Skip to main content
main-content

Über dieses Buch

These proceedings comprise the peer-reviewed contributions submitted to the 11th International Congress for Applied Mineralogy (ICAM) held July 5-10, 2013, at the Southwest University of Science and Technology (SWUST) in Mianyang, China. The biennial ICAM is the most important gathering of applied mineralogists, organized every other year by the ICAM-Council. The multidisciplinary research presented in this book will be of interest to scientists and professionals dealing with topics like environmental and medical mineralogy; industrial minerals; bio-minerals and biomaterials; advanced materials; process mineralogy; mining and metallurgy; cultural heritage; the interaction of minerals with microorganisms; and solid waste treatment and recycling, including genetic mineralogy.

“The field of applied mineralogy has been able to match society’s pace by continuously reinventing itself, quickly adopting new technologies and instrumentation as they became available and putting them to work for the service of mankind living in a world that heavily relies on minerals. Over the past few decades, applied mineralogy has evolved into a cutting- edge discipline that leads the way for science, engineering and research and development to benefit society. Contrary to popular belief, mineral resources are limited, and we have an obligation to our heirs to use them responsibly.”

Dr. Maarten A.T.M. Broekmans

Post-President ICAM Council

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Microparagenetic Associations of Gold in Ore-Forming Minerals from Deposits of Different Geological and Industrial Types of Kazakhstan

All endogenous gold deposits have the same productive mineral associations, which do not depend on the age of the deposits, geological and tectonic position, and compositions of the deep substrate and host rocks. These include the following associations: gold–pyrite–arsenopyrite, gold–polysulfide, gold–telluride, gold–antimonite, and gold–vermilion. These associations are sustained. Geological conditions will affect the shape of its release—the macro-, micro-, nanomineral, or isomorphic. These associations are also found in different gold deposits of Kazakhstan.

Adilkhan Baibatsha, Kulyash Dyussembayeva, Aimkhan Kassenova

Calcium Phosphate Mineralization of Bacteria

The morphology, structure, and chemistry of calcifications upon native and bioprosthetic heart valves infected with

Staphylococcus aureus

have been investigated using high-resolution transmission and scanning electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Additionally, calcium phosphate mineralization of bacteria has been studied experimentally under the conditions simulating the major ion composition of blood plasma (Ca, P, Mg, NaCl). The experiments address the capacity of hydroxyapatite isolated from calcified valves to adsorb bacteria and the mineralization ability of bacteria (

S. aureus

). The bacteria were found out to activate formation of calcium phosphate in the blood plasma of patients.

Anatoly T. Titov, Piter M. Larionov, Vladimir I. Zaikovskii

Economical Potential of an Ultramafic Rock at the Kvaløya Island, North Norway

A low-grade metamorphic ultramafic rock at the Kvaløya Island, North Norway, shows Ni content up to 5,600 ppm and an average content of 2,500 ppm Ni. Olivine is absent from the rock, and Ni is principally bonded in pentlandite, violarite, and millerite. The rock might be considered as a low-grade ore, with 0.2–0.56 wt% Ni. Other metals that might be of economic interest to extract from the rock include Co (from pentlandite and violarite) and Cr and Fe (from magnetite).

However, traditional mining of such a low-grade ore would result in large volumes of waste material, which could represent a serious environmental problem. The future challenge for developing low-grade ore deposits like this is to find alternative uses of the minerals that are left after extraction of the economically interesting ore minerals, in order to reduce the volumes of waste materials from mining. One possible use of many of the traditional waste minerals from mining is for CO

2

sequestration, i.e., by reacting the waste minerals with CO

2

in order to permanently store CO

2

in carbonates. Traditional mining of the Ni-bearing ultramafic rock described here would result in large volumes of tailings dominated by serpentine. If value could be added by reacting serpentine from these tailings with CO

2

in order to sequestrate CO

2

in magnesite, extraction of Ni from such a marginal grade deposit could be of economical interest.

Anna Pryadunenko, Kåre Kullerud

Synthesis and Characterization of Mesoporous Carbon Using Attapulgite Template

The template carbonization method was utilized for the production of mesoporous carbon using attapulgite as a template and sucrose as a carbon precursor. Sucrose was polymerized and carbonized in the tubes of natural attapulgite using a sulfuric acid catalyst. The structure of the template and carbon was investigated by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption analysis techniques. At the micrometer level, the resultant carbon material templated by natural attapulgite had a similar morphology. Nitrogen adsorption analysis showed that the obtained porous carbon possessed a wide pore-size distribution and a large pore volume, especially in the range of mesopores.

Xi Cao, Xiuyun Chuan

Gold Characterization by MLA and Technological Tests: Discussion of Sample Preparation and Results

Gold has been present throughout the history of mankind and used to make jewelry and coins, and recently, it is put into use in industry. The price of gold in international market had a significant increase, surpassing 100 % in the last 5 years. Thereby, deposits with low levels of gold content as well as gold with complex associations or in a very fine particle size became exploitable again, allowing new projects and expansion of existing ones. However, as maximum process efficiency is indispensable and deep knowledge of the characteristics of these minerals and their behavior in face of beneficiation processes. Consequently, an accurate routine for mineralogical and technological characterization is essential. This chapter presents a methodology for characterizing low-grade ores with fine-grained gold. The procedure was conducted in three different samples from different regions, mineralogical assemblages, and grades.

Gold grains and their associations were characterized by SEM-based automated image analysis using the MLA SPL_Lt method, which consists in the initial search of gold, as well as other quite heavy minerals (e.g., platinum, silver, etc.), by atomic number contrast (backscattered electrons) and further identification of these phases and their mineral associations by EDS spectra. The automated routine is set up for allowing the identification of gold grains measuring down to 0.5 μm. Gold extraction assays were accomplished by amalgamation and cyanidation leaching of products from heavy liquid separation. The grades and partition of gold among mineral separation products are discussed in order to evaluate the significance of the gold density preconcentration prior to the characterization by an automated image analysis system. The results attained at mineralogical studies are correlated to the extraction of gold.

Carina Ulsen, Henrique Kahn, Guilherme Nery, Daniel Uliana, Juliana L. Antoniassi

Analyzing the Characteristics and Available Attributes of Skarn Gold Deposit Tailings

Skarn gold deposit tailings are a kind of tailings which are difficult to be utilized effectively. Taking skarn gold deposit tailings from Hubei province, in China, as an example, this chapter has tested and analyzed the tailings, studied the characteristics and available attributes of the tailings, and provided scientific and efficient utilization approaches of tailings in the area of building materials further. The results show that major mineral phase in the tailings is quartz, particle sizes of the tailings mainly existed in 10–100 μm, and the tailings have no pozzolanic activity. As a result, this kind of tailings can be used for building sand and can be used as auxiliary cementing material for concrete based on mechano-chemistry.

Yunhong Cheng, Fei Huang, Guanglu Li, Qingyu Yang, Han Peng, Rui Liu

Reciprocity Effect Between Silicate Bacterium and Wollastonite

This chapter studies the reciprocity effect between wollastonite and a strain of silicate bacterium isolated from purple soil. The changes of pH value, glucose (GLU) residual concentration, electrolyte, and Mn, Si, Fe, etc., in the culture liquid with wollastonite after 48 h were analyzed. The results show that the GLU consumption of silicate bacterium with wollastonite was 2.5 times of the bacterial control. It indicates that wollastonite can obviously promote silicate bacterium growth, but the silicate bacteria cells were badly broken and even distorted observed by SEM. The solubilization of Si element by silicate bacterium from wollastonite reached above ten times that of the wollastonite control. At the same time, three typical peak intensities in FTIR of wollastonite (898 cm

−1

, 925 cm

−1

, 962 cm

−1

) lowered obviously after the interaction with silicate bacterium, which shows that a great deal of Si has dissolved. Therefore, it is clear that wollastonite has a remarkable effect on the growth of silicate bacterium and there has been an obvious solubilization of Si.

Qunwei Dai, Faqin Dong, Yulian Zhao, Jianjun Deng, Junda Lu

Process Mineralogy of Lateritic Nickel Ore

This chapter presents a methodology for studying low-grade lateritic nickel ore, which usually presents complex mineralogy, with widespread nickel in several mineral phases. The study is focused on determining the mineralogy and the distribution of nickel in the bearing minerals. Laboratory assays comprise homogenization, sampling, and particle size analysis. Chemical analyses by X-ray fluorescence are performed in all fraction sizes, while mineralogical assessments by X-ray diffraction are carried out for the head samples. The mineralogical composition of the samples and the partition of main elements in the bearing minerals are assayed by size fraction through automated image analysis software (MLA) coupled with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The chemical compositions of the several minerals identified in MLA are determined during systematic observations on SEM with energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS).

Two samples of lateritic nickel ore have been characterized, one silicate and other oxidized, with nickel grades of 0.60 and 0.28 wt%, respectively. The nickel grades in the oxidized ore vary from 0.16 to 0.26 wt% above 0.037 mm, increasing to 0.41–0.42 wt% below this fraction, where 79 wt% of total nickel is contained. In the silicate ore, the nickel grades vary from 0.42 to 0.47 wt% above 0.15 mm, where 36 wt% of the total nickel are present, while the nickel grades below this fraction increase, varying from 0.60 to 0.68 wt%; the fraction −0.020 mm is responsible for 38 % of total nickel present in the sample.

The silicate ore mineralogy consists mainly of clay minerals with nickel (67 wt%; vermiculite/smectite group) and pyroxene (22 wt%), besides minor phases like goethite, kaolinite, quartz, Cr-spinel, and other minerals. The oxidized ore is composed essentially of goethite (49 wt%) and Cr-spinel (41 wt%), besides quartz, kaolinite, Ni clay minerals, hematite, and other minor phases. Considering the interval −0.30 +0.020 mm, in the silicate ore, the clay minerals are responsible for 93 wt% of total nickel contained, while goethite responds for 93 wt% of total nickel present in the oxidized ore.

Daniel Uliana, M. Manuela M. Lé Tassinari, Henrique Kahn, Marco Antonio Angora

The Optimal Conditions of Preparation of Phosphogypsum-Based Calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate Whiskers by Hydrothermal Method Using Phosphogypsum

Calcium sulfate hemihydrate whisker was prepared successfully by hydrothermal method with phosphogypsum; the morphology and synthesis rate of calcium sulfate hemihydrate whisker were very sensitive to reaction temperature, reaction time, and additives. Therefore, L25(5

6

) orthogonal experiments were carried out to obtain the optimal conditions. Composition, morphology, and structure of calcium sulfate hemihydrate whisker were characterized by SEM, XRD, and FT-IR. The results showed that the optimal conditions were ball-milling time 1.5 h, reaction temperature 160 °C, reaction time 2 h, solid–liquid mass ratio 1:20, V (glycerol)/V (solution) = 10 %, and drying temperature 140 °C. Calcium sulfate hemihydrate whisker synthesis rate was 95 %; its aspect ratio was up to 45.

Faqin Dong, Hua He, Ping He, Wei Yang, Longhua Xu

Ore Mineral Textures of Late Cretaceous Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposits of Turkey: Proposed Paragenetic Sequence

Most of the massive sulfide deposits (VMS) occurring from Precambrian to Cenozoic throughout the world have been subsequently metamorphosed at various grades. Thus, all the original textures have been either completely destroyed or strongly modified. However, there are a very few examples, rather younger deposits such as late Cretaceous Turkish VMS deposits and Miocene Kuroko deposits of Japan in which representative and original ore textures are preserved. The Turkish massive sulfide deposits are mainly Cu–Zn–Pb type and entirely hosted by Late Cretaceous felsic volcanic rocks within a paleoarc geotectonic setting.

Major ore minerals are base metal sulfides (pyrite, chalcopyrite, bornite, chalcocite, covellite, sphalerite, and galena) and sulfosalts along with quartz, barite, and calcite gangue. In general, dissemination and veinlet textures are extremely abundant in the stockwork and siliceous ore zones that mainly form the base of the massive ore bodies and around the vent through which the ore-forming fluids traversed. In the massive ore, particularly in the central zone of the lenses, fine-grained massive sulfide minerals show a wide variety of replacement and colloform textures. In the lateral zones, clastic or fragmental ore textures may be present if the deposit has undergone a slumping. In the case of cone-shaped deposits, the brecciated ore textures tend to be dominant in the central part of the lens. Most of the minerals are very fine grained, and the larger grains of the major minerals are in the order of 100–300 μm in size, but most of the minor and trace minerals are much smaller, typically in the order of 1–20 μm in across. Most of the minerals are anhedral with the exception of pyrite, quartz, and barite that commonly occur as euhedral to subhedral crystals.

Four major mineralization stages have been determined at the regional scale. First-stage minerals are two generations of pyrite and chalcopyrite followed by the second-stage minerals including sphalerite, galena, and sulfosalts (mainly tennantite and subordinate tetrahedrite). In the third stage, second generation of chalcopyrite occurs replacing all the earlier phases. This stage is absent in black ore dominating deposits. Bornite prevails in the last stage (aka supergene enrichment) along with chalcocite and covellite, which replaces all the other phases including gangue minerals.

Emin Çiftçi, Abdurrahman Lermi, Bülent Yalçınalp

Micronized Calcite Potential, Production, and Principal Characteristics of Nigde (Turkey)

Marble, which is exploited for micronized calcite production in Nigde area (South Central Turkey), occurs in the Upper Cretaceous Gümüşler, Aşıgediği, and Kaleboynu Formations of the Nigde Massif. Although there are a few marble producing quarries in the area, it is long been known that the marbles of this area are generally highly fractured and don’t yield large blocks or suitable slabs meeting the industrial demands. Thus, most of the production is currently carried out mainly as building stone, crushed stone, and micronized calcite. Due mainly to its high demand, micronized calcite has become a significant export product for the state’s economy. Because the Nigde marbles are coarse grained with high CaCO

3

content, high purity, and whiteness, they are considered to be the highest quality micronized calcite quarries in the country. Consequently, the area drew many national and international investors resulting in significant increase in the number and extent of micronized calcite plants in the area. In the early 1980s, the city of Nigde had only one or two plants, it is now well over five including foreign investors and joint ventures. Annual production is also considerably increased from 20,000 to 30,000 t to almost half a million tons and it is still in increasing trend.

Emin Çiftçi, İsmail Erdağ

Lime-Assisted Cyanide Leaching of Refractory Gold Ores from Ajialongwa Mine

Heap leaching is a promising, less expensive, alternative technology for processing low-grade gold ores compared with traditional, energy-intensive processes (e.g., autoclave/tank leaching). The effects of lime on the heap leaching of gold ores from Ajialongwa gold mine in China were investigated. Leach tests included column leach tests, the pilot plant tests, and the commercial plant. The leach experiments were performed using cyanide leaching solutions at pH = 10–11. The results show that the presence of lime greatly increased gold leaching rates. Column leaching experiments show that there was 35.2 % of gold leached without the addition of lime. When 4 % lime was added to gold ores, Au extraction reached 50.56 %. Lime-assisted cyanide of refractory gold was also proved by the pilot plant tests and the commercial plant.

Kaibin Fu, Shu Chen, Zhen Wang, Junhui Xiao, Deqiang Luo

Growth Mechanism and Stability Study on the Fe3S4 Nanocrystals Synthesized Under Thermal and Humid Conditions

Greigite (Fe

3

S

4

) is important magnetic mineral that can not only instruct reducing environment but also provide paleomagnetic signal for the paleoenvironment research. Generally Fe

3

S

4

exists as an unstable intermediate, whose preparation condition is rigorous. Previous studies have accumulated rich results, but the research on its stable conditions, formation mechanism, and evolution process remains to be verified. This study simulates the mineral growth and carries out experimental research systematically under thermal and humid conditions. Pure Fe

3

S

4

is synthesized under the conditions of 200 °C,

t

 = 30 h, pH = 4–5. The morphology of Fe

3

S

4

is nanoscale particles. Fe

3

S

4

stably exists at 200 °C,

t

 = 30 h, and transforms to FeS

2

with increasing time. The experimental results broaden the stability range of Fe

3

S

4

in the Fe–S binary phase diagram. This study has typomorphic significance on geological conditions and provides a scientific basis for the preparation of Fe

3

S

4

nano-magnetic materials.

Shang Gao, Fei Huang, Dan Song, Guanglu Li, Qiang Liu, Taiwei Feng, Ran Zhao, Jia Liu, Wenyuan Gao

Antarcticite: A Phase Change Material for Thermal Energy Storage––Experiments and Simulation

Antarcticite, CaCl

2

 · 6H

2

O, is an ideal phase change material (PCM) due to its high-energy storage density and good thermal conductivity. In this chapter, supercooling and subsequent solidification behavior of antarcticite are studied based on the cooling curve method and DSC measurement. The results show that the minor SrCl

2

 · 6H

2

O as the nucleator and carboxymethyl cellulose as the thickening agent could significantly reduce supercooling and partly restrain the phase separation. Moreover, we incorporated antarcticite as PCM into building envelopes in four different cases, and the simulation of the heat transfer processes showed that the temperature fluctuation could be reduced to about 2 °C in the best case.

Xiaobin Gu, Jingjing Niu, Shan Qin

Illite–Smectite Mixed-Layer Minerals in the Alteration Volcanic Ashes Under Submarine Environment

The clay mineralogy of the clay intervals interbedded with siliceous mudstones across the Permian–Triassic boundary (PTB) in Pengda, Guiyang, Guizhou province, was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The clay mineral assemblages of the sediments are mainly I/S clays and minor smectite, kaolinite, and illite as revealed by XRD analyses. The peak-shaped parameters BB1 and BB2 of I/S clays of the representative clay bed PL-01 are 4.7° and 4.4°, respectively, and the peak position of the low-angle diffraction is at 6.5° 2

θ

(13.6 Ǻ), suggesting that the I/S clays have a IS type of ordering. However, multi-order diffractions and their intensities are different from those of completely ordered 1:1 mixed-layer I/S clay rectorite, indicating that I/S clays of the Pengda section have partially ordered IS structures. HRTEM observations show that most of the I/S clays exhibit a IS stacking ordering. However, in some areas within a IS particle, smectite layer is observed in doublets, triplets, and quartets, which are interstratified by various amounts of illite layers, suggesting the presence of other irregular stacking in addition to the major 1:1 IS-ordered stacking. Transformation of smectite layer into illite layers is also observed in the I/S clays, suggesting that the Pengda I/S clays are derived from smectite illitization, in good agreement with the clay mineral assemblage. The I/S clays of the Pengda section contain up to 45–95 % smectite layer, the notably higher contents of smectite layer relative to those of other PTB stratigraphic sets in south China can be attributed to the difference in alteration and smectite illitization processes due to different sedimentary environments.

Hanlie Hong, Wenpeng Gao, Ke Yin, Zhaohui Li, Chaowen Wang

The Occurrence of Sc, Co, and Ni in Lithiophorite-type Manganese Ore

The lithiophorite in manganese ore is rich in aluminum, and actually it is a generic name for the multi-mineral aggregates mixed by silicon, aluminum, and iron, which is quite different from ordinary psilomelane. There is no Sc, Ni, or Co mineral in this ore, and more than 98 % of Co, Ni, and Sc exist in lithiophorite and a little pyrolusite. The distribution of Co, Ni, and Sc in lithiophorite is further studied by EPMA and the results indicate that Co and Sc in lithiophorite are sparse and have scattered distribution, while Ni mostly distributes in the argillaceous lithiophorite and is local enrichment. Reduction-sulfuric acid leaching tests show that Co and Sc dissolve before Mn and the dissolution rate of Co and Sc is almost equal, which is significantly higher than that of Mn. However, the dissolution rate of Ni is extremely low with the dissolution of Mn, which indicates that Ni is hard to dissolve and its dissolution rate obviously lags behind that of Mn, Sc, and Co. The initial conclusions can be drawn that Co and Sc exist in the lithiophorite as interface adsorption while Ni exists in the clay (kaolinite) mixed up with lithiophorite as interface adsorption.

Qiuyang Hong, Lili Zhang, Bo Li

Cytotoxicity of Quartz and Montmorillonite in Human Lung Epithelial Cells (A549)

In this study, A549 cell viability, extracellular activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 levels were investigated after incubation with quartz (KWC-Q4 and KWC-Q3), Nano-SiO

2

, and KWC-M; the micronucleus test and comet assay were carried out to evaluate the genotoxicity. The results showed there were significant differences in the cell death rate and extracellular LDH activities compared with the control group, and showed a good linear relationship in certain concentration range. All mineral particles tested can induce the increase of TNF-α after incubation with mineral powders at 200 μg/mL for merely 3 h and also induce significant increase of IL-6 for 24 h; the results indicated that inflammatory reaction can be triggered by the exposure of KWC-Q4, KWC-Q3, Nano-SiO

2

, and KWC-M. The results of micronucleus test showed FMN (Frequency of micronucleus number) listed as Nano-SiO

2

>KWC-Q3>KWC-Q4. There was no significant FMN increase of KWC-M compared with the control group, which maybe resulted from its high cell mortality at low concentration. The comet assay confirmed the genotoxicity of all tested samples, and the DNA damage: KWC-M>Nano-SiO

2

>KWC-Q4>KWC-Q3.

Tingting Huo, Faqin Dong, Mingcui Wang, Shiyong Sun, Jianjun Deng, Qingbi Zhang, Siwang Yu

Assessment and Characterization of REE Minerals from an Alkali-Carbonatitic Complex

The demand for rare earth elements (REE) in high technology industries has been intensified and coupled with the fact that China accounts for about 95 % of world production and is actually creating trade restrictions for these elements; the search for new resources has been encouraged in several countries. This chapter presents a methodology for characterizing an earth rare mineralized sample, which occurs in association with alkali-carbonated complexes and with fine-grained monazite. The procedure was conducted by an automated image analysis system, besides physical separations and selective comminution by scrubbing, thereby evaluating the possibility of enrichment of rare earth bearing minerals in the attained products. Monazite is the main REE bearing mineral, counting for 40 % of the total content; it usually occurs in aggregates with micrometric crystals often with cerianite intergrowth. Monazite is mostly associated with anatase and Fe-oxy-hydroxides presenting a very poor liberation (34 wt% on average for material grinded below 0.30 mm). Both mineral separations and selective grinding by scrubbing did not succeed to obtain products with significant enrichment in REE.

