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This chapter provides a historical discussion for conceptions of data, knowledge, and skill, in order to understand how they came to underlie conceptions of machines, tools, and computer-human interfaces, and the tensions that arise from these conceptions. It investigates why there is a distinction between knowledge and skill, finding it to be rooted in a dualist concept of knowledge where mind is distinct from body and is given salience as the vehicle for knowing about the world. The mapping of mind to computation has given prominence to propositional knowledge, representation, and the rule, over how we conduct our everyday embodied lives with others and go about making judgements. This is questioned in discussions on embodied knowledge in performance arts, on engineering as an art, on calculating with data and judging with wisdom, on rule-following as practical knowledge, and the irreducibility of culture, all of which share the quality of a personal act of knowing.
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