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Über dieses Buch

This book contains peer-reviewed papers from the Second World Landslide Forum, organised by the International Consortium on Landslides (ICL), that took place in September 2011. The entire material from the conference has been split into seven volumes, this one is the seventh: 1. Landslide Inventory and Susceptibility and Hazard Zoning, 2. Early Warning, Instrumentation and Monitoring, 3. Spatial Analysis and Modelling, 4. Global Environmental Change, 5. Complex Environment, 6. Risk Assessment, Management and Mitigation, 7. Social and Economic Impact and Policies.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Risk Management in a Multi-Hazard Environment

Frontmatter

Risk Profiles and Hazards for the Black Sea Area

T

he multihazard study area is located along the North Bulgarian Black Sea coast and is threatened by earthquakes, landslides and tsunamis, which occasionally act simultaneously. Four main factors are considered in our use of multi-risk assessment: natural hazards, exposure, vulnerability and coping capacity. The general algorithm of the methodology used for the multi-risk assessment comprises several consecutive operations. Several multi-risk maps have been produced covering the coastal zone of the North East Bulgarian Black Sea coast. The region has been separated into three sub regions (1, 2 and 3) and mapped for multi-risk. The risk profiles for each zone (sub region 1, 2 and 3) have also been calculated.

Boyko Ranguelov

Risk Concept Switzerland Hazard Analysis, Risk Evaluation and Protection Measures

The results of the hazard mapping system in Switzerland are visualized by three colours (red, blue and yellow) which indicate the general degree of danger PLANAT (Sicherheit vor Naturgefahren – Vision und Strategie der PLANAT. Nationale Plattform Naturgefahren, 2003). The narrative description of the three colours considers the degree by which people and assets of considerable material value are endangered. The hazard map is a primary management tool for land-use planning and regulation for settlement developments. For all other infrastructures (roads, lifelines) the risk map is the appropriate instrument to illustrate damage potential. The risk map is the basis for chronological and financial prioritisation of protection measures. It is the most appropriate tool for decision making about structural and non-structural measures. Based on the calculated risks, the cost effectiveness of protection measures can be evaluated. Switzerland developed the online-tool “EconoMe” to calculate the natural risks and cost-effectiveness of different protection measures BAFU (EconoMe – Wirtschaftlichkeit von Schutzmassnahmen gegen Naturgefahren, 2008). Today it is essential to invest funds with the most possible cost efficiency. Risk based decisions are therefore required.

Tobler Daniel, Bernhard Krummenacher

Landslide Risk Assessment and Management Using IT Services and Tools: The EU BRISEIDE Project Approach

The increasing damage caused by natural hazards in the last decades in Europe, amplified by recent events including landslides (Messina, Sicily, September 2009), earthquakes (L’Aquila, Abruzzo, April 2009), forest fires (Greece, 2008) and floods (Central Europe) in the last years, points out the need for interoperable added-value services to support environmental safety and human protection. Many environmental analyses, e.g. monitoring seismic sequences, early warning systems for the evolution of intense rainstorms, the path of forest fires, cannot be performed without considering the evolution, over time, of geographic features. For this reason, providing access to harmonized data is only one of several steps towards delivering adequate support to risk assessment reduction and management. Scope of the present work is to present the implemented risk reduction and management pilots developed by BRISEIDE’s team project.

Giuseppe Delmonaco, Domenico Fiorenza, Luca Guerrieri, Carla Iadanza, Daniele Spizzichino, Alessandro Trigila, Eutizio Vittori

Landslide Consequences and Post Crisis Management Along the Coastal Slopes of Normandy, France

The coastal slopes of the Pays d’Auge plateau (Calvados, Normandy, France) are regularly affected by landslides mainly triggered by rainfall. The study area between Trouville and Honfleur has been subject to slow continuous displacements (5–10 cm.year

−1

) for several centuries, punctually disturbed by episodes of acceleration with metric displacements. The landslides are located along a very touristic coastal area where increasing land pressure is evident.

Because of the potential for crisis and the seasonal landslide activity, direct or indirect, immediate and delayed impact have been identified. Since the first reactivation of the largest landslide in 1982, direct damages to infrastructures (roads, buildings…) and indirect damages to the economy have been observed.

The objective of this work is to present the risk assessment carried along the Normandy coasts through the: (1) evaluation of the long-term landslide consequences, (2) identification and value of the actual elements at risk including potential consequences and (3) analysis of the policy responses during the past 30 years.

Lissak Candide, Maquaire Olivier, Anne Puissant, Jean-Philippe Malet

Landslides and New Lakes in Deglaciating Areas: A Risk Management Framework

New lakes forming in high-mountain areas due to climate-driven glacier shrinkage are likely to be located in areas of potentially unstable slopes. Therefore they are prone to impacts from rock/ice-avalanches and other types of landslides, which might trigger outburst floods causing damage farther down valley. In view of an integral lake management, a risk management concept for the Swiss Alps is proposed in this study, which consists of risk analysis, risk evaluation and the integral planning of risk reduction measures. The pertinent question is how risk, resulting from natural hazard process chains involved with landslides and new lakes, can be assessed. The present knowledge basis together with currently available models, methods and tools is herein reviewed. Knowledge gaps are mainly identified in the determination of future landslide detachement zones and in the evaluation of changes in landuse and damage potential.

Yvonne Schaub, Wilfried Haeberli, Christian Huggel, Matthias Künzler, Michael Bründl

Long Term Strategies and Policies for Geological and Hydraulic Risk Mitigation in Italy: The ReNDiS Project

The ReNDiS project aims at implementing a database, collecting updated information about mitigation measures (engineering works as well as non-structural measures) funded for the reduction of geological and hydraulic risk, and monitored by ISPRA. The project is a web-GIS platform and the inventory comprises a main archive and two secondary interfaces: the first for direct data management (ReNDiS-ist) and the second (ReNDiS-web) for on-line access and public consultation.

Currently, ReNDiS database contains 4,710 records concerning those programs (funded at 4,472 M€) focused on risk mitigation works but including also information on phenomena typologies and processes.

Claudio Campobasso, Giuseppe Delmonaco, Barbara Dessì, Pier Luigi Gallozzi, Benedetto Porfidia, Daniele Spizzichino, Francesco Traversa, Giorgio Vizzini

Improve Information Provision for Disaster Management: MONITOR II, EU Project

Management of natural hazards constitutes a common challenge in most countries of the world. Until now, neither hazard mapping nor contingency planning have been trans-nationally coordinated and defined. Such gaps will be addressed in the Monitor II project (founded by the EU – South East Transnational Cooperation Program) with the development of a common methodology dealing with risk assessment and risk management. The project partnership has so far carried out the following activities and achieved the following results: review of best practices in hazard mapping and contingency plans; definition of information needs and information flow in different phases of risk management; definition of novel concepts for the creation of simplified scenario models in the process, damage and intervention domains. In the project we will develop a Continuous Situation Awareness system, as software that supports disaster management in the different phases of the risk cycle. Within the broad range of hazards, Monitor II specifically deals with floods and landslides, but the concepts of the project could be applied to other types of hazards.

Francesco Ronchetti, Alessandro Corsini, Stefan Kollarits, Diethard Leber, Joze Papez, Katrin Plunger, Tanja Preseren, Ingo Schnetzer, Martina Stefani

Vulnerability Assessment and Risk Mitigation: The Case of Vulcano Island, Italy

This paper reports on a comprehensive vulnerability analysis based on a research work developed within the EC ENSURE Project (7FP) dealing with the assessment of different volcanic phenomena and induced mass-movements on Vulcano Island (S Italy) as a key tool for proactive efforts for multi-risk mitigation. The work is mainly focused on tephra sedimentation and lahar hazards and related physical, systemic and mitigation capacities.

Adriana Galderisi, Costanza Bonadonna, Giuseppe Delmonaco, Floriana Federica Ferrara, Scira Menoni, Andrea Ceudech, Sebastien Biass, Corine Frischknecht, Irene Manzella, Guido Minucci, Chris Gregg

Geomorphologic Evidences of Flank Instabilities in the Eastern Sector of the Tejeda Volcano (Canary Islands, Spain) During the Quaternary

This paper provides both geological and geomorphologic observations that support the existence of flank instabilities in the eastern sector of the Tejeda Volcano (Gran Canaria) during the Quaternary. The observations are focused on the analysis of the drainage system, scarps, erosion surfaces, residual reliefs, field of volcanoes and lithological correlation between the surface geology and data derived from wells and boreholes. We have identified a wide paleo-valley developed in Miocene volcanic materials, which could be related to a large rock slide, as well as a subsequent secondary scarp of Pliocene age developed at the distal area of the slide mass. These observations confirm the occurrence of large insular flank collapses of the Tejeda Volcano during the Miocene to Pliocene. These flank instabilities suggest a NE-SW extensional regime, which could be related to a NW-SE fault zone that divides Gran Canaria Island into two sectors.

Jorge Yepes Temiño, Martín Jesús Rodríguez-Peces, Nieves Sánchez, Inés Galindo, Rodrigo del Potro

Geomorphologic Evidences of Great Flank Collapses in the Northwest of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain)

This work provides geological observations that support the existence of several large rock slides in the northwest sector of the Gran Canaria Island, which are now covered by recent lavas. Some erosional forms has been identified: a paleo-relief developed in Pliocene volcanic materials which could be related to a large rock slide, a number of streams with strong incision and sharp diversions which are related to the flanks of the fractured rock mass, a clear topographical unconformity between the oldest erosion surfaces, as well as a prior secondary scarp near de coastal border. Moreover, we have identified some aggradational morphologies: a debris avalanche deposit covering the offshore area of the island, several scoria cones which are developed following the main scarp of the rock slide and a field of volcanoes which covers the foot of the slide in the onshore part of the island. These observations confirm the existence of some large rock slides that affect successively the NW flank of Gran Canaria during the Miocene to Pliocene. These flank instabilities suggest a NE-SW extensional regime, which could be related to a NW-SE fault zone that divides the island into two sectors. This hypothesis is in agreement with the spreading process which has been proposed for other volcanic islands.

Jorge Yepes Temiño, Nieves Sánchez, Martín Jesús Rodríguez-Peces, Inés Galindo, Rodrigo del Potro

Landslides in a Multi-Hazard Context

Landslides and other hazards are components of natural systems and thus are often related to each other. Since these relationships may result in unexpected effects, an approach to account for these relationships in a regional multi-hazard study is proposed. Subdivided into relations concerning disposition alteration and hazard chains in which one process triggers another process, the hazard links are identified and studied by means of GIS-based methods. Two techniques are used for the implementation of relations into the analysis procedure, the establishment of feedback loops and the overlay of hazard areas to determine overlaps. Such a regional analysis enables in the first place the definition of those areas possibly affected by unexpected effects due to hazard relations and indicates the spots to be studied in detail by local and detailed methods to quantify the potential consequences.

Melanie S. Kappes, Thomas Glade

A Performance-Based Approach to Landslide Risk Analysis and Management

A performance-based approach for the assessment of landslide risk and management is shown and discussed. The implemented method is based on a probabilistic model which takes into account all the uncertainties of the involved variables and allows following a performance approach based on given loss or damage thresholds. Given the landslide area-extent and type as the only deterministic input, all other properties to derive landslide severity and frequency are statistically inferred from actual landslides and probabilistically managed to derive probability density functions of the demand of resistance. In turn, the capacity of resistance (i.e., fragility functions) is derived via damage surveys and cards compilation for each investigated asset group (structures, roads and lifelines) and for each limit state (aesthetic, functional and structural). Finally, convolution of landslide hazard, asset fragility and exposure (as the amount of potentially damaged goods) allows the computation of the risk for each limit state condition.

Roberto W. Romeo, Milena Mari, Giulio Pappafico

Landslides and Socio-Economic Impact: Basic Data and Loss Modeling

Frontmatter

Landslide Monitoring in the Himalayan Region, India

In Uttarakhand, the northern most state of India, comprising the sub and lesser Himalayan region, natural as well as human induced hazards casts a wide shadow over human life. The landslide occurrence is more frequent and is considered to be a major geological hazard. Every year valuable top soil cover erodes and washes away, several places experience massive landslides and debris flow, which results in damage to human life as well as to property. In recent years the intensity of natural hazards has increased surprisingly as a result of increase urbanization, hill slopes are being disturbed due to various construction activities particularly the road construction. It is difficult to stop the debris flow due to natural hazards like earthquake and landslides or weather related or by man made activities like dam and road construction. Number of Eco-task force have been created to conserve the forests. One of the major mitigation strategies could be through micro zonation approach. Satellite imagery can help both the monitoring and measuring of soil erosion.

S. K. Sharma, S. Singh

Losses Caused by Recent Mass-Movements in Majorca (Spain)

The main income of the island of Majorca (Balearic Islands, Spain) comes from tourism (83 % of its GDP), as it welcomes over nine million visitors each year. During the years 2008–2010, Majorca experienced one of the coldest and wettest winters in living memory. The result was that 34 mass movements were triggered, distributed along the Tramuntana Range, in the northwest sector of the island, namely 14 rockfalls, one rock avalanche, 15 landslides and 4 karstic collapses. Fortunately, there were no deaths but there were numerous cases of damage to dwellings, holiday apartment blocks, barns and power stations, and especially the road network in the range, most significantly the numerous blockages on the Ma-10 road, which caused significant economic losses in the different tourist resorts. On the southern coast of the range, 17 holiday homes have been evacuated recently due to the impending risk of a large rockfall. Total economic losses are valued at approximately 11M Euro, which represents 0.042 % of the Balearic Autonomous Region GDP.

Rosa María Mateos, Inmaculada García-Moreno, Gerardo Herrera, Joaquín Mulas

Deep Seated Landslides of Seciurile (Getic Piedmont, Romania) and Its Implication for the Settlement

The Seciuri settlement in Romania emerged and developed on a corrugated terrain, fragmented by numerous small valleys cut by sheet wash and the Amaradia springs. In the west, north and east, it neighbours two lignite quarries – Seciuri Vest and Seciuri-Ruget, lying at the contact between the Getic Piedmont and Getic Subcarpathians. In the spring of 2006, the settlement was destroyed almost completely by a landslide that perfectly overlaps the heartland of the village. Due to the risks incurred, the local authorities decided to evacuate the village and move it to Campu Mare Depression, where a new settlement was built.

Changes in the slope stability are the results of cumulated effects of various factors, such as: lithology and strata slope, overloading of the slope, water excess on the slopes, artificial mechanical shocks, and changes in the terrain land use. The rainfalls in 2004 and 2005, as well as the sudden melting of snow in the spring of 2006 are the main factors that triggered the landslide. The vibrations induced by coal conveyors and the heavy traffic on the industrial road, both of which are on the upper side of the slope, where the detachment scarp emerged, also contributed to the landslide.

The analysis of the landslide mass indicates that it slid in a series of steps that formed sliding prisms inside this mass, most of the time having a local character. This activity explains the appearance of some local compression of the water logged sand, leading to deepening and local detachment steps.

Sandu Boengiu, Marcel Torok-Oance, Cristiana Vîlcea

Landslide Damages: An Econometric Model for Estimating Potential Losses

Loss estimation for landslides has largely relied on historical slides to serve as a guide for what may be expected in future events. Little has been done to evaluate the role socio-economic factors may play. This paper uses data from the U.S. on landslide events combined with demographic data from the U.S. decennial census to create an econometric loss estimation model. The model shows how a similar event may differ in the amount of damage depending on changes in population, income and other variables and provides a proto-type for the development of future damage functions on landslides.

Kevin M. Simmons

Evaluation of Landslide Inventory Information: Extreme Precipitation and Global Patterns

This study has identified an increase in the number of reported rainfall-triggered landslides in 2010 based on a global database of reports compiled since 2007. Three test areas are identified as having an increased number of landslide reports, including Central America, the Himalayan Arc, and central eastern China, and are compared with precipitation signatures from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data at monthly and daily time scales for a record from 1998 to 2010. Several test statistics confirm that the monthly and daily rainfall patterns were anomalous for 2010 and closely mirror the occurrence of landslide reports over each region. Findings suggest that with additional landslide information and rainfall data, we may be able to better define relationships between extreme precipitation and landslide activity at regional and global scales.