Juliana Lívi Antoniassi, Daniel Uliana, Henrique Kahn, M. Manuela M. Lé Tassinari, Carina Ulsen

Study on Influencing Factors and Planning Model of Mining Quantity About Mineral Resources in Open Pit

According to the particularity of the open pit, the main influencing factors of mining quantity about mineral resources have been summarized systematically in life cycle, and the structured hierarchical relation of its influencing factors has been constructed. In the light of the production process of open pit, the functional relationships between investment, mining cost, and mining quantity have been defined based on the process of mining and loading so that the relation of the life-cycle cost and mining quantity can be set up. And what’s more, in order to obtain the maximum economic profit of mining enterprises in life cycle, the planning model of mining quantity has been established based on the life-cycle cost. The rational distribution of mining quantity is found on the condition of obtaining optimal solution about the planning model so as to determine scientifically the production scale of mining enterprises from the point of view of the sustainable development.

Lihua Ke, Jie Chen

Effect of Temperature upon Fe–Mg Composition of Garnet in Pelitic System

The Effects of pressure and temperature on Fe–Mg compositions of garnet in natural pelitic system were studied experimentally at temperatures of 700–780 °C and pressures from 21 to 29.4 kbar. The concentrations of FeO and MgO of garnet in the run products show linear relationships with experimental temperatures. The result determined the Fe–Mg partition trend with temperature in a natural rock with complex chemical compositions, which favors the identification of metamorphic temperature for pelitic rocks in eclogite facies.

Ying Li, Jianguo Du, Chao Xie, Zhihua Zhou

An Overview of Process Mineralogy of Tungsten and Its Associated Elements

China produces much tungsten metal every year. The tungsten deposits in China usually are low grade and have a complex mineralogy composition as well as many associated valuable elements. The associated elements include Sn, Mo, Bi, Cu, Pb, Zn, Sb, Be, Co, Au, Ag, Nb, Ta, Re, Sc, REE, Li, As, S, and P and the nonmetallic minerals such as quartz, fluorite, feldspar, etc. Therefore, only when the tungsten ore dressing is done in accordance with the ore properties based on a detailed and complete process mineralogy study can the valuable elements be reasonably and fully recovered and the maximization of resource utilization as well as environment-friendly technology be achieved eventually. This chapter summarizes the status quo of process mineralogy of tungsten and its associated elements in China, focusing on the process mineralogy studies on major types of tungsten ore including tungsten–molybdenum-associated ore, tungsten–tin polymetallic ore, and tungsten–copper polymetallic ore, suggesting the future process mineralogy research on tungsten and its associated elements.

Dongyun Liang, Qiuyang Hong, Bo Li, Lili Zhang

Light Absorption Characteristics of Multi-morphology FeS2 Granular Synthesized Under Hydrothermal Conditions

This chapter examines granular FeS

2

synthesized under hydrothermal conditions of 220 °C, with a Fe/S ratio of 1:3. SEM and XRD characterize its morphology, composition, and structure. Measurement of the absorption spectrum within the range of 200–2,000 nm was performed using Cary 500 UV–Vis–NIR spectrophotometer. The band gap was calculated according to the band gap (eV) formula. The results showed that the samples were granular pyrite in the form of cube and octahedron, with a particle size of about 2–5 μm, and include a certain amount of pyrrhotite (Fe

1−x

S). The absorption peak was about 1,879 nm, with the intrinsic absorption edge (

λ

0

) and band gap values of 1,885 nm and 0.6578 eV, respectively. Through the relationship between semiconductor conversion efficiency and band gap, we obtained a limiting conversion efficiency which can achieve to about 15 %. We present a brief analysis of the vacancy affection to the band gap of pyrite.

Jia Liu, Fei Huang, Guanglu Li, Lin Meng, Haoran Yu, Yinghua Chen, Weifeng Wang, Shang Gao, Wenyuan Gao

Bolshetagninskoe Deposit Microcline–Pyrochlore Ore Process Mineralogy

Bolshetagninskoe deposit is one of the most valuable potential Russian niobium resource. It contains challenging pyrochlore ore that in the pre-feasibility study stage has been divided into a few geological–metallurgical units by metallurgical–geological mapping (in general, it is adequate to geometallurgy field). The microcline–pyrochlore ore is the predominant and most challenging metallurgical unit at the deposit. To optimize this unit ore processing flowsheet, broad-view process mineralogy approach was applied. It was shown that preliminary processing of the microcline–pyrochlore ore by radiometric separation stabilizes floatation feed ore grade by decreasing gangue mineral content and content of pyrochlore grain of size less than 10 μm. Comparing pyrochlore grain size and liberation of it in the ore, comminuted by both conventional ball mill and innovative impact centrifuge mill, some grounds of dramatically increased floatation concentrate grade and recovery have been discovered. The fine-grained ore-forming pyrochlore (the mineral average weighted grain size is 61 μm in the radiometric separated ore) has a relatively low liberation degree in the grinding ore (63 %) that, in addition to close association of the mineral with microcline, causes reduced content of Nb

2

O

5

(29.9 %) and high content of SiO

2

(22.8 %) in the floatation final product. SiO

2

is concentrated by microcline that is definitely needed for an intensive hydrometallurgy processing flowsheet to produce ferroniobium from the product.

Liudmila Azarnova

The Roughness on Polished Gemstone Surfaces

Gemstone cutting is a useful process to create shapes on rocks and minerals. This is done through sawing, grinding, faceting, and polishing, thus providing better light reflection in the pavilion with specific angles for each translucent mineral; brightness of the surface, aesthetic appreciation, and their use in the jewelery industry. This process aims to decrease the abrasive grain size in each step, providing the gemstone surface with less roughness and flatness. In this article we present a detailed study about the variation of roughness through four kinds of polishing materials used, combined with six kinds of gemstone samples that are currently used in the jewelery industry. Each mineral has its specific crystallography structure, chemical composition, and hardness, when in contact with another polishing material with the same characteristics and variation of grain size in the three-body abrasive wear process (gem, polishing material, and flat disk), which can result in a particular surface for each gem.

The quality of surfaces was characterized through the roughness with equipments, Confocal Microscope Leica DCM3D and Surface Roughness Measuring Instrument Kosakalab Surfcorder SE1700α, and through light reflection with the equipment Reflectivity Meter Presidium, which is dependent on the grain size and the kind of material used. The aim of this process is to find ways to define roughness patterns that are acceptable for each polished material and type of gemstone.

Angela V. Nadur, Rainer A. S. Gütller, Sheila S. Carmo, H. Kahn

Minerals of Bauxites and Residues: Problems of Processing and Enrichment (Russia)

The complex of mineralogical methods was developed to obtain reliable data about mineral composition of bauxites and new crystal-chemical information (the whole cycle of used chemical elements, methods of residue utilization, and position of residue tails in dump pits). Natural and technogenic structures were studied as sources of necessary chemical elements and useful properties. Four main mineral types of bauxites (Vezhayu-Vorykvinskoe deposit) were studied. X-ray amorphous phase was determined in all bauxite types except kaolinite–boehmite types. The morphometric analysis of fine component of Vezhayu-Vorykvinskoe bauxites was developed and tested by using the method of small-angle scattering, which allowed defining the morphometric features of mineral grains of submicron size and their aggregational character.

New data on the composition of fine classes of bauxite minerals and their residues have been received. For example, mineral gold and tellurium were found in bauxites of Middle Timan. It is shown that fine component of hematite–shamosite–boehmite and kaolinite–boehmite bauxites (Vezhayu-Vorykvinskoe deposit, Russia) is formed by predominant mineral particles with sizes from 20 to 40 nm. Morphostructural characteristics of mineral grains allow predicting ore behavior in technological processes and the loss of aluminum during enrichment. Innovative experiments in the area of adsorbophysical fields during raw processing and enrichment were presented. The influence of laser irradiation on mineral substance of bauxite was studied. A new method of ore preparation for low-ferriferous bauxite enrichment was presented. This innovation can be applied for bauxite processing. It results in concentration of titanium and formation of corundum phases. This method increases efficiency and completeness of bauxite processing. Currently rare earth elements are extracted from bauxites apart from aluminum.

The processing of bauxites into alumina results in the formation of considerable residues—more than one million tons in every aluminum production in Russia. The bauxite residues show considerable amount of amorphous structures (floccules) including ferriferous minerals. The material composition of the residues shows the prospection of iron extraction technologies, especially considering surface physics of extracted particles.

Olga Kotova, Galina Gasaleeva, Aleksandr Vakhrushev

Effects of Sintering Temperature on Crystallization Behavior and Performance of Glass Ceramics from Coal Fly Ash

The glass ceramics were prepared from coal fly ash, limestone, and Na

2

CO

3

by sintering processes. Effects of the crystallization temperature (850–1,100 °C) on crystallization behavior, microstructure, sintering character, and chemical stability of the glass-ceramics samples were analyzed by the means of DTA, XRD, SEM, and other analytical methods. The results show that the main crystalline phase of as-prepared glass ceramics after crystallization treatment is gehlenite (Ca

2

Al

2

SiO

7

). The species of crystalline phases remain the same; however, the main crystalline intensity, line shrinkage rate, and bulk density increase first and then decrease with the increasing of heat treatment temperature. Water absorption of the samples was reduced as the heat treatment temperature rises. The glass ceramics display high-performance crystallization properties and chemical stability. The optimized glass ceramics with desired sintering character and chemical stability were obtained by crystallization at 1,050 °C.

Tongjiang Peng, Chao Cao, Hongjuan Sun

The Oxidation–Reduction Mineralogical Features of Graphite Deposit in Pingdu, Shandong

The oxidation–reduction mineralogical features of graphite deposit in Pingdu Shandong province were studied by field researches, polarization microscope, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and SEM. The results show that the major rocks of the reduction graphite zone are graphite–quartz anorthosite and gabbro. The major rocks of the oxidation graphite zone are marble with graphite, biotite granite, and monzogranite. The main minerals of the reduction zone are plagioclase, pyroxene, quartz, pyrite, etc. The graphite is aphanitic graphite appearing as dense massive, layered, and spherical aggregates. The main minerals of the oxidation zone are calcite, quartz, K-feldspar, biotite, amphibole, chlorite, etc. The graphite is flake graphite uniformly dispersed in the loose and strongly eroded rocks. A large number of rocks in the area have suffered chloritization and regional metamorphism, indicating that the formation of the graphite deposit should be related with gabbro melting. The carbon source in the lower part was taken into the mine and then experienced regional metamorphism.

Lang Qin, Xiuyun Chuan

Study on the Effect and Mechanism of Calcination of Asbestos Tailings Mixed with Ammonium Sulfate

The research involves the calcination of SiChuan ShiMian asbestos tailings with ammonium sulfate in order to extract magnesium. This chapter studies the effect of different calcination conditions on the magnesium extraction rate and the mechanism of calcination of asbestos tailings mixed with ammonium sulfate. The results are characterized by XRD, TGA, and elemental analysis. The results show that as the temperature rises the magnesium extraction rate first increases and then decreases. Optimal experimental conditions are 600 °C of calcination temperature and 1 h of calcination time, by means of which a magnesium extraction rate of 68.56 % can be achieved.

Bei Song, Chao Liu, Shuilin Zheng, Tongtong Wang, Jian Zhao

Heavy-Ion Radiation Stability of Gd2Zr2O7-Pyrochlore Glass-Ceramic Wasteforms Doped by Simulated Actinides

To research the structure radiation stability of simulated Gd

2

Zr

2

O

7

-pyrochlore glass-ceramic wasteforms, Nd

3+

and Ce

4+

were selected as the simulated nuclides of An

3+

and An

4+

radionuclides, respectively. A series of compounds with the general formula Gd

2−x

Nd

x

Zr

2−x

Ce

x

O

7

(0.0 ≤ x ≤ 2.0) were prepared by high-temperature sintering method at 1,623 K for 48 h in air atmosphere. The heavy-ion irradiation experiments were done at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The structure and microscopic morphology of Gd

2−x

Nd

x

Zr

2−x

Ce

x

O

7

(0.0 ≤ x ≤ 2.0) glass-ceramic wasteforms before and after irradiation experiments were investigated by the X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that Gd

2−x

Nd

x

Zr

2−x

Ce

x

O

7

(0.0 ≤ x ≤ 2.0) glass-ceramic wasteforms exhibited pyrochlore phase within the scope of the wholly solid solution. With the added amount of analog nuclides increasing, the X-ray diffraction peak of wasteforms had a trend of moving in the direction of the small angle. XRD patterns and SEM photos suggested the series of wasteforms containing both crystalline phase and glass phase. The structure and microscopic morphology of wasteforms didn’t change significantly before and after irradiation according to the XRD spectra and SEM photos. The Gd

2

Zr

2

O

7

-pyrochlore glass-ceramic wasteforms showed a good radiation stability.

Sijin Su, Faqin Dong, Xirui Lu, Jingyou Tang, Xiaoli Wang

Veins, Dikes, and Pods of the UAE Mantle Peridotites: Possible Industrial Raw Materials

The northern extension of the Semail ophiolite in the UAE is dominated by tectonic mantle peridotites and gabbros. The peridotites are mostly harzburgite with little lherzolites and contain various intermittent veins, dikes, and pods. These veins, dikes, and pods can be divided into three rock categories: the ultramafic group that includes dunites, chromitites, and pyroxenites; the granitic dikes; and carbonate veins. Occurrences of these bodies are explicit and ubiquitous, but their distribution is not consistent throughout the sequence. Pyroxenites, chromitites, and granites occur in the upper half of the sequence, but more pronouncedly and dominantly close to the transition zone. Dunites pods and carbonate veins can be found at different stratigraphic levels. Magmatic signatures and monomineralic forms of the three ultramafic varieties are observed. Where it occurs, chromite-rich variety is always enveloped in olivine-rich pods. Coarse-grained mica-rich granites and pegmatites are well developed below and within the transition zone. Carbonates, and occasionally serpentine materials, impregnate through fractures and structures.

These rocks and their host peridotites offer a range of probable industrial raw materials that can be exploited accordingly. Carbonates, e.g., magnesite and dolomite, are important in refractory protection and cupellation process. The resistant property of granites to mechanical and chemical weathering has made them favored from other alternative rocks in multiple uses such as landscaping, road base and concrete aggregates, wall and floor tiles, raw building stones, and so on. The ultramafic bodies and their host peridotites mainly occur at the eastern part of the country. In addition to their use as foundation materials and some like chromitites as metallic commodity, they have recently become efficiently and environmentally preferred in iron and steel industry and in probable CO

2

sequestration.

Sulaiman Alaabed

Dissolution Characteristic Study on Dustfall in Citric Acid

In this chapter, the aim of our study is to evaluate dustfall’s physical and chemical changes in acid conditions. pH and conductivity variation of reaction solution are measured by time. FTIR, SEM, and ICP analysis is applied to analyze the residuum and filtrate after the experiment. The results of conductivity variation show that the conductivity increases quickly in the first 10 min, then decreases slowly. pH of reaction solution keeps increasing in the first 4 h. Both the pH and conductivity become stable after 4 h. The combined analysis of XRD and FTIR spectrum of residuum and initial sample indicates that calcite and dolomite in dustfall are dissolved completely in the 0.05 M citric acid solution in 2 days. Besides, metal cations are extracted, including Ca

2+

, K

+

, Mg

2+

, Fe

3+

, Al

3+

, and Si. In general, after the dissolution of dustfall in citric acid, minerals are dissolved in different degrees, and metal elements are extracted. Carbonate minerals are almost dissolved completely, and the structures of silicate minerals change with the extraction of elements.

Jun Tang, Faqin Dong, Qunwei Dai, Yuequan Deng, Shiping Zhou, Wu Chen

Graphite and Graphite-Like Materials from Black-Shale and Magmatic Ores: Raman Spectroscopy Data

The graphite and graphite-like samples from many gold-ore deposits of the black-shale formation and magmatic ore deposits of Russia and Kazakhstan are investigated by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy technique with near-ultraviolet excitation. The results showed different Raman spectral variations of carbonaceous materials (CM) with metamorphic grade: the well-ordered graphite from magmatic rocks, more ordered, and the disordered less graphitized CM from black-shale ores. For the first time in the world’s practice, the Raman spectroscopy technique has been applied to determine the temperature of graphitizing for CM at gold-ore deposits of the black-shale formation. The temperatures obtained from carboniferous substance for the gold deposits range from 405 to 280 °C. Temperature of CM formation from Pt-low sulfide ores of the Talnakh deposit ranges from 4,700 to 6,500 °C. It showed that the carbon-rich phases from black-shale and magmatic rocks have various degrees of graphitization and different carbon forms.

Tatyana Moroz, Victor Ponomarchuk, Sergey Goryainov, Konstantin Kovalev, Nadezhda Palchik

Analysis of Impurity Density in the Structure of Arsenopyrite of the Panimba Deposit

Based on the comprehensive analysis of the crystal structure and chemical and phase composition of natural arsenopyrite of the “Panimba” deposit (Krasnoyarsk region), an analytical expression for calculating the impurity density in the structure of minerals like marcasite is received.

Calculation of impurity density in crystal structure of natural arsenopyrite of various chemical compounds is made and compared with the gold content in samples. As a result of theoretical calculations, the analysis of X-ray spectra, a chemical composition by electron-probe micro-analysis (EPMA), the dependence of the concentration of impurity atoms in the crystal structure from various chemical compound of arsenopyrite, and the gold content in the rock is established. The maximum content of gold corresponds to arsenopyrite in which ratio ((S + As)/Fe) >2. The chemical formula for content representation of the minerals like marcasite containing crystal structure atoms distinct from atoms of a forming matrix is offered.

Victor V. Onufrienok, Maarten A. T. M. Broekmans

Research on Preparation and Influencing Factors of High Calcium High Sulfate Ash to Autoclaved Aerated Concrete

In this chapter, a high calcium high sulfate ash is chosen as the main material, added with fly ash, lime, cement, gypsum, and some modifiers, to prepare autoclaved aerated concrete. The products comply with the technical requirements of GB/T11968-2006. This chapter also studies the influence of the physical methods and water ratio on autoclaved aerated concrete by high calcium high sulfate ash-aerated concrete. The best ratio of water and Grinding time was found in experimental study.

Jun Wan, Shaohui Jia

Preliminary Discussion on Comprehensive Utilization of Tailings

The study on the tailings’ comprehensive utilization is mainly concentrated in minerals in the past, which means we need to use all kinds of research methods and results that we use in the mineralogy nowadays. Maybe we can break away from the research bondage of the modern mineral technology, tracing back to the genesis of the mineral deposits from the genesis of mineral formation, especially some sedimentary deposits, which we can call “natural metallurgical field,” so that we can probably get some new technologies and methods of the tailings’ comprehensive utilization. On the other hand, after re-understanding of the varieties of deposit types and the occurrence states of metal elements, we can select the corresponding technology to recover associated components according to different types of deposits tailings, which will maximize the recovery rate of associated components.

Fudong Wang, Xiaoqing Zhu, Zhonggang Wang, Tao Han, Zengsheng Li, Xiaohui Sun, Kunyue Ling

Study on the Thermal Conductivity of Compacted Buffer/Backfill Materials

The thermal property is one of the key properties for the design of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository. In this study, the thermal properties transient automatic tester (HPP-F) is used to study the thermal conductivity of multiphase composite buffer/backfill material including the type B–Z and B–Z–P (here B, Z, and P represents bentonite, zeolite, and pyrite, respectively, the same as the following) in different dry density and moisture conditions. The results show that thermal conductivity of specimens increases as the dry density (moisture content) increases for the same moisture content (dry density). As a result, the type B–Z–P which is highly compacted of 1.8 g/cm

3

in dry density and 17.65 % in moisture content performs well; it meets the requirements of the IAEA and is easy to be compacted, so it may be recommend as an alternative material of high-level radioactive waste disposal repository buffer/backfilling material.

Maoli Wang, Facheng Yi, Zhe Wang, Zhongyan Wan, Chong Wang, Jianwei Wang

Study on Performances of the Concrete Pavement from Zincilate

The zincilate production of concrete pavement brick uses industrial solid waste, both protecting the environment and promoting energy efficiency; there are huge comprehensive benefits. Based on the Guizhou Bijie zincilate, as the main raw material preparation from concrete pavement brick, the main factor which influences the quality of the products was investigated. The test results show that concrete pavement brick compressive strength at 28 days with zinc slag volume increases; zinc slag admixture is 40 %; 28 days compressive strength is more than 32 MPa.

Yong Wang, Ya’nan Yan

Preparation of Carbon-Coated Tourmaline and the Degradation of Methylene Blue

An attempt was made to prepare carbon-coated tourmaline by mixing tourmaline powders and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), followed by heat treatment in argon atmosphere. All samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and UV diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Results showed that the residual carbon content was influenced by heat treatment temperature and the amount of PVA. The degradation of methylene blue by carbon-coated tourmaline was also studied. The experiments pointed out that the carbon-coated effects were best when the heating temperature was 900 °C and the weight content of PVA was 70 %. And the tourmaline prepared under 900 °C in the oxidation atmosphere has the best degradation efficiency. The results also proved that the infrared radiation of tourmaline had no effect in the degradation progress.

Yuesong Wang, Xiuyun Chuan, Lin Li, Dubin Huang

Raman Spectroscopic Core Scanning for Iron Ore and BIF Characterization

The application of Raman spectroscopy, utilizing a HyLogging™ automated core-scanning platform, to map the iron ore and gangue mineralogy in banded iron formation drill core and hematite-rich, detrital iron deposit ore was tested as a demonstration of the potential of this technique for rapid, in situ mineralogical mapping. The common iron ore Fe-oxide mineral hematite as well as gangue minerals, such as quartz and Fe

2+

-carbonate, shows distinct Raman spectra, which enabled these phases to be readily detected and mapped in situ. Despite also exhibiting a distinct Raman spectrum, detection of magnetite was problematic and is now the focus of ongoing research to optimize the Raman scanning conditions to enhance detection of the common iron ore and BIF mineralogy.

Coupling to the HyLogger™ platform clearly extends and augments the utility of Raman spectroscopy for routine characterization of iron ore mineralogy and delivers a step change to current characterization methods that underpin strategies to best manage and process existing Australian iron ores (e.g., BID and CID), as well as the newly developed MID ores.

M. A. Wells, E. R. Ramanaidou

Comprehensive Utilization and Purified Research on Kaolin Ores in Huichang

Kaolin ores in Huichang contain the minerals of quartz sand, kaolin, mica, and feldspars. In order to recover these valuable resources, some experiments of screening, classification, magnetic separation, grinding, and flotation are carried out on the basis of the kaolin ore properties. The test results indicate that quartz sand concentrate can be directly obtained when the size of vibrating screen is ten meshes. Materials that are smaller than the screen hole are injected to hydraulic cyclones of which the controlling classification size is 325 meshes; kaolin concentrate with the elements of Al

2

O

3

above 33.70 % and Fe

2

O

3

0.37 % can be well beneficiated from the overflow through magnetic separation with one stage which is rougher and cleaner to remove iron. On the other hand, the hydrocyclone spigot flow to grinding and flotation with one rougher stage and two scavengers, mica, and feldspar concentrate can be beneficiated in sequence. Therefore, comprehensive utilization of these valuable minerals of kaolin ores can be realized.

Caibin Wu, Guiming Shi

Using Goethite as a Heterogeneous Fenton Catalyst for the Removal of Tetracycline Hydrochloride: Effects of Its Adsorptive and Reductive Activities

The removal of the antibiotic compound tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) was investigated by using goethite/H

2

O

2

as a heterogeneous Fenton reagent. At pH 3.0–4.0, although presenting the lowest adsorption capacity of TC to goethite, the TC removal can be still greatly promoted by the reductive transformation of Fe(III) to Fe(II) with TC in the solution over goethite. A rapid initial TC decay was observed at the first 5 min, followed by a much slower retardation stage. This reason was likely that the reductive transformation of Fe(III) to Fe(II) was inhibited with the proceeding of the Fenton reaction. However, all the goethite-catalyzed Fenton reactions responsible for the TC removal were well fitted to pseudo-first-order kinetics (

R

2

 > 0.99), and their apparent activation energy (

E

a

) for this Fenton-like reaction was 31.86 kJ·mol

−1

. This low value of

E

a

was very consistent with the TC Fenton removal significantly enhanced with the temperature increase and simultaneously mediated by the surface-controlled homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions.

Honghai Wu, Fenfen Jiang, Shaoyou Lu, Yufeng Guan, Dayi Deng, Xiaoling Chen

Palygorskite in the Late Miocene Red Clay Sediment from the Chinese Loess Plateau and Its Paleoclimatic Implications

Palygorskite is the predominant component of the Red Clay sediment on the Chinese Loess Plateau. The morphological characteristics and microstructures of palygorskite in four sections of late Miocene Red Clay were investigated using power X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The XRD results suggest that the clay minerals in the Red Clay are mainly illite, kaolinite, chlorite, and palygorskite with smectite. Two types of palygorskite microtexture were observed in the Red Clay sediment: (1) relatively straight, fibrous crystals in bundles or intertwined aggregates or in matted, felted masses on other minerals and silky aggregates radiating from platy minerals; and (2) single crystals scattering among or coating detrital particles. Based on SEM investigations, the first aggregate is considered to be the major type of microtexture. The occurrence of this type of microtexture supports the hypothesis that palygorskite developed through pedogenesis of the red clay deposits. The authigenic palygorskites are thought to be formed through the transformation of existing aeolian mineral (e.g., smectite) and direct chemical deposition in soil pore solution. Consequently, the formation of palygorskite was largely controlled by the strength of the in situ pedogenesis process induced by the East Asian summer, and palygorskite can serve as an index mineral of arid and semiarid environment since the late Miocene for the Chinese Loess Plateau. These findings add to existing fundamental mineral data related to the climatic evolution of the northwest China arid region and of arid and semiarid zones in the Northern Hemisphere.

Qiaoqin Xie, Gao Qiu, Tianhu Chen, Xiaochun Xu, Xiaoyong Wang, Huayu Lu, Huifang Xu, Junfeng Ji

Preparation of Cristobalite and Its Thermal Characteristics

Cristobalite is a crystalline form of silica and plays an important role in the application of casting industry, but it is rare in earth. Cristobalite has been manufactured by calcining fused silica ceramic in this work; the XRD, SEM, and thermal characteristics of the cristobalite have been tested. The result shows the formation of porous structure in the block cristobalite, and thermal linear expansion rate of the phase transition of β/α cristobalite reaches 0.5 % at the temperature range of 250–290 °C.

Ying Yan, Yongheng Zhou

Removal of Cu (II) from Aqueous Solutions Using Colloidal Pyrite Calcined Under Inert Atmosphere

A natural colloidal pyrite calcined in N

2

atmosphere was utilized to remove Cu (II) from aqueous solutions in the present work. Under the effect of calcination temperature, initial solution pH, reaction time, initial Cu(II) concentration, sorption temperature, foreign ions, and the dissolved oxygen (DO) on Cu(II) removal were investigated. The results showed that colloidal pyrite calcined at 500–550 °C (CCPy) has a most promising potential for Cu(II) removal. The increase of pH, initial Cu(II) concentration, and reaction time benefited the improvement of Cu(II) removal efficiency. The isothermal adsorption data of CCPy were well described by Langmuir isotherms and the thermodynamic parameters (Δ

G

 < 0, Δ

H

 > 0), indicating the endothermic nature of Cu(II) sorption on CCPy. The presence of most common ions in acid mine drainage and DO just had little influence on the Cu(II) uptake. The observation implied that CCPy is a low-cost, abundant material for Cu removal from Cu waters.

Yan Yang, Tianhu Chen, Ping Li, Haibo Liu, Yadan Shi, Xinmin Zhan

N Reagents in the Reverse Flotation of Carbonate-Containing Iron Ores

The influence of pulp pH, dispersants, and auxiliary collectors on reverse flotation of carbonate-containing iron ores was explored. Interactions between iron ores and quartz were theoretically analyzed by flotation solution chemistry and DLVO theory. The results indicated that the iron concentrate grade improved sharply when pH increased from 11.0 to 12.0 but changed unobviously when pH was larger than 12.0, which was related to solution chemistry of siderite and interactions among particles. Sodium tripolyphosphate was an effective dispersant and sodium dodecyl sulfate was an effective auxiliary collector of KS-III. Both recovery and grade were enhanced by the action of sodium dodecyl sulfate or sodium tripolyphosphate when pH was 12.0.

Wanzhong Yin, Jizhen Wang, Longhua Xu

The Study on Genotoxicity of PM2.5 Mineral Dusts to A549 Cells

Object: Detecting the influence of six main ingredients of PM

2.5

mineral dusts on the A

549

cell morphology, proliferation inhibition rate, micronuclei, and DNA damage to explore the genotoxicity of PM

2.5

mineral dusts.

Methods: (1) After exposure to six kinds of dusts of 200 μg mL

−1

concentration for 24 h, the morphology of A

549

cells was observed with Wright-Giemsa staining. (2) After exposure to different concentrations of mineral dusts for 24 h, the proliferation inhibition rate of A

549

cells was detected by MTT assay. (3) Cells were exposed to PM

2.5

mineral dusts at a concentration of 200 μg mL

−1

for 24 h. After Wright-Giemsa staining, the rates of micronucleus cells were counted under oil immersion lens. (4) Observe Comet phenomenon by single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). The degree of DNA damage was observed by OTM.

Results: (1) Compared to the control group, membrane destruction, nuclear pyknosis, and mineral surface adhesion were mainly seen in the Sericite group and Albite group. In the Quartz group and Montmorillonite group, Cell gap grew bigger, which was loosely arranged and shrank gradually than control group, showing the absorption of a large number of minerals on the cell surface. (2) The proliferation inhibition rate of the six kinds of dusts to A

549

cells was (in descending order): KWC-M > Nano-SiO

2

 > KWC-S > KWC-Q > KWC-A > KWC-C. The dust concentration was positively related to the inhibition of cell proliferation rate. (3) As the dusts’ concentration increased, the incidence of micronuclei gradually increased. The rate was positively correlated to exposure concentration. (4) The six mineral dusts can damage DNA of the A

549

cells by dose–response relationship. The higher concentration of the mineral dusts was, the more obvious the DNA damage became.

Conclusion: The six main ingredients of the PM

2.5

mineral dusts can change A

549

cell morphology in different degrees, improve proliferation inhibition rate of the cells, increase the number of micronuclei cells, and damage DNA. Then we come to the conclusion that PM

2.5

mineral dusts can change the genotoxicity of the cells possibly.

Yali Zeng, Tingting Huo, Faqin Dong, Limin Wang, Jianjun Deng

The Effect of Gum Arabic on the Dispersion of Cement Pastes

Gum arabic, an inexpensive dispersant widely used in the food industry, has great potential for application in building materials. In order to find out the dispersion effect of gum arabic and the factors influencing the holding capacity of gum arabic in cement during hydration, rheological properties of cement paste with added gum arabic were assessed in this paper. The results show that 0.10–0.60 wt% of gum arabic positively affects dispersion, whereas lower dosages have negligible effect. High speed mixing is required to maintain the dispersion stability of gum arabic in cement paste. The optimum dosage of gum arabic to achieve best disperse-holding capacity of cement paste was 0.3 wt%, and the minimum water–cement ratio needed to obtain a dispersion effect was 0.28.

Cuiting Zhao, Qinglin Zhao, Yulin Zhang, Mingkai Zhou

Reservoir Features of Carboniferous Sand-Mudstone Member and Effects of Diagenesis in Lunnan Region

Based on the analysis of the rock characteristics, pore types, pore structure characteristics, and physical characteristics of the reservoir of the Carboniferous sand-mudstone section, it is considered that the rock types of the sand-mudstone section are mainly composed of lithic sandstone and partly of feldspar lithic sandstone; the reservoir pore types are primarily intergranular dissolution pore and intergranular pores, secondarily dissolution pores inside the cements and intragranular dissolution pores, and also a small amount of kaolinite and calcite intergranular micropores, while a small amount of grain boundary fractures and micro fractures is developed; the overall physical properties of the reservoir are inferior and the average porosity of are mostly below 10 % while there are differences; porosity and permeability are basically exponential positively correlated, with the correlation coefficient being 0.78; highly efficient reservoirs mainly develop in the residual primary intergranular pores and intergranular dissolution pores. By combining the diagenesis features of the reservoir, it is concluded that the compaction and pressure solution, cementation, and dissolution affect the reservoir development of the sand-mudstone section in the research area, with dissolution playing a constructive role in porosity development of the reservoir.

Xueqin Zhao, Jin Fang, Jianghua Deng, Tiejun Yin

The Mineral Geochemistry Identification and Its Influence on the Pore Evolution of the Upper Ordovician Carbonate Cements in Tazhong Oil Field

According to the crystal morphology and cementation sequence of the calcite cements, with the aid of cathode luminescence and microelement analysis methods, 11 categories of calcite cements are identified in the fracture cave of upper Ordovician Lianglitage Formation in Tazhong Oil Field in the Tarim Basin; three diagenetic environments, that is, submarine diagenetic environment, the meteoric freshwater diagenetic environment, and buried diagenetic environment are determined. The submarine diagenetic environment is Phase I cementation which mainly produces microcrystalline, fibrous, radial fibrous, fasciculate, and radial-axial calcites and subspherical aragonites with a pore filling of 0–30 %. The meteoric fresh water environment is Phase II cementation and its main cements are crescent or pendant calcite, vadose silt, and syntaxial cement with a pore filling of 5–100 %; Phase III cementation occurs in burial diagenetic environment. The crystals of cement are bright and massive and the main categories are calcsparite and poikilotopic calcite with a pore filling of 5–100 %.

Xueqin Zhao, Yunfeng Zhang, Zhenyu Wang, Qin Ma, Tiejun Yin

Chemical and Mineralogical Characterizations of High Ti-Bearing Blast Furnace Slag in Panzhihua, China

Chemical and mineralogical characterizations of high Ti-bearing blast furnace slag in Panzhihua region, Sichuan province, China, were investigated, and the technical approach “recycling Fe by magnetic separation-extracting Al and Mg by sulfation roasting and water leaching-extracting Ti by acidolysis” was proposed for recycling the valuable elements from the special mineral resources. The results show that the most valuable metal is Ti (20.46 % TiO

2

, mass fraction). Other metals, such as Al, Mg, and Fe, can also be seen as valuable components to be recovered. Minerals such as perovskite, diopside, and spinel are disseminated in the slag. The Ti element in the slag is distributed widely in many types of mineral phases and Ti component enriches mainly in perovskite phase. It is highly euhedral and mostly disseminates in the diopside, it usually presents an equiaxed or irregular granular shape, and particles are commonly tiny.

Guobiao Zhou, Tongjiang Peng, Hongjuan Sun, Haiyang Xian

Secondary Minerals of Weathered Orpiment–Realgar-Bearing Tailings in Shimen Carbonate-Type Realgar Mine, Changde, Central China

Formation and dissolution of secondary arsenic minerals often play significant roles in controlling arsenic mobility in contaminated environments, especially in sulfide mines. Weathering of the orpiment and realgar-bearing tailings from the Shimen realgar deposit, the largest realgar deposit in Asia, was studied. An integrated mineralogical analysis by using X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectrum, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope reveals four kinds of As-bearing secondary minerals, including arsenic oxides, arsenates, As-gypsum, and As-Fe minerals. The precipitation of arsenates is due to interaction of As-bearing runoff waters and the underlying carbonate rocks, or the transformation of gypsum into arsenates or As-bearing gypsum through

SO

4

2

/

HAsO

4

2

$$ {\mathrm{SO}}_4^{2-}/{\mathrm{HAsO}}_4^{2-} $$

substitution. Ca-arsenates are mainly weilite and pharmacolite with Ca/As atomic ratio of 1. Scanning transmission X-ray microscope and X-ray absorption fine structure reveal that the valence of arsenic is mainly +3 and +5.

Xiangyu Zhu, Rucheng Wang, Xiancai Lu, Huan Liu, Juan Li, Bingjie Ouyang, Jianjun Lu

Backmatter

Weitere Informationen

BranchenIndex Online

Die B2B-Firmensuche für Industrie und Wirtschaft: Kostenfrei in Firmenprofilen nach Lieferanten, Herstellern, Dienstleistern und Händlern recherchieren.

Whitepaper

- ANZEIGE -

Systemische Notwendigkeit zur Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen

Die Entwicklung des mitteleuropäischen Energiesystems und insbesondere die Weiterentwicklung der Energieinfrastruktur sind konfrontiert mit einer stetig steigenden Diversität an Herausforderungen, aber auch mit einer zunehmenden Komplexität in den Lösungsoptionen. Vor diesem Hintergrund steht die Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen symbolisch für das ganze sich in einer Umbruchsphase befindliche Energiesystem: denn der Notwendigkeit einer Schaffung und Bildung der Hybridnetze aus systemischer und volkswirtschaftlicher Perspektive steht sozusagen eine Komplexitätsfalle gegenüber, mit der die Branche in der Vergangenheit in dieser Intensität nicht konfrontiert war. Jetzt gratis downloaden!

Bildnachweise