is suitable also for those readers who approach these subjects for the first time and who only have a basic understanding of mathematics (linear algebra) and static analysis of structures.



Dynamics of Structures


Chapter 1. Introduction

This chapter formulates the structural dynamics problem for structures that can be idealized as systems with a massless supporting element, a lamped mass and an equivalent viscous damping element. The equations of motion are formulated for a single-degree-of-freedom system.
Gian Paolo Cimellaro, Sebastiano Marasco

Chapter 2. SDOF Systems

This chapter analyzes linear single-degree-of-freedom systems and their response to harmonic, impulsive and periodic excitations. The response to such excitations is important because it provides insight into how the system will respond to other types of forces. Finally also the response to earthquake records is considered. The chapter ends with some considerations about the nonlinear response.
Gian Paolo Cimellaro, Sebastiano Marasco

Chapter 3. Methods of Solution of the Equation of Motion

The chapter analyzes different methods of solution of the equation of motion. The equation of motion for a forced SDOF system can be solved in closed form if the external excitation can be expressed as a harmonic function (analytical solution). Moreover, the dynamic response of a system subjected to a generic excitation can be evaluated using other approaches based on the decomposition of the irregular external force (Fourier series or Duhamel integral application). In these cases, the solution is achieved by the superposition property, so that they can be applied for a linear system. Clearly, this represents a limit to of the dynamic response of a real system in which the applied excitation causes irreversible deformation. In order to bypass the intrinsic limit of the previously proposed solution approaches, numerical methods are used. All the following examples and considerations are related to a damped SDOF system subjected to an external excitation.
Gian Paolo Cimellaro, Sebastiano Marasco

Chapter 4. MDOF Systems

The chapter introduces the structural dynamic problem for structures discretized as systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom (Multi-Degree-of-freedom: MDOF). Distinction between shear-type frame and bending-type frame is provided. Modal analysis is introduced and the response of MDOF systems to both harmonic and earthquake excitations for undamped and damped systems. Finally the analysis of a 3D MDOF building is also provided.
Gian Paolo Cimellaro, Sebastiano Marasco

Chapter 5. Energy Dissipation

The chapter introduces the energy balance equation of a generic system. Attention is given to damping energy and plastic energy (Vakakis et al., Nonlinear targeted energy transfer in mechanical and structural systems, vol 156. Springer, Dordrecht, 2008). Two methods are introduced to estimate the damping on the structural systems through experimental techniques: the Logarithmic Decrement Analysis (LDA) and the Half-Power Method (HPM). The ductility factor and the equal displacement criteria is also introduced.
Gian Paolo Cimellaro, Sebastiano Marasco

Chapter 6. Distributed Mass and Elasticity Systems

Typical problems of discretized systems (e.g. lumped mass systems) have been analyzed in the previous chapters. In some real cases, the simplified approach of lumped masses is not feasible, then an infinite number of DOFs have to be considered in the analyses. The dynamic problem of systems with distributed mass and elasticity are formulated in this chapter. A Simple structure is considered in order to provide the closed form solution for both free vibrations and forced system analyses.
Gian Paolo Cimellaro, Sebastiano Marasco

Chapter 7. Generalized SDOF Systems

The chapter introduces the concept of generalized systems. A brief introduction of the Lagrangian approach applied to the mechanical systems is provided. Furthermore, some numerical examples are reported (system with distributed mass and elasticity, system with distributed elasticity and lumped mass, and general systems).
Gian Paolo Cimellaro, Sebastiano Marasco

Introduction to Earthquake Engineering


Chapter 8. Seismology and Earthquakes

The chapter provides a large overview on seismology. The earthquake genesis, waves propagation and attenuation relationships are discussed. From the engineering point of view, the characterization of an earthquake is a key point. Thus, a detailed description of the ground motion and seismological parameters is provided.
Gian Paolo Cimellaro, Sebastiano Marasco

Chapter 9. Major Seismic Events That Occurred in Italy and in the World

The chapter introduces the major historical seismic events occurred in Italy and in the world. The main seismological and general information are listed for each seismic event (e.g. magnitude, fault type, etc.).
Gian Paolo Cimellaro, Sebastiano Marasco

Chapter 10. Seismic Hazard Analysis

The chapter introduces the analyses used to estimate the seismic hazard at a specific site. A brief introduction and definition of risk is given. The Deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis (DSHA) and the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (DSHA) are discussed.
Gian Paolo Cimellaro, Sebastiano Marasco

Chapter 11. Earthquake Prediction

The chapter introduces some of seismic prediction methods proposed in the last 50 years. Having in mind the physical and statistical limits in earthquake predictability, the earthquake prediction methods are impartially reported in this chapter.
Gian Paolo Cimellaro, Sebastiano Marasco

Chapter 12. Seismic Input

The chapter introduces the main concepts of the seismic input definition according to the seismic codes. In particular, the Italian (NTC-08, Nuove Norme Tecniche per le Costruzioni. Gazzetta Ufficiale della Repubblica Italiana, 2008) and European (1998-1 E, Design of structures for earthquake resistance Part 1: general rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings. European Committee for Standardization, 2004) standards are discussed in detail. Furthermore, the Response Spectrum method and the use of time histories as seismic input are analyzed.
Gian Paolo Cimellaro, Sebastiano Marasco

Chapter 13. Opensignal

The chapter illustrates the capabilities of the OPENSIGNAL computer-based platform environment (Cimellaro GP, Marasco S, Frontiers in Built Environment 1:17, 2015) for processing and selecting the seismic input to be used in the seismic analyses. All the features and the software components are explained in detail and an illustrative application is reported.
Gian Paolo Cimellaro, Sebastiano Marasco

Chapter 14. Methods of Analysis

The chapter analyzes the structural seismic analysis methods. The four common analysis method are illustrated (Linear static, linear dynamic, nonlinear static, and nonlinear dynamic analyses). Additionally, the direct displacement-based seismic design procedure is discussed in detail.
Gian Paolo Cimellaro, Sebastiano Marasco

Seismic Design of Buildings


Chapter 15. Capacity Design

This chapter introduces the basic concept of the Capacity Design. The ordered steps to be followed in the seismic design of buildings are summarized according to the European standards.
Gian Paolo Cimellaro, Sebastiano Marasco

Chapter 16. Seismic Modeling of Infill Walls

This chapter analyzes the seismic modeling of infill walls. the first part of the chapter describes the main parameters of the infill walls which influences the displacement capacity of a frame system. the failure mechanism are also discussed considering the presence of the surrounding frame. a large variety of analytical models which take into account the presence of infill walls are detailed listed and explained. finally, the mechanisms of crisis of masonry panels (both in-plane and out of plane) are summarized.
Gian Paolo Cimellaro, Sebastiano Marasco

Chapter 17. Passive Energy Dissipating Systems

This chapter introduces the different passive strategies used to protect the structure from seismic actions. The types of passive energy dissipation are illustrated. Furthermore, a large variety of passive energy dissipating systems are analyzed in detail.
Gian Paolo Cimellaro, Sebastiano Marasco

Chapter 18. Tuned-Mass Dampers

In this chapter Tuned-Mass-Dampers (TMDs) are explained. At the beginning the mechanical characteristics and their operation are discussed, and then the design criteria for these seismic isolation systems are defined. At the end of the chapter two practical examples of TMD and Active-Tuned-Mass-Dampers (ATMDs) are inserted.
Gian Paolo Cimellaro, Sebastiano Marasco

Chapter 19. Base Isolation

The chapter deals with the topic of base isolation system of structures. A description of the various systems that are used in structures is presented. In addition, different techniques for installing these systems in buildings are described and suggested.
Gian Paolo Cimellaro, Sebastiano Marasco

Chapter 20. Masonry Structures

This chapter focuses on the seismic behaviour of masonry structures. A brief description of the types of masonry is provided. The collapse mechanisms related to masonry structures are discussed in details both for single-story and multi-story buildings.
Gian Paolo Cimellaro, Sebastiano Marasco

Chapter 21. Modeling of Structures in Seismic Zone

This chapters describes the general procedure used to model a 3D frame using SAP2000. A ten-storey reinforced concrete building is assumed as case study. Four types of methods of analysis are analyzed for the case study building.
Gian Paolo Cimellaro, Sebastiano Marasco


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