Dalia Kirschbaum, Robert Adler

Impact of Disasters in Mediterranean Regions: An Overview in the Framework of the HYMEX Project

A review of recent articles concerning the Natural Disaster Impact Assessment (NDIA) has been performed according to the HyMex (

Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment

) framework. HyMex is an international project focused on quantifying the hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean, analyzing high-impact weather events in the context of global change. According to their approach, the articles have been sorted in three groups: (a) those that focus on short-to-medium term effects directly involving people and goods impacted by the disaster; (b) those that focus on medium-to-long-term socio-economic effects; and (c) those that focus on short-to-long-term physical and physiological effects on individuals. The aim is to highlight the approaches used to address this issue in various scientific fields and thereby to promote the sharing of both data and methodologies and facilitate the use of an advanced multidisciplinary approach to the NDIA.

Olga Petrucci, Maria Carme Llasat

Rainfall-Related Phenomena Along a Road Sector in Calabria (Southern Italy)

This paper proposes an approach for the relative assessment of damage caused along roads by

landslides

and

floods

, which are known as Rainfall-Related Phenomena (RRP). The proposed approach aims to obtain (a) the trend of phenomena occurrences through the analysed period, classified in terms of both the type of triggering phenomenon and relative damage; (b) the location of damage data, allowing the creation of a map of

critical points

that must either be monitored during rainfall periods or urgently need defensive work; and (c) a sketch of the primary circumstances that lead to human injuries along the analysed road. Finally, an application for a road track in Calabria (Southern Italy) is presented.

Olga Petrucci, A. Aurora Pasqua

Economic Valuation of Landslide Damage in Hilly Regions: A Case Study from the Flemish Ardennes, Belgium

Several regions around the globe are at risk to incur damage from landslides. These landslides may cause significant structural and functional damage to public and private buildings and infrastructure such as houses, schools, hospitals, administrative, industrial and commercial buildings, electricity grid, roads, railways and underground cables. Many studies investigated how natural factors as well as human activities control the occurrence or re-activation of landslides. However, few studies have concentrated on the overall damage caused by landslides, particularly in low-relief areas, and on the policy instruments which policymakers can use to prevent further damage. This study therefore aims at developing a methodology to estimate the overall damage caused by landslides in low-relief areas. In this study we combine two economic valuation methods. On the one hand, we estimate the decrease in the value of real estate due to their location in areas with a high landslide risk. On the other hand, we estimate the costs to restore the damage to private buildings and public infrastructure which is caused by landslides. This methodology provides a range of the maximum and minimum economic value of the damage caused by landslides. In addition, we provide an overview of landslide prevention and remediation measures and estimate the associated costs. This methodology will then be applied to the Flemish Ardennes (Belgium), a hilly region susceptible to landslides.

Liesbet Vranken, Pieter Van Turnhout, Miet Van Den Eeckhaut, Liesbeth Vandekerckhove, Jean Poesen

Index-Oriented Methodologies for Landslide Consequence Analysis: An Application to a Mountain Community in the French Alps

Consequence analysis is a key aspect of anchoring assessment of landslide impacts to present and long-term development planning. Although several approaches have been developed over the last decade, some of them are difficult to apply in practice, mainly because of the lack of valuable data on historical damages or on damage functions. In this paper, two possible consequence indicators based on a combination of descriptors of the exposure of the elements at risk are proposed in order to map the potential impacts of landslides and highlight the most vulnerable areas. The first index maps the physical vulnerability due to landslide; the second index maps both direct damage (physical, structural, functional) and indirect damage (socio-economic impacts) of landslide hazards. The indexes have been computed for the 200 km

2

area of the Barcelonnette Basin (South French Alps), and their potential applications are discussed.

Anne Puissant, Miet Van Den Eeckhaut, Melanie Kappes, Maria Papathoma-Koehle, Margreth Keiler, Javier Hervás, Jean-Philippe Malet

Landslides (and Legislation), Policies, Cost Benefit Analysis and Decision Makers

Frontmatter

Landslide and Flood: Economic and Social Impacts in Italy

We conducted an analysis of the damages caused by the natural disasters which have occurred in the last 60 years in order to demonstrate that prevention costs much less than repairing the damages, without considering the loss of human lives. Between 1951 and 2009, the total cost of the damages caused by landslides and floods in Italy, revalued on the basis of ISTAT indexes 2009, amounts to more than 52 billion euros, approximately one billion euros per year. The Ministry of Environment estimated at approximately 40 billion euros the financial need to mitigate the risk of landslide and flood. The annual available funding allows the mitigation of landslide and flood risk in over 100 years. On the other hand we are forced to use Civil Protection’s funds to address emergency caused by landslides or flood at least once a year in Italy: these funds, if used for prevention, would mitigate risks in wider territories and to avoid the loss of lives, optimizing the cost-benefit ratio.

Fabio Trezzini, Gianluigi Giannella, Tiziana Guida

Setback Distance Between Natural Slope and Building Along the RN8 in Algeria

The objective of this study is to determinate the required distances between the natural slopes and the buildings located nearly to these slopes. This approach permits to determining the distance between a building and the crest of a natural slope. The analysis of this case uses the geotechnical engineering and the results are applied during the design of the master plan by the town planners and the engineers of the transport and pavement administration. This study is limited to only the stability of natural slopes and the phenomenon of erosion is not taken into account.

The work begins by to present the context of study and the reinforcement works required by the administration of pavement and transport. Then, the limit equilibrium method is used for to obtain the minimal distance, limited by the crest of slope and the building. This distance is verified by simulations and compared to the distance corresponding to the beginning of the first plastification zones. The checking of plastification is carried out by the finite elements method. The work terminates by the presentation of the obtained graphics on the setback distance, and by the recommendations on the implantation of buildings.

Boualem El Kechebour, Ammar Nechnech

Landslide Problems in Bulgaria: Factors, Distribution and Countermeasures

The present paper aims to analyse and to discuss the state of landslide problems in Bulgaria. It separates the main factors of instability of slopes Bulgarian landslides: tectonic movements, earthquakes, erosion, abrasion, surface water and groundwater, precipitation and human impact. Landslides are concentrated in certain regions: Black Sea Coast, Danube bank, the Fore-Balkan, Rhodope Mts, active tectonic grabens in South Bulgaria and Maritsa-Iztok coal basin. 917 landslides affecting urban areas are presented on Map of landslides in Bulgaria, in scale 1:500,000. They are divided into three groups: (1) shallow landslides, (2) deep-seated landslides, conditionally stable, and (3) deep-seated landslides with periodic (re)activation of some parts of them. National Program for Landslide Mitigation has been made. The program envisages countermeasures on selected 170 most dangerous landslides in the country.

Nikolai Dobrev, Plamen Ivanov, Radoslav Varbanov, Georgi Frangov, Boyko Berov, Ilia Bruchev, Miroslav Krastanov, Rosen Nankin

Landslide Risk Management in the Arno River Basin

The Basin Plan is, under the Italian law, the legislative, technical-operational and knowledge instrument used to plan, programme actions, and use regulations for soil conservation, protection and valorisation, and for correct water use in context of the physical and environmental characteristics of the Basin territory (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1

Position and extension of Arno river basin

In specific terms, the Hydrogeological Management Plan (PAI), approved by the Arno River Basin Authority in 2005, faces the issues concerning landslide risk and geomorphological hazard. The Arno River Basin Authority constantly updates its landslide hazard zonation by identifying landslide prone sites on the basis of the Italian Landslide Inventory Criteria (IFFI project-ISPRA). Moreover, satellite-based radar interferometry detects assets at risk of landslide activity. A procedure that not only allows the maximum level of interplay and coherence between land use planning and river basin planning, but also influences and supports decisions at the different administrative levels. This allows the provisional cost-benefit assessment of landslide risk reduction actions with the general aim of environmental protection and efficient territorial management policy.

Under the European Legislation, that foresees the integrated management of the different basins belonging to each District, National Basin Authorities are assigned a coordination role as regards to the updating procedure of the River Basin District Management Plans, under Directive 2000/60/EC, and the drafting of the Flood Management Plans under Directive 2007/60/EC. This active role envisages the updating of the knowledge framework and data concerning slope instability and landslides. It will result in the consequent updating of the Landslide Hydrogeological Management Plan which is included, like the above mentioned plans, in the River Basin District Management Plan.

Gaia Checcucci

The Policy Issue of Landslides in Romania

National policy in disaster risk reduction field is expressed through various legislative documents for the hole field and different risk types, administrative authorities, public institutions and specialized institutions with responsibilities in disaster prevention and response management.

Romania is one of the Eastern European countries more severely affected by natural hazards (floods, landslides and earthquakes), all with strong economic and social impact. Landslides comprise all the failure and movement mechanisms, e.g. slides, lateral spreading, flows and falls etc… Mountains, hills and tablelands, which cover two-thirds of the country’s area, are particularly susceptible to landsliding, especially the hills and tablelands. Numerous historical documents from the fifteenth to nineteeth centuries contain information on landslide related damage, but it is only since the early twentieth century that scientific inventorying and appropriate mapping exist.

In Romania, the interests in achieving a legislative base regarding natural disasters and prevention measures/countermeasures occurred before 1960. The most important natural hazards are: strong earthquakes, major floods, landslides, soil erosion and drought.

The surface exposed to the landslide risk is 800,000 ha, where are located 50,000 households in which live 250,000 people. Area with the highest risk to landslides is located in southern and southwestern Carpathian arc. For registration and statistics highlight to the main natural hazards exist standardized evaluation sheets for damage caused by landslides and floods (Official Gazette, X 354/16.09.1998).

Raluca-Mihaela Maftei, Elena Tudor, George Vina, Constantina Porumbescu

Landslide Risk and Mitigation Policies in Campania Region (Italy)

The paper describes policies and procedures by which Campania Region (Italy) manages the severe landslide risk which affects its territory. The Campania Region has developed a complex strategy built on the integration of structural and non-structural measures for the mitigation of landslide risk. During 1989–2011 years about 755 millions euro have been funded in structural actions to restore landslide damages and mitigate landslide risk in Campania Region territory. In 2007–2013 years about 374 millions euro are available for structural and non-structural actions, despite of an overall need of over 2.7 billion euro for interventions to mitigate hydraulic and landslide instabilities in Campania as showed by the planning schemes developed by the River Basin Authorities. Given this condition, the knowledge of the real distribution of landslide phenomena and risks is a crucial point and represents a major goal that can be achieved also by using new technologies (spatial database, web-GIS and remote sensing) of monitoring and data management. Non-structural measures such as several study project on landslides highly improved the knowledge of landslide distribution, activity and geology. The SISTEMA Project aims to develop and systematize specific acquisition procedures, treatment and consultation of remote sensing data to support regional decision-making system on the prevention of natural hazards.

Italo Giulivo, Fiorella Galluccio, Fabio Matano, Lucia Monti, Carlo Terranova

NEMETON: Decision Support System for Rockfall and Rock Slide Hazard Mitigation

Rockfalls and rock slides belong among the most dangerous slope processes since even small magnitude events involving single boulders may cause high damage to infrastructure or may lead to serious injuries or even fatalities. In the environment of the Czech Republic or other Middle European countries, this phenomenon is often highly localized, involving single rock slopes. Solving such a problem usually requires direct involvement of local authorities, where are rarely found people with experiences in solving rock slope stability problems. This fact along with high costs of almost any structural mitigation measures possibly applied on rock slopes makes mitigation process subject to many political and economic interests which not always result in the most effective slope stability solution. In such situations, the NEMETON decision support system should offer help and guide through the whole process of rock slope hazard mitigation. It is designed to provide complete information to three groups of involved actors. The first are investors (e.g. local authorities, private companies), second are civil engineers and designers responsible for finding and designing specific technical solution of the slope stability problem and the last group are construction companies, whose precise work affects directly the quality of the mitigation structures.

Jan Klimeš, Stanislav Štábl, Josef Stemberk, Dušan Dufka

Identifying Needs and Areas for Future Landslide Hazard Mapping in Norway

The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) in collaboration with the Norwegian Geological Survey (NGU) has worked to produce a national mapping plan to identify future needs and priorities for landslide and snow avalanche susceptibility and hazard mapping in Norway. Preliminary results are herein presented. The plan will help the national and local authorities to direct efforts and economical resources for the realization of future hazard maps.

Graziella Devoli, Terje Bargel, Andrea Taurisano, Toril Wiig, Hallvard Berg, Eli Øydvin, Reginald L. Hermanns, Louise Hansen

Landslide Management in Austria with Particular Attention to Hazard Mapping and Land Use Planning

The assessment of landslide hazards and the planning and construction of protection measures in Austria is carried out by the Austrian Service for Torrent and Avalanche Control (a federal agency) in close cooperation with the provincial Geological Services.

As the feasibility of technical measures is often very limited in the case of landslides, a combination of measures targeting all parts of the risk cycle is necessary to limit the damage caused by catastrophic landslide events. In the last years special attention has been paid to avoid building activities in heavily endangered areas. In Vorarlberg (the westernmost province of Austria) the systematic incorporation of landslide hazards into the Hazard Zone Maps was launched in 2004 and areas endangered by mass movements are classified into two categories:

Areas of high hazard potential (not suitable for permanent use regarding settlement and transport purposes).

Areas of medium to low hazard potential (the permanent use regarding settlement and transport purposes is impaired).

Margarete Wöhrer-Alge

Landslides and Quarries in Italy: Reflections on Census and Safety

A quarry geotechnical project consists mainly in the calculation of the inclination of the excavation faces and of environmental recovery profiles. Quarry fronts are treated in the Eurocodes as generic excavation fronts equalizing the mining to civil engineering.

A quarry face is designed to ensure production and safety, in harmonious balance. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the design, according to more restrictive rules, it was decided to use as a diagnostic tool, the incidence of landslides in the mining yards, assuming that they are pathological signs of design errors.

The ANIM (National Association of Mining Engineers) has promoted a census of the landslides in the mining sites in co-operation with the offices of Mining Police. The project has provided, already in the start, interesting directions.

Nando Ferranti, Giovanni De Caterini, Gabriele Leoni, Quintilio Napoleoni

Landslide Education, Training and Capacity Development

Frontmatter

Landslide Risk Reduction in Developing Countries: Perceptions, Successes and Future Risks for Capacity Building

There is widespread recognition by the international community of the significance of risk reduction measures in the context of natural disasters. However, as far as landslide risk in developing countries is concerned, evidence suggests that: (1) Risk is accumulating; (2) Relatively few ex-ante risk reduction measures are delivered on the ground; (3) Community residents often construct inappropriate risk reduction measures; (4) Peoples’ perception of risk is not in accord with the likely impact of the event, or the probability of its occurrence. A community-based approach to landslide risk reduction can help to correct perceptions, deliver on the ground impact and locally arrest risk accumulation. Whilst this can be seen as a successful methodology to deploy, there remain significant future risks. Most notable are the rate of population growth, and the associated growth of poor, unregulated housing on steep vulnerable slopes adjoining urban areas.

Malcolm G. Anderson

Education, Training and Capacity Development for Mainstreaming Landslides Risk Management

The multifaceted aspects of landslide management, especially risk assessment, prevention, mitigation, preparedness and response require an inter-disciplinary cross-sectoral and multi-level action strategy. But the success of the strategy depends on education, training and capacity building of all stakeholders to make them act in an integrated manner towards a convergent holistic approach for mainstreaming landslides risk reduction and disaster management. The present paper discusses about the issues and initiatives proposed or taken in this direction, with particular reference to India.

Education and training needs analysis of different stakeholders dealing with landslides led to the view that there is dearth of adequately educated and trained human resources as well as infra-structure/resources to tackle the various issues related to risk reduction, emergency response and recovery. A scrutiny of existing landslides management practices highlighted that only ad-hoc reactive piece-meal measures have been taken in a discontinuous mode without sound scientific, systematic means which proved to be a costly affair. Thus, a revision of the existing educational, training and capacity building programmes became necessary to strengthen the nation-wide organized vibrant pro-active, systematic and scientific institutional mechanism that would replace the less recognized and poorly appreciated existing system.

Surya Parkash

Awareness and Preparedness Strategies for Community Based Disaster Risk Management with Particular Reference to Landslides

Awareness and preparedness strategies are an essential component of community based disaster risk management. A sustained effort is required by the government, NGOs, Volunteers, electronic and print media through interactive meetings, audio-visuals, handbills/booklets/posters, competitions and quizzes, street-shows, mock drills and exercises for creating awareness among the public and preparing them to act appropriately for disaster risk reduction. Community involvement in disaster management cannot be over-emphasized since it is usually the first victim as well as responder to a disaster and hence, its role in containing damage or loss is of prime significance. The community campaigns emphasize on the prevalent landslide risk and vulnerability of the exposed elements. It highlights the roles, responsibilities and standard operational procedures for risk reduction and response by the communities. Information, maps and illustrations containing status of landslide hazards, landslide indicators or precursors, precautionary measures, possible causes, suggestive remedial options and early warning signals are shared with the community in a layman’s language. Communities are made aware of the likely major disasters that threaten the localities of immediate concern to them, and the projected disaster scenarios; the possible landslide hazard distribution and major known landslide spots.

However, one of the most challenging tasks in landslides awareness and preparedness is the sensitization of all stakeholders, and their involvement in landslide risk management process. If the communities recognize the importance of landslides safety vis-à-vis developmental activities, tremendous gains can be achieved in landslide risk reduction. Therefore, a comprehensive awareness and preparedness campaign should be developed and implemented for following safe practices before, during and after a landslide. Landslide risk management should be done by applying locally available knowledge, expertise and resources customized to suit site specific situations.

Surya Parkash

Current Status of Landslide Guidelines Around the World

The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) initiated a project in 2009 to develop national landslide guidelines and best practices as part of its natural hazard loss reduction effort. This project is part of the International Program on Landslides sponsored by the International Consortium on Landslides. A literature review was carried out as part of this project. More than 30 landslide guidelines from around the world were collected. This paper presents a brief review of these guidelines. The review will assist in the development of the GSC’s landslide guidelines, as well as aid professionals and other stakeholders who wish to learn more about or develop their own landslide guidelines.

Baolin Wang, Mario Ruel, Réjean Couture, Doug VanDine, Peter Bobrowsky, Andrée Blais-Stevens

Strengthening Landslide Awareness and Management in the Mountain Road Sector

Landslides pose a continuing and increasing threat to the management of rural infrastructure in many countries. In many parts of Asia this threat is compounded by limited resources and budgets and limited knowledge of ground conditions to develop and manage sustainable solutions. A 3-year programme is described that aimed to strengthen capacity in the road sector of Laos in order to manage and mitigate against landslide hazards. Trial slope stabilisation and road reinstatement measures were designed and constructed and best practice manuals produced as an aid to future practice and as a means of focusing capacity building through training. Workshops, hands-on secondments and trainer-training approaches were used to maximise the take-up of these outputs and to ensure sustainability for future applications.

Gareth Hearn

Landslide Awareness, Preparedness and Response Management in India

In India, the main cause of heavy losses during landslides is the lack of awareness among the common residents about the first aid, safety routes, warning signs and first response to landslide emergency situation. Other main cause of great losses is poor disaster and response management system of administration. The change agents of society like, dedicated NGO’s, teachers, senior citizens and govt. officials need be trained as a trainers and be given time-slab responsibility to spread awareness regarding response to landslides in the work area assigned to them in their locality. The execution of this awareness programme be managed by District Disaster Management Authority under the chairman ship of Deputy Collector. Local print and electronic media can play a very important role in spreading awareness about landslides in common residents. A well equipped and coordinated quick response teams under Deputy Commissioner, comprising of trained rescue workers be kept ready for mitigation measures and quick response round the clock near vulnerable areas especially during monsoon season.

Jog Bhatia

Landslide Public Awareness and Education Programs in Malaysia

Malaysia receives high rainfall throughout the year that results in floods and landslides. A National Slope Master Plan that was completed recently shows that landslides have cost Malaysia close to USD 1 billion. One of the components under the Master Plan is Public Awareness and Education. The Slope Engineering Branch in the Public Works Department of Malaysia has been running a public awareness and education program to provide information to the public since 2008. The objective of the program is to create awareness on minimizing the effects of landslides through actions and measures that can be taken by community members as well as by government and private owners of slopes. The program focuses on three sets of actions: (1) identifying key target audiences and finding out their information needs, (2) building capacity and capability of the federal, state and local authority stakeholders, and (3) exploring effective ways to reach out to the message recipients. There are several key messages that are conveyed to the audiences in this campaign, which are: “Learn, Monitor, Maintain and Report”. The program is targeted to the entire country with emphasis given to communities in at-risk areas. One of the outcomes from the program is the formation of a community-based organization on slope safety. In Bukit Antarabangsa where a major landslide occurred in 2008, a group of residents got together to form a watchdog group that became the eyes and ears of the local authority for detecting signs of landslides and slope failures. This group is represented by 4,000 residents in the hills of Bukit Antarabangsa and works very closely with the local authority. Another outcome is the formation of a slope unit within the engineering department of some local authorities in at-risk areas. Realizing that they are no longer able to manage slopes with the current staffing resources, budget and skills, they have begun to upgrade themselves by forming a unit that oversees slope issues. Public awareness programs on landslides have flourished since the last major landslide in Bukit Antarabangsa.

Eriko Motoyama, Che Hassandi Abdullah

Learning by Doing: Community Based Landslide Risk Reduction

‘Knowledge into action’ and ‘community engagement’ are terms widely used in disaster risk management. We challenge the efficacy of such advocacy by reviewing knowledge gaps that restrict delivery of landslide mitigation on-the-ground in the most vulnerable communities in developing countries. We outline a holistic strategy which embraces

both

‘action into knowledge’ and ‘knowledge into action’, and which engages all stakeholders throughout implementation cycle. This strategy formed the basis for the development of a community-based landslide risk reduction programme (MoSSaiC – Management of Slope Stability in Communities) in several Eastern Caribbean communities during the period 2005–2011. Outcomes included changes in policy (support for ex-ante DRR), new institutional practices (creation of a cross-ministry Government team), enhanced the local skill base (communities learned construction skills) and raised awareness (of landslide ‘science’ and hazard reduction). Such outcomes support the view that ‘learning by doing’ offers considerable benefits in the delivery of landslide mitigation measures.

Elizabeth Holcombe, Malcolm Anderson, Niels Holm-Nielsen

PASTI (Preparedness Assessment Tools for Indonesia): Diagnostic Tools for Disaster Preparedness

PASTI is an instrument used to measure community based preparedness that cover 3 basic aspects: basic human service, community development and disaster risk analysis for 9 typical threats. There are earthquake, tsunami, volcanic eruption, landslide, flood, forest fire, drought, epidemic and mud. When analyzing the community preparedness, those aspects are working in synergy among each other since there is an interconnection between them. Basic Human Services instrument to understand the accompanied population means identifying basic needs and the extent to meet them. If the fulfillment of such needs is low, community resilience capacity against the threats is less consequently. Community Development is to reconstruct the community as the learning centre of experience, human needs, and reconstruction of state structures, welfare, global economic, bureaucracy, etc. Disaster Risk Analysis analysis is a perspective that becomes of harazd, vulnerability and capability. The instrument can used by all kinds of stakeholders

Hening Purwati Parlan

Active Landslides: Perception and Education in Slovakia

Active landslides belong to major environmental hazards in Slovakia. More than 21,000 slope deformations have been registered in the Slovak part of the Western Carpathians covering 5.25 % of the area of Slovakia since the beginning of systematic investigation of landslides in the middle of the last century “Liščák et al. (Mineralia Slovaca 42:393–406, 2010)”. Results of regional research of slope deformations during past 50 years can also be found in Atlas of slope stability maps in the Slovak Republic at scale 1:50,000 “Šimeková et al. (2006 Atlas máp stability svahov Slovenskej republiky 1:50,000. MŽP SR/INGEO-IGHP, Bratislava/Zilina)”. There were 551 newly occurred slope deformations in the East Slovakia during the last year. It was generally anticipated that they were induced by natural factors (extremely heavy rain, favourable geological structure, suitable geomorphological, hydrogeological and climatic conditions) and human activities (constructions, deforestation, incorrect agriculture melioration works, etc.). Post-failure dynamics at 16 selected localities was monitored since 1993 by a set of traditional methods by State Geological Institute of Dionýz Štúr. In our contribution we analyze relations between changing landslides’ nature (underground water level, surface displacements, inclinometric measurements, etc.) and natural (climate) as well as anthropogenic factors before and after the activation of sliding processes at these localities. We have also considered different political systems and ownership relations and their effects on land use changes and/or state of remedial works. Finally, we discuss possibilities to increase the public awareness of landslides by introducing topical case studies into the teaching process at elementary and secondary schools.

Alžbeta Medved’ová, Roberta Prokešová, Zora Snopková

Student Community Service Program for Landslide Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia

This paper highlights the importance of student involvement to drive the community empowerment program for landslide disaster risk reduction at the village level in Indonesia, as a part of student community service action organized by Universitas Gadjah Mada. During the period of 2 months, 20–30 students with multi disciplinary backgrounds are deployed in the landslide prone area, to investigate the conditions of geology, environment, landuse and socio-culture which may control the occurrence of landslide disasters. Accordingly, strategic program for landslide prevention, mitigation and early warning can be developed and initiated by addressing the community participation and empowerment. Indeed, this community service program is an ideal media for the capacity development in terms of personality, community and institutional empowerment, with respect to sustainable development in landslide prone area.

Dwikorita Karnawati, Wahyu Wilopo, Agung Setianto, Suharman Suharman, Teuku Faisal Fathani

Soil Bioengineering Measures in Latin America: Authocthonal Cuttings Suitability

The variety of Soil bioengineering techniques usable for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction is nowadays little known in developing countries. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works is the essential first step for the divulgation of this discipline. The present paper is focused on this issue related to the realization of various typologies of Soil Bio-engineering works in the Humid tropic of Ecuador. Realizing live palisades alongside an unpaved road, an experimental plot was obtained by planting 100 cuttings of each of the following species:

Brugmansia versicolor Lagerh

(local common name: Guanto);

Euphorbia

cotinifolia L. (local common name: Lechoso);

Malvaviscus penduliflorus DC.

(local common name: Cucarda),

Trichanthera gigantea (Humb. & Bonpl.) Nees

(local common names: Nacedero, quiebrabarriga, inchabarriga).

Alessandro Petrone, Federico Preti

EuroGeoSurveys, the Geological Surveys of Europe

EuroGeoSurveys (EGS) is the organisation of the Geological Surveys of Europe, the national institutions responsible for the geological inventory, monitoring, knowledge and research for the security, health and prosperity of society. With a membership that employs several thousand geoscientists from 33 European countries, EGS is a leading authority on Earth science issues in Europe.

Luca Demicheli, Claudia Delfini, Woody Hunter
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