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Über dieses Buch

This book presents the proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Engineering, collecting the best papers from the event, which was held in Wrocław, Poland in June 2018. It includes contributions from researchers in computer engineering addressing the applied science and development of the industry and offering up-to-date information on the development of the key technologies in technology transfer. It is divided into the following thematic sections:

• parametric and concurrent design,

• advanced numerical simulations of physical systems,

• integration of CAD/CAE systems for machine design,

• presentation of professional CAD and CAE systems,

• presentation of the modern methods of machine testing,

• presentation of practical CAD/CAM/CAE applications:

– designing and manufacturing of machines and technical systems,

– durability prediction, repairs and retrofitting of power equipment,

– strength and thermodynamic analyses of power equipment,

– design and calculation of various types of load-carrying structures,

– numerical methods of dimensioning materials handling and long-distance transport equipment (cranes, gantries, automotive, rail, air, space and other special vehicles and earth-moving machinery),

• CAE integration problems.

The conference and its proceedings offer a major interdisciplinary forum for researchers and engineers in innovative studies and advances in this dynamic field.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Numerical Analysis and Tests on Selected Dynamic Parameters of Shooting Stand Frame

To build a machine gun on a helicopter board sufficiently rigid frame of shooting stand is required. The construction of the frame ensures changing a shoot direction in the vertical and rotation in the horizontal plane. The frame is hinged and can be pivoted to the inside of a helicopter. The frame design requires dynamic analysis and appropriate laboratory tests. The paper presents calculated results of the systems response to the applied dynamic loads in comparison to the laboratory tests results.

Paweł Abratowski

The Numerical-Experimental Studies of Stress Distribution in the Three-Arm Boom of the Hybrid Machine for Demolition Works

An electric machine for construction works is a multi-functional, remote-controlled demolition robot which is designed to be operated in hard work condition where the human being is not recommended due to high risks resulting, for example high dust content, high temperature or noise. In such machines, their parts wear out very quickly. The article presents the approach to validate the project assumptions using experimental and numerical studies. The experimental studies provided the information about the adverse efforts and frequency states of the machine. The numerical calculation consigns the information about the stress distribution in the whole arm working system.

Jakub Andruszko, Damian Derlukiewicz

Analysis of the Causes of Fatigue Cracks in the Carrying Structure of the Bucket Wheel in the SchRs4600 Excavator Using Experimental-Numerical Techniques

The article presents design faults related to the carrying structure of the bucket wheel of the SchRs4600 excavator working in the brown coal mine. The authors analyzed cases of damages of this type of structure occurred in the past in such machines. In order to determine the damage of the carrying structure of the bucket-wheel excavator, non-destructive examinations were carried out using visual and magnetic-particle methods. The real loads occurring during operation of the machine in the case of fatigue were also determined. These measurements were used to verify the numerical model. A strength analysis was carried out using the Finite Element Method. The cause of fatigue cracks was determined by measurements and numerical calculations.

Jakub Andruszko, Przemysław Moczko, Damian Pietrusiak, Grzegorz Przybyłek, Eugeniusz Rusiński

Numerical-Experimental Approach to the Design of the Mounting System for Fast Clamping of the Equipment of the Electrical Demolition Machine

Currently, there are many types of connectors that ensure secure mounting of machine tools, increasing their versatility by the possibility of connecting a large number of different tools. Bolts, quick couplings, adaptive plates for light machines and devices using wedge connections are used. In electric demolition machines, joints using wedge connections are used due to the possibility of their quick disassembly of the elements. As a result of insufficient durability of the currently used joints, the authors presented a numerical-experimental approach to their design, which allows to determine the actual loads acting on the designed element, and thus to improve the existing solution.

Jakub Andruszko, Eugeniusz Rusiński

Use of Rapid Manufacturing Methods for Creating Wind Tunnel Test Models

Due to the high costs, time and work consuming of a model manufacturing, it is often impossible to conduct wind tunnel tests at the early stages of an aircraft design, especially, when the geometry of the plane is still subject to change. The modern rapid manufacturing methods can overcome this problem. In 2017 in the Institute of Aviation, Warsaw, Poland the works on the conceptual design of a new type of an aircraft has been started. A few configurations of the plane were designed and analysed by the means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). For the chosen configuration a model have been built and tested in a 1.5 m diameter wind tunnel. The fuselage of the model and its vertical and horizontal stabilizers were 3D printed. This study discuses advantages and shortcomings of employing rapid manufacturing methods for creating test models. Special consideration was put to the cost and time saving, model design aspects, model quality and possibility to introduce changes to the model configuration.

Piotr Araszkiewicz

Statistical Analysis of Loading for the Simulation of Belt Conveyor–Based Transportation System

Mean inter–arrival time of haul trucks at the loading points was calculated from the arrival count recorded in a time window of 15 min from five consecutive working days, each of which divided by four shifts. Normality of all distributions was investigated with D’Agostino–K2, Anderson–Darling and Kolmogorov–Smirnov normality tests. Courses of most haul trucks of class A gave right–skewed, leptokurtic distributions, while of class B and C slightly left skewed, platycurtic distributions. The obtained values of mean inter–arrival times were almost identical for haul trucks of class A for the loading points located within the G–1 and G–4 mining departments. Haul trucks of class B and C yielded similar bimodal–like distributions, which for G–9 department showed more left–skewed triangular–like distribution pattern. Most of the haul truck courses did not exhibit normality of distribution of mean inter–arrival times, thus the non–parametric Spearman Rank and Kendall correlation coefficients were calculated. Only the haul trucks of class A represented significant Spearman rank correlation at the 0.05 level for G–1 and G–4 mining departments. Thus, the histograms of the haul truck courses will be taken as empirical distributions from which the haul truck courses will be modelled in the FlexSim simulation of the mine’s transport system. The data shown that mean inter–arrival times of the haul truck courses did not differ significantly among various parts of the mine and are more haul truck class–dependent. Typical values of mean inter–arrival times were in the ranges 400–500 s. Maximum inter–arrival time corresponding to distance limit for the mine was 900 s. Haul trucks with the largest shovel capacity were sent to such mining fronts. LHD’s with lower shovel capacity were used where several mining fronts were exploited in the same time by several haul trucks.

Piotr J. Bardziński, Witold Kawalec, Robert Król

Determining Power Losses in the Cycloidal Gear Transmission Featuring Manufacturing Deviations

An analytical method of determining power losses in the hypocycloidal gearing has been discussed. The losses depend on the friction between the hypocycloidal profile and the rollers. When defining the losses, the manufacturing tolerance of the elements making the gearing was taken into account. Therefore, intertooth clearances (backlash) were determined which effect in the value of intertooth forces, including power losses.

Sławomir Bednarczyk

Structural Analysis of Historical Masonry Church Construction

The authors present an analysis (comprehensive study of the structural condition of the structure) of the historical church with a proposal for repair and monitoring. The paper presents the research in form of structural calculations. The scope of the presented analysis affect the knowledge of the state of preservation and helped in making a right decision on further work – according to structure and conservation of the church. In the paper, authors also proposed the methodology for strengthening as well as structural health monitoring (SHM) solutions in this type of historical objects.

Łukasz Bednarz, Artur Górski, Jerzy Jasieńko, Eugeniusz Rusiński

Use of Artificial Neural Networks for the Estimated Prediction of Haul Trucks Operating States

The paper presents basic information on the prognosis of technical condition estimation by a neural network algorithm. Mining transport systems based on the use of haul trucks should result from a thorough analysis of technical and operating issues - which can have a crucial impact on the cost of minerals extraction. This selection should consider hitherto disregarded criteria, such as technical infallibility, operating parameters like mean failure intensity and fault modes, and the effect analysis based on the information from the past and from the current state etc. The selected forecasting method by the prediction using neural networking has been described. Neural networks can be used for prediction with various levels of success. Considering the above issues, the paper is an attempt to analyse operating parameters and to show the result of prediction using a neural network of backpropagation type on a fleet of haul trucks used to transport minerals in the surface mining.

Przemysław Bodziony, Rafał Kudelski, Michał Patyk, Zbigniew Kasztelewicz

Fatigue Life Calculation with the Use of the Energy Parameter for the Elastic Material State in the Spectral Method

The problem with the use of the energy parameter lying in its indirect definition in frequency domain is discussed. Modification of the fatigue life assessment method defined in the frequency domain with the use of the energy parameter (stress-strain relation) is presented. The modification is based on the direct use of power spectral densities (PSD) of stress and strain in the process of the estimation of the stress-strain relation. The PSD’s are used to calculate individual probability density functions (PDF) with the use of the Benasciutti-Tovo model. The obtained probability densities are used to create a joint probability distribution that for the elastic state of material is basically a one dimensional degenerated PDF. The authors explain the process of transformation and normalization of the obtained PDF and compare the obtained PDF to other forms of PDF calculation. The results of calculations are compared to experimental results and presented in fatigue life comparison graphs and are discussed.

Michał Böhm, Tadeusz Łagoda

Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Bolted Connections with Blind Rivet Nuts

In the article authors presented numerical and experimental investigation of bolted connections with blind rivet nuts. Classification of screw connections and the associated validation process are described. The influence of the strength of connected elements on the strength of connection is discussed. Authors present also tests results and mode of failure of rivet nut connection. Results are significantly lower than values declared by manufacturer of a blind rivet nuts.

Cezary Borowiecki, Artur Iluk, Paweł Krysiński, Eugeniusz Rusiński, Marek Sawicki

Numerical Model of an External Gear Pump and Its Validation

The article presents a methodology for the construction of a numerical model of a gear pump with external meshing. The adopted load diagram reflects the operation of the pump in real conditions. The developed numerical model of the gear pump allows to determine the state of strain and strain and displacement. Simulation research was carried out using the finite element method. The calculations have been verified experimentally. Measurements of deformations of the pump casing were made while working, using resistance tensometry. The results obtained in numerical simulations were compared with the results of the experiment.

Rafał Cieślicki, Jacek Karliński, Piotr Osiński

Modelling of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blade Adjusting Cam Wheel

The device called “Intelligent Wind Turbine with Vertical Axis of Rotation”, was designed at the Institute of Aviation in Warsaw. This paper presents the process of determining the coordinates of its cam wheel. Properly made control track is a key element of a working turbine prototype, because it allows precise setting of the angle of attack of the turbine blades as a function of the rotor’s rotation angle in relation to the wind direction. Fulfillment of this condition allows the blade to be optimally positioned, which will allow to obtain maximum power for the predicted wind speed.

Michał Ćmil

Vibration Analysis of an Exhaust Fan in the Exhaust Gas Duct of a Power Plant Unit

The subject of this paper is a vibration analysis of an exhaust fan in a power plant unit. Excessive vibrations were observed during the exploitation of the fan, preventing it from proper operation. In order to identify the causes of excessive vibrations, FEM calculations of the vibrations of flue gas ducts, shaft assembly, and measurements on the actual object were conducted. Based on the numerical vibration analysis, the occurrence of resonant vibrations of the flue gas duct and the shaft assembly was demonstrated. Calculations carried out with the use of a laser vibrometer confirmed the occurrence of vibrations with frequencies similar to the frequency forced by the movement of the exhaust fan’s rotor. The results of the analysis contributed to the modification of the shaft assembly and to the introduction of additional stiffening to the walls of pressure and suction ducts.

Jerzy Czmochowski, Przemysław Moczko, Maciej Olejnik, Damian Pietrusiak

A Sub-modeling Approach for Building Numerically Efficient Discrete Model for Shape Optimization - A Case Study

The following paper formulates and solves a shape optimization problem in order to determine the optimal dimensions of the relief in a beater of the beater wheel mill. For this purpose, a numerical finite-element discrete model using the submodeling technique has been developed. Simulation results and conclusions have been presented. Benefits of this modelling approach have been demonstrated in relation to the computational time and the size of files generated during the analysis.

Piotr Danielczyk

Identification of Influence of Part Tolerances of 2PWR-SE Pump on Its Total Efficiency Taking into Consideration Multi-valued Logic Trees

This paper presents the way of identifying the influence of the tolerance of model pumps (TYPE 2PWR-SE) construction on the total efficiency. The identification of sensitive control dimensions (Value /Tolerance) of examined pumps has been made by means of the multi-valued logic and inductive decision trees. In order to confirm the obtained results, multiple-valued logic trees have been used in the paper according to algorithms for the minimization of individual logic functions. What is more, a specific monotonicity of values of the most key parameters has been determined for the investigated set of pumps having individual specification numbers.

Adam Deptuła, Piotr Osiński, Marian A. Partyka

Application of Decision Logical Trees and Predominant Logical Variables in Analysis of Automatic Transmissions Gearboxes

In the article was discussed the possibility of using decisive logical trees and predominant variables for the analysis of automatic gearboxes. The purpose of modeling an automatic gearbox with graphs can be versatile, namely: determining the transmission ratio of individual gears, analyzing the speed and acceleration of individual rotating elements. In a further step, logic tree decision methods can be used to analyze functional schemes of selected transmission gears. Instead, for graphs that are models of transmission, parametrically acting tree structures can be used.

Adam Deptuła, Marian A. Partyka

Structural Analysis of Live Steam Pipelines in the Context of the Replacement System Hanger

In the article subject matter associated with endurance analysis of the pipeline of fresh steam was brought up with using the finite element method calculations described at the work allowed for the validation of effected modernizations of the arrangement of fastening. It enabled also to determine the technical condition of the pipeline and to suggest of further solutions in the destination of the improvement in the work of the object [1].

Tomasz Dobosz, Jakub Dominiak, Michał Paduchowicz, Artur Górski

Application of Fem Method for Modeling and Strength Analysis of Feed Elements of Vibroscreen

The article presents a three-dimensional solid-state computational model of vibroscreen feed elements, as well as the analysis results of the stress-strain rods state. An algorithm for solving the problem numerically using the finite element method is proposed. The obtained results were used at the stage of feed elements designing for an industrial vibroscreen.

Mikhail Doudkin, Alina Kim, Vadim Kim

Numerical Investigations of the Influence of Seismic Vibrations on the Transformer Structure

The aim of this paper is to analyse the structure of a transformer subjected to the seismic impact, determine the state of critical stresses on the structure, but also to ensure that the structure remains undestroyed after the impact of seismic forces. The numerical calculations, in particular those related to the structure load states, were based on the standard: IEEE Std 693-2005, IEEE Recommended Practice for Seismic Design of Substations.

Sławomir Duda, Sławomir Kciuk, Jacek Gniłka, Tomasz Kaszyca

Aspects of the Cryogenic Equipment Mechanical Calculations on an Example of the FRESCA2 Cryostat

The feature of all cryogenic equipment is that they operate at extremely low temperatures. Typically, a liquid gas flows through or is stored in such devices. In order to ensure that such processes are technically and economically viable, each cryogenic device must have high quality thermal insulation which will reduce heat inleaks into the cryogen. Therefore, the vast majority of cryogenic devices employ vacuum insulation, which entails the need to use an additional vessel on the outside of the vessel or the pipes in which the cryogen is stored. Mechanical calculation of the cryogenic equipment should include both the vacuum vessel loaded with external pressure and the cryogenic vessel loaded with internal pressure. Additionally, the calculations should include potential emergency states and loads during the equipment production tests. This paper presents all the described aspects of mechanical calculations on the example of the FRESCA2 (Facility for Reception of Superconducting Cables) test station currently under design in collaboration between European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN (Switzerland) and Wroclaw University of Science and Technology (Poland)

P. Duda, J. Polinski, M. Grabowski, A. V. Craen, V. Parma, M. Chorowski

Modelling Machine Tool Rocking Vibrations Using Reduced Order Models

In presented paper, an experimental investigation on dynamic properties of a machine tool basis was conducted. A process of modal parameters estimation was carried out and as a result modal model was built. Significant mode shapes from the viewpoint of rocking and self-excited vibrations was identified and briefly described. According to fact that specimen was a prototype, structural elements characterized by excessive levels of vibration were indicated.

Paweł Dunaj, Stefan Berczyński, Michał Dolata

Algorithmic Method of Constructional Features Selection of the Module System of Hydraulic Cylinders Utilized in National Mining Industry

Modular system of constructions allow, with a limited number of constructional modules, created a wide spectrum of modular constructions (assemblies) adapting them to the needs of a future user. At the same time, due to the seriality of manufacturing and possibility of specialization of the production devices it allows decreasing the manufacturing costs. Guiding by these premises it has been elaborated the modular system of hydraulic cylinders of: supports, gangway devices and longwall shearers for national mining industry.

Piotr Gendarz, Aleksander Gwiazda, Lothar Kroll

Animation and Simulation as the Base of Technical Means Systems Verification

The main work of a designer in a design and construction office is a system. It describes the operation of the future technical means and thus determines how the need will be fulfilled. There are various forms of notation of a system. The best effects, due to the accuracy and possibility of verification of operation of the future technical means, give the animation or simulation. The most important is the notation of a system in the form of animation in the graphic program. It allows among others verifying operations of the technical means being design. The advantages of this method are presented in this paper.

Piotr Gendarz, Aleksander Gwiazda, Lothar Kroll

Integration of Constructional Features Selection and Construction Description

Adaptation of the graphic program for constructing of a specific class of technical means, being the specialty of the design and construction office, is the basic challenge of the market economy. This office that prepares the offer and then the competitive construction of the technical means in the shortest possible time as a result obtains the order. This effect is enabled by graphic software applications.

Piotr Gendarz, Aleksander Gwiazda, Lothar Kroll

Spatial Reduced Dynamic Model of a Bucket Wheel Excavator with Two Masts

A holistic approach to analyzing the dynamic behaviour of a bucket wheel excavator (BWE) superstructure, which is practically neglected by technical regulations but nowadays widely used during their design and redesign, is presented in the paper. The procedure for determining the potential and kinetic energy and the vector of generalized non-potential forces of the system, leading to the development of a reduced spatial dynamic (RD) model of the BWE with two masts is presented in detail. Direct validation of the established model has been performed by comparing the values obtained for the first ten natural frequencies (NFs) of the finite element (FE) model to those obtained by the RD model. Percent deviations of values of the NFs obtained for the RD model are very low compared to those obtained by the FE model (~1% for three fundamental NFs). Indirect validation of the RD model used in this research i.e. validation of values of the NFs which have been obtained by calculation and the respective modal deflection shapes has been achieved by comparing them to the studies containing the results of numerical-experimental research on the dynamic characteristics of BWEs of the same design concept. The values of NFs are of the same order of magnitude and the corresponding deflection shapes are in full compliance with those of the experimentally-analyzed BWEs.

Nebojša Gnjatović, Srđan Bošnjak, Nenad Zrnić

Innovative Rotor of Water Turbine Save for River Ecosystem

The paper presents the results of numerical simulations which aim was to develop a new construction of a water turbine dedicated to the production of electricity in small hydropower plants (SHPP) on watercourses with very low water falls and natural dams (<1 m). Preliminary studies show that thanks to CFD method it is possible to enhance the protection of migratory fish and significantly reduce noise and vibration during water turbine operation.

Aleksander Górniak, Anna Janicka, Joanna Mikołajczak, Maria Skrętowicz, Dariusz Piętas, Radosław Włostowski, Maciej Zawiślak

Analysis of Composite Structure Effect on Radio-Frequency Characteristics of the RFID Tag

Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is the wireless use of electromagnetic fields to transfer data, for the purposes of automatically identifying and tracking tags attached to objects. Depending on the type of the material being tracked, the radio-frequency characteristics of the RFID tag may be very different. This paper aims to investigate how the RFID tag readability changes, when tags are attached to the composite structures. For this purpose, a number of different composite materials – based on carbon fibres, linen fibres and fibreglass, were selected and tested, in order to investigate their effect on radio-frequency characteristics of the RFID tag. For the purpose of this experiment passive tags have been used, which works by reflecting the RFID signal sent by the antenna. Such measurement settings allow us to assess the RF attenuation/amplification characteristics of tested materials and eliminate any other measurement errors such as those associated with the power and battery capacity of an active tag. The experimental results show that depending on the types of fibres used, the composite materials can either be used to attenuate or strengthen tag’s radio signal reflection characteristic measured by received signal strength indicator (RSSI) on the RFID reader.

Piotr Górski, Jacek Lewandowski, Paweł Krowicki, Tadeusz Lewandowski

Design of the Vehicle Frontal Protection System for Emergency Services

The article presents the development of a frontal protection system for intervention vehicles that are in use by emergency services in Europe. The design of the FPS is closely related to the current needs of uniformed services. The constituted bodies such as police or military services tend to purchase vehicles, which are not originally equipped with any vehicle frontal protection system. Currently available systems mounted on emergency services vehicles do not differ significantly from commercial solutions available on the market. It turns out that in some critical situations, they do not meet the design requirement as they deform under relative small force, at the same time creating a threat to occupants and other road users. Thus, this paper presents an approach for design a new FPS using CAD/CAE methods. Finally, the physical prototype mounted on a SUV is presented.

Artur Górski, Tadeusz Lewandowski, Wiktor Słomski, Mariusz Ptak

Application of CFD Methods in Determining the Implementation Areas of Protective Coatings Used to Improve a Water Turbine Lifetime

In the paper results of the numerical simulations which aim was choice of surfaces for protective coating implementation in water turbine rotor. Numerical analysis was provided in ANSYS FLUENT environment. The researches are part of project focuses on development innovative, highly effective water turbine (ECOTURBINE) dedicated to the production of electricity in small hydropower plants (SHP) on watercourses with very low water falls and natural dams (<1 m).

Dominika Grygier, Anna Janicka, Agnieszka Kocikowska, Alina Rudiak, Małgorzata Rutkowska-Gorczyca, Krzysztof Sobczak, Maciej Zawiślak

Comparison of Stress Distribution Between Geometrically Corrected Wire-Raceway Bearings and Non-corrected Wire-Raceway Bearings

This paper presents the current study of the distribution of stresses for four-point contact wire-raceway ball bearing. The main aim of this article is to define differences between geometrically corrected wire-raceway bearings and non-corrected wire-raceway. Analysis were performed with Finite Elements Method (FEM) in order to obtain internal stress distribution. The results for corrected and non-corrected bearings are presented.

Dominik Gunia, Tadeusz Smolnicki

Modeling of the Constrain of the Foot with the Bicycle Pedal While Driving with a Constant Cadence

This work was undertaken to create models and conduct numerical studies on them with different foot-pedal constrain while rotating the crank of the bicycle. The movement in individual joints was induced based on the characteristics obtained by the inverse kinematics task. In the studies, the load characteristics of the main active joints: hip and knee were created, based on the displacement characteristics obtained through a direct kinematics task. Test conditions were established according to cycling with a standard cadence of 90 rpm. Numerical experiment was conducted in the ADAMS environment, on the created spatial model that takes into account human’s lower and upper limbs. The results obtained from the numerical studies form the basis for the development of the full biomechanical model of the human-bicycle system and represent an introduction to a more complex dynamic analysis and optimization related to this system.

A. Handke, J. Bałchanowski

Computer Aided Diagnosis and Prediction of Mechatronic Drive Systems

The article contains approach of diagnosis and prognosis of mechatronic drive systems and their components, based on operational state models recorded in the form of digraphs. Assumed approach in the form of the proposed method containing interrelated groups of failures, effects and their causes forced the need of changes of structures of applied algorithms and their adjusting to the adopted diagnostic and prediction models. In addition, the mathematical notation of directed graph structures dedicated to the transformation of diagnostic relationships to prediction dependencies was presented.

Mariusz Piotr Hetmańczyk, Jerzy Świder

Experimental Investigation of Load Carrying Structure of 155 mm Self-propelled Howitzer During Test Fire

One of the most significant load for the support structure of the self-propelled howitzers is firing. In the paper the experimental investigation of the dynamic behavior of lightweight, self-propelled howitzer caliber 155 mm during test firing was presented. The structure response to the impulse load during fire were investigated by measurement of the strain, acceleration and displacement at selected point. For assessment of the overall movement of the howitzer and its components, especially carrier suspension, the photogrammetric method was used. Examples of measurement results were presented and discussed.

Artur Iluk, Mariusz Stańco

Statistical Evaluation of an Exhaust Gas Mixture for Photocatalytic Reactor Test-Station Improvement

The paper contains the description of the statistical analysis performed in order to correlate concentration of hazardous volatile organic compounds from the BTX group with non-hazardous constituents of the gas mixture. The gas composition and concentration of particular compounds were determined by numerous test performed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of a photocatalytic reactor in terms of VOCs reduction. Such a reactor is dedicated to the automotive industry and is set to be a member of a ventilation system. The photocatalysis is used to purified polluted air aspirated from the surrounding into the vehicle cabin. Therefore, the composition of a gas mixture was determined in various conditions resembling the operation of a standard ventilation system. The concentration of mixture constituents measure at a particular test condition was correlated with each other with aid of partial component analysis (PCA) in order to evaluate the power with which the individual components affect the model. Subsequently, the partial least squares analysis (PLS) was performed in order to select the non-hazardous compounds of a gas mixture which can represent the concentration of hazardous Benzene Toluene and Xylene (BTX). Lastly a curve fitting analysis was performed in order to find a ready equation with which the concentration of hazardous compounds can be predicted.

Anna Janicka, Maciej Zawiślak, Aleksander Górniak, Daniel Michniewicz

Diagnostic Procedure of Bucket Wheel and Boom Computer Modeling – A Case Study Revitalization Bucket Wheel and Drive of BWE SRs2000

This paper provides most significant analytical considerations of the project related to revitalization and modernization of bucket wheel excavator SRs2000 + VR. In other words, the application of appropriate technical measures in the framework of revitalization, must provide sufficient time, safe and economical work during operation at the surface mine. Main issues in the revitalization of the bucket wheel excavator are aimed at the new operating wheel unit, new bucket wheel, buckets and teeth. Computer modelling supports diagnostic procedures.

Predrag Jovančić, Dragan Ignjatović, Taško Maneski, Dragan Novaković, Časlav Slavković

Comparative Analysis of Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of Strength of a Boom of the Underground Loader

The paper presents comparison of the results obtained from the numerical simulation and the experiment. A research subject was a boom of the loader designed for the underground mines. Strength analysis of the boom was carried out in the static range. The numerical calculation was performed using finite element method (FEM). The experiment was conducted with the use of the strain gauge half-bridges to validate the computational model. Measurements were taken during various actions of the loader. This contribution describes one of the calculated cases. After the results comparison, the appropriateness of the numerical simulation has been confirmed.

Jacek Karliński, Paulina Działak

Sustainable Development Oriented Belt Conveyors Quality Standards

Belt conveyors (BC) due to their unmatched capacity are extensively used in all industry applications where large volumes of bulk solids need to be transported. The mining industry is among the greatest BC users that set the new standards of required reliability, durability and operational safety. In recent years the sustainable development of the industry with the special focus on its eco-efficiency, primary energy consumption and GNG emission, is of the growing public interest. Relatively low raw material prices force competitiveness in the mining sector. Both issues set the new, higher requirements of BC efficiency as large BC systems are significant consumers of the expensive electric energy. BC are designed and built with regard to relatively conservative standards, lagged behind the already implemented technological development of BC equipment and maintenance methods. This paper deals with the proposal of the novel approach to both defining new standards for BC equipment that incorporates energy labelling, Eco-efficiency Analysis approach and calculating BC resistances to motion and required drive power with object oriented methods. The approach is illustrated by the analysis of idlers energy consumption and their fatigue tests.

Witold Kawalec, Robert Król

The Numerical Calculation Module for Piston Rings & Cylinder of Combustion Engine

The piston with piston rings and bearing surface is a self-contained and highly complex tribological system. One of the most widespread global friction pairs traversed by reciprocating a pair of ring - cylinder liner piston - rings - cylinder internal combustion engine. Group PRS combustion engine is the solution generating considerable friction. Various researchers estimate the share of friction losses, per node piston rings - cylinder liner, at 19 to 60% of the total friction losses in the combustion engine. This paper describes part of a larger program to reduce wear the set working parts (piston, piston ring and bearing surface). The project is implemented through the development of new designs of piston rings with anti-wear coating that contains synthetic diamond in the form of loose embedded in a coating of chromium (PRS). The aim of the authors was to present the methodology used to compute characterized by a particular procedure. In practical use FEM software is used and the FVM. Developed and implemented Piston Rings Calculation Module is compatible with the idea of numerical computational methods is to say: functionally consists in carrying out a calculation of the desire to achieve the exact solution (the nearest is real) by conducting and receiving intermediate solutions (the next).

Andrzej Kaźmierczak, Marcin Tkaczyk

Numerical Simulation of Residual Stress Induced by Welding of Steel-Aluminum Transition Joint

The paper presents the results of the welding simulation performed for S235JR-Aluminum A5083 transition joint with the use of finite element method. Paper presents FEM model properties including nonlinear material data and heat source parameters. Results of the first calculations were presented in the form of the residual stresses patterns in and thermal cycles.

M. Kowalski, M. Bohm

Designing of the Structure Elements Being Bent from the Fatigue Life Point of View

The study is about the determination of the fatigue life for the shaft being bent made of the materials of two types. These are 10HNAP steel and 6082-T6 aluminium. The lives have been determined using the stress amplitude and the nominal strain as well as according to a elasto-plastic model. To find out the fatigue life both the stress and deformation fatigue characteristics determined in the tests carried out in tension-compression conditions and cyclic bending have been used. It has been shown that for the loading of an element with a bending moment and with the use the tension-compression characteristic in the calculations the computational fatigue life is definitely underestimated. Particularly, this can be noticed when the stress characteristics and the minimum stress are used in calculations. A lower error is obtained when deformation characteristics are used, Besides, higher differences occur in the calculations for steel elements rather than aluminium ones.

Justyna Koziarska, Andrzej Kurek, Tadeusz Łagoda

Selection of Geometric Features of V-Belt Transmission Through Multi-criteria Analysis

A method of selecting geometric features for a V-belt transmission through a multi-criteria analysis is presented. The application of the method to the design process is illustrated with a design problem including the selection of geometric features for a V-belt transmission driving a chain conveyor. The decision variables, i.e. the quantities sought in the design process, were the (standard) diameter of the pulleys, the cross section of the belt and the values of four indices: the cost of the belts, the cost of the pulleys, the belt transmission volume and the belt cross section load capacity.The evaluation criteria were: the (minimum) volume and manufacturing cost of the belt transmission and the (maximum) belt cross section load capacity index. Three belt cross sections, i.e. A, B and C, and seven standard driving pulley diameters in the range of 112–224 mm were analysed. The design computations were performed using the computer program described in [12]. The results of the analysis are presented graphically and conclusions are drawn.

Michał Krawiec

Design, Strength Analysis and Destructive Testing Rotating Discs

The article presents design and construction process of rotating discs. For the analysis, models of a disc of uniform strength and a disc of constant thickness with a center hole were used. The next stage consisted in creating geometric disc models. Based on the analyzes made, a decision was made to build two discs: with straight and curved radial channels. The aim of the analysis was to learn the mechanism of disc destruction and to determine the speed at which the discs will be destroyed. It was particularly important from the research point of view to compare the results obtained for discs with straight and curved channels. After the numerical analyzes, disc-destroying tests were carried out on a special strength test machine that would enable destruction of the tested parts by rotating them at high speeds.

Kamil Krot, Piotr Górski

Methodology for Assessing Blast Threat of EOD Personnel

In the article, a methodology for assessing blast threat of Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) technicians was presented. During the research tests of controlled explosion were performed with the dummy mounted to simulate standing position. The response of the dummy against different improvised explosive materials with the charge of 75 g to 1000 g was performed. During the research an acceleration of the particular body part (head, pelvis, upper and lower limb) as well as pressure acting on the dummy was measured. The article deals with the protection of EOD technicians against such threats as an overpressure, a heat and shock wave. Results of the experimental research will be used to design and improve better personnel blast protection suits as well as educational materials for the future EOD technicians. Even when using a well characterized, widely available explosive, a mine explosion still exhibits an element of variability from one test to the next.

Edyta Krzystała, Krzysztof Kawlewski, Sławomir Kciuk, Grzegorz Bienioszek, Tomasz Machoczek

Numerical Modelling of Cylindrical Test for Determining Jones – Wilkins - Lee Equation Parameters

This paper deals with a problem of validation of parameters of the most popular equation of state describing the function of pressure during explosion - JWL (Jones – Wilkins – Lee). For this purpose, the cylindrical test was conducted experimentally and was modelled using three different methods: arbitrary Lagrangian -Eulerian (ALE), smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and pure Eulerian approach. The cylindrical test was simulated using three methods mentioned above with 2D axisymmetric model and quarter of 3D model. Finally, different types of elements for the discrete models of copper pipe were investigated. The comparison of the outcomes from experiment and numerical simulations showed acceptable similarity.

Michał Kucewicz, Paweł Baranowski, Jerzy Małachowski, Waldemar Trzciński, Leszek Szymańczyk

Strain-Life Fatigue Curves on the Basis of Shear Strains from Torsion

The study is about the determination of the fatigue life curves for strain-controlled torsional loads on the basis of 6082-T6 aluminium alloy experimental data. ‘Diabolo’ type full specimens have been tested on newly designed test stand. Tree models and two fitting methods were used to determine strain-life curve constraints. The models used in this paper were: Kandil, Langer and recently proposed Kurek-Łagoda. And the methods were standard least squares approach and bisquare waged approach. MATLAB software was used for curve fitting for this article.

Andrzej Kurek, Marta Kurek, Tadeusz Łagoda

The Use of Selective Laser Melting as a Method of New Materials Development

Selective laser melting (SLM) is a fast growing, Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology, that creates opportunities for manufacturing complex geometries (both monolithic volumes and spatial structures) directly from metal powders and CAD 3D computer model. Therefore, the SLM technology is recognized as a manufacturing technology of the future. Many industry leaders are implementing selective laser melting into their production standards, e.g.: automotive, aviation, space and medicine companies. SLM technology can also be used for the development of new materials, through the possibility of manufacturing elements from various mixtures of metal powders. The methodology presented in this article allows to expand the use of SLM in a wide range of industries and test the properties of new materials on functional parts and 3D specimens. This methodology has been illustrated by an example of Inconel 718-Rhenium alloy. The following path of new materials development will be described: Development of material requirements → Powder material characteristics and powder preparation → Development of laser melting processing parameters → Microscopic observations and mechanical testing → Post-process development (HT, HIP, CNC) → Production of a demonstrator parts.

Tomasz Kurzynowski, Konrad Gruber, Edward Chlebus

Processing of Magnesium Alloy by Selective Laser Melting

This paper presents results on processing AZ31 magnesium alloy with Selective Laser Melting technology. The process optimization was performed according to the Design of Experiments methods. The porosity analysis shown that fully dense specimens were achieved. Thanks to the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), the impact of changed parameters on the porosity was characterized. The paper also presents results of material characterisation. Microstructure evaluation shown fine, equiaxial grains, which could be responsible for uniform mechanical properties and good elongation. Carried out mechanical tests proves, that the properties of AZ31 material obtained in additive process are correspond for conventional cast alloy.

Tomasz Kurzynowski, Andrzej Pawlak, Edward Chlebus

Strength Analysis of the Multi-tasking Car Trailer

This work concerns the strength analysis of a multi-tasking car trailer prototype, combining the ability to carry loads of several types of specialized single-purpose trailers in applications such as: kayaks, motorcycles, garage gates and self-propelled vehicles, such as lawn mowers or quads. The analysis was carried out on the basis of a computational model developed by using the SolidWorks program and its Simulation module. The results presented in the study include analysis of selected construction nodes, i.e.: assembly sockets - superstructures, platform lifting unit and frame of the gantry structure. After accepting the results of the simulation tests the real object have been made and innovative solutions have been reported to the Patent Office of the Republic of Poland. The proposed car trailer is an alternative to many specialized single-purpose trailers.

Piotr Ladra, Bogdan Posiadała

Correlation of Wear and Time in Research Conducted at Concentrated Point Contact

The way to determine suitability e.g. friction node for use in machines working in the mixed friction area are tribological tests. The main disadvantage of tribological tests is the long time needed to complete them, which directly translates into the cost of these works. An attempt to reduce research time (their acceleration) is the use of a planned experiment, but it does not necessarily affect the time of conducting a single measurement at each point of the planned experiment. Therefore, an attempt was made to verify the influence of the time of a single measurement on the test result. The paper presents the results of research on the impact on lubrication efficiency at concentrated point contact of Transol 150 oil. Grease evaluation was made on the basis of tests performed on a standard four-ball tester produced by the Institute for Sustainable Technologies in Radom. The research was carried out using the planned experiment in two variants: on the constant friction distance s = 33.4 m and in the time resulting from the adopted road and speed and at a constant time of 10 s, i.e. corresponding to the guidelines of standards PN-76/C-04147. The results of the experiment were statistically developed at 95% confidence level, using Student’s t-test. The results are presented in graphical form. The tests were conducted only with one type of contact (point) and they are a prelude to further analyzes.

Tadeusz Leśniewski

Feasibility Study on Location Monitoring of Technical Objects During Operational Phase

Remote tracking and monitoring of different objects becomes the everyday life need in various aspects of human life. Nowadays, it concerns not only the strategic areas such as security, defence or life threatening parameters such as human vital signs, but due to the wide availability of technologies and techniques, the remote objects monitoring is applied also to industrial or business applications such as logistics, monitoring of high value objects or others, as well as monitoring of all sorts of general use objects such as vehicles, equipment or others. This paper propose the concept of Smart Tools Monitoring system designed and prototyped to monitor the location and status of hand tools during the operation phase in the factory. As part of the project the analysis and tests of the applicability of available techniques and technologies have been performed in factory settings in order to find out the specifics of such environments in terms of distance, interferences and electromagnetic noise generated by machines. This paper presents the system concept as well as design and operational findings from the feasibility study.

Jacek Lewandowski, Piotr Górski, Tadeusz Lewandowski, Paweł Krowicki, Maciej Merek

Bending Strength of a Thick-Walled Composite in a Thermoplastic Matrix

The research was carried on specimens made of composite laminate with thermoplastic matrix PA6 reinforced with continuous glass fiber. Specimens were subjected to a static three- and four – point bending tests at different spacings of the supports, resulting in different values of the ratio between normal and shear stresses. Both distribution of normal stress that comes from bending and distribution of shear stress, according to transverse shear stress in beams, coming from shear were considered. In the case of analyzing composite materials, shear stress is significant and considered cases have to be treated as stressed in complex stress condition. The results of the analysis were as follows: variation in cross-section of shear stresses according to the transverse shear stress in beams equation and distribution of bending stresses on the triangle. It was proposed to calculate the equivalent stress according to an equation obtained basing on the Azzi-Tsai-Hill criterion at a coefficient being a ratio of tensile strength to transverse shear strength determined experimentally. Depending on the combination of shear and normal stresses, cracking is initiated either by shear or normal stress.

Karolina Łagoda, Andrzej Kurek, Anna Kulesa, Wojciech Błażejewski, Tadeusz Łagoda

Computer Aided Design of Wood Pellet Machines

The work presents the construction solution of a wood pellet machines according to the original concept. In order to determine the construction features of the machine, the SolidWorks application with simulation modules was used. The effect of these simulations was to determine the range of constructional features of the pellet machine working system. The usefulness of the CAD/CAE application in the scope of determining the acceptable range of construction features of the pellet machine was indicated.

Marek Macko, Adam Mroziński

CAE/FDM Methods for Design and Manufacture Artificial Organs for Exercises Purposes

New technologies such as three-dimensional (3D) printing and reverse engineering can contribute to increasing the level of medical training of specialists in their daily clinical practice. The aim of the article is to present the original concepts of designing, editing and producing organs for educational and training purposes. The presented concepts are relatively new solutions, but their further development may lead to the extension of the area of use of these techniques in medicine, among other things in relation to other specialties.

Marek Macko, Zbigniew Szczepański, Dariusz Mikołajewski, Joanna Nowak, Emilia Mikołajewska, Jacek Furtak

Parameter Selection Rules for Energy-Absorbing Element of the Spring Type Based on Numerical Analysis

The article presents numerical analysis, which allows the selection of parameters of the energy-absorbing element. It is a double torsion spring. A CAD and CAE software was used to carry out the simulation. The first part of the article presents the method of preparing a 3D CAD model for analysis. Additionally, this section presents the material and the boundary conditions. From the results obtained, we can read curves, which shows the spring characteristic during unroll. The data shows force, which is needed for spring unroll. In addition to force, the curves show the time, that informs, how much it takes to reach maximum force. In next part the spring was verified on testing machine. For this purpose, several samples of double torsion spring were made and then these springs were unrolled on testing machine. The boundary conditions were the same as in numerical analysis. The curves obtained illustrate the dependence between force and time. Next, the results of the numerical analysis were compared with the results from the testing on the testing machine.

Adrian Małczuk

Strength and Fatigue Analysis of the Welding Connection on the Compressed Air Tank

The subject of the study is the FEM analysis, which consists in checking the connection of welding the threaded sleeve with the tank mounted in the vehicle. The purpose of the analysis is to check the fatigue strength of such a connection, as well as to check the deformation and strength of the bottom. The subject of the analysis is also the determination and calculation of the correct bottom thickness by the FEM method.

Paweł Maślak, Tadeusz Smolnicki

Welding Procedure in Designing Carrying Structures of Machines

The article describes the necessity of taking into account the welding procedure used in the process of designing carrying structures. It also presents the most common errors which the constructor might make during the process of designing welded joints. What is more, the mistakes discovered during installation works carried out on a real object are presented. The article also informs how to avoid such errors in the process of designing.

Robert Misiewicz, Grzegorz Przybyłek, Jędrzej Więckowski

Numerical and Experimental Testing of the WLS Series Axial Fans Used for Local Ventilation of Underground Excavations

The testing and inspection of fans is a crucial task at the stages of designing and prototyping as well as in terms of future exploitation. In case of machines performing rotational movement, the scope of research is very broad and concerns strength tests, vibration diagnostics, acoustic test, and flow tests. The article presents the issue of studying vibrations of chosen elements of a fan with special regard to the casing and flow tests of the fan itself. The tests were carried out both on the actual object and numerically.

Przemysław Moczko, Jędrzej Więckowski, Piotr Odyjas

Integration of Motion Capture Data Acquisition with Multibody Dynamic Simulation Software for Nordic Walking Gait Analysys

This article presents method of Nordic Walking gait data acquisition using motion capture. The author’s solution of markers location on human body is presented. It uses Davis protocol enhanced by additional markers for upper limbs and Nordic Walking poles measurement. The simplified kinematic computational model is presented. It was used for quality tests of data set generated during Nordic Walking gait. Problems with use of raw data are indicated. They cannot be used direct for kinematic analysis due to high noise in first and second signal derivatives. Sources of noise are presented and way to reduce them as well. Analysis of acceleration signals of measured data is performed. Butterworth filters with different cut off frequencies are used. The reconstruction of measured data from filtered and derivative signals is shown as well as comparison with original data.

A. Muraszkowski, J. Szrek, S. Wudarczyk, J. Bałchanowski, R. Jasiński, B. Pietraszewski, M. Woźniewski

Conceptual Design and Concept Development of Compressed Biogas Transport System Using CAD/CAE

Currently, the demand on energy is rocketing. This makes it necessary to use alternative sources of energy like biogas to satisfy our future needs. Transport of gaseous fuel in compressed state is widely known, although there is very little amount of knowledge on how to design systems dedicated to raw biogas transport under pressure. The aim of this study was to define modelling possibilities for raw biogas using NG models and to apply CAD/CAE into design process of Mobile Biogas Station. For conceptual design, functional modelling using hypothesis analysis was used and contradiction analysis using TRIZ. Detailed design process involved CAD 3D modelling and FEM analysis and design optimization. As a result, feasible design of Mobile Biogas Station was created that has modular structure and allows for ease of manufacturing having significