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Über dieses Buch

This book provides an introduction to qualitative and quantitative aspects of human physiology. It looks at biological and physiological processes and phenomena, including a selection of mathematical models, showing how physiological problems can be mathematically formulated and studied. It also illustrates how a wide range of engineering and physics topics, including electronics, fluid dynamics, solid mechanics and control theory can be used to describe and understand physiological processes and systems. Throughout the text there are introductions to measuring and quantifying physiological processes using both signal and imaging technologies. Physiology for Engineers describes the basic structure and models of cellular systems, the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart and provides an overview of the structure and function of the respiratory and nervous systems. It also includes an introduction to the basic concepts and applications of reaction kinetics, pharmacokinetic modelling and tracer kinetics. It is of interest to final year biomedical engineering undergraduates and graduate students alike, as well as to practising engineers new to the fields of bioengineering or medical physics.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Cell Structure and Biochemical Reactions

Abstract
In this chapter, we look at the fundamental unit of the human body: the cell. We will examine how cells are constructed, what they are made of and how we can analyse simple chemical processes using reaction equations. This chapter provides the foundation for all the following chapters, as we describe how cells behave and interact with each other to form larger systems.
Michael Chappell, Stephen Payne

Chapter 2. Cellular Homeostasis and Membrane Potential

Abstract
In this chapter we will consider how the cell can maintains its internal environment despite differences in concentration of ions and other charged species both inside and outside of the cell membrane. We outline the principles of concentration balance, electrical neutrality and Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium and how to apply them to a model of a cell. We then see how to calculate equilibrium potentials for individual ions as well as the membrane potential and understand why these are not always the same value.
Michael Chappell, Stephen Payne

Chapter 3. The Action Potential

Abstract
In this chapter we meet the action potential, the fundamental electrical signalling mechanism used by the body. We introduce the cycle of ion movements associated with the generation of an action potential and the role of different ion gates. We then analyse the system of action potential generation in terms of a simple electrical circuit model.
Michael Chappell, Stephen Payne

Chapter 4. Cellular Transport and Communication

Abstract
In this chapter we will examine how substances can get in and out of the cell and the related topic of how cells can communicate with each other. We will identify and analyse some of the main mechanisms for transport across the cell membrane. Then we will consider how an action potential can be passed from one cell to another and how the action potential can propagate through both passive and active processes.
Michael Chappell, Stephen Payne

Chapter 5. Pharmacokinetics

Abstract
In this chapter we meet a general method for the treatment of the body as a whole system in which the behaviour of substances can by described mathematically. We will introduce compartmental models built around the ADME principles to write down and to solve differential equations for simple pharmacokinetics problems. We will also apply the same principles to tracer kinetics to measure the delivery of a contrast agent to tissue in medical imaging applications.
Michael Chappell, Stephen Payne

Chapter 6. Tissue Mechanics

Abstract
In this chapter, we look at ways in which we can model both tissue and its interaction with cells, water and blood. This interaction is key to understanding many different types of physiological behaviour, since most tissue is fundamentally very soft and thus deforms easily. This chapter shows how we can use engineering tools to investigate this behaviour and examines a few very simple cases.
Michael Chappell, Stephen Payne

Chapter 7. Cardiovascular System I: The Heart

Abstract
In this chapter, we look at the human heart: how it is constructed, how it works as a pump and how this is controlled. We will then look at how we can measure how it is performing, both in mechanical and electrical terms. The cardiac cycle is explained in detail and, in the following chapter, the interaction between the heart and the vasculature will be examined.
Michael Chappell, Stephen Payne

Chapter 8. Cardiovascular System II: The Vasculature

Abstract
In this chapter, we examine the vasculature and how blood flows round the body. We then introduce the study of blood flow and how it can be modelled using very simple techniques, using the equivalent electrical circuit as an example. We will also look at how blood flow is measured and how it is controlled to maintain adequate supply to the body.
Michael Chappell, Stephen Payne

Chapter 9. The Respiratory System

Abstract
In this chapter we will look at the structure of the respiratory system and especially the respiratory circulation. We will use models of transport to explain the unique structure of the lungs that enables effective gas exchange. Will we setup compartmental models for gas transport and analyse these for inert and metabolic gases using suitable approximations.
Michael Chappell, Stephen Payne

Chapter 10. The Central Nervous System

Abstract
In this chapter we examine the nervous system and see how the concepts of action potentials and their propagation come together to regulate the body and provide for conscious and voluntary action. We will see that through the summation of many action potentials we can achieve the complexity of computing seen of the brain. Finally we examine how we can measure the function of the brain through electrical and metabolic changes.
Michael Chappell, Stephen Payne

Backmatter

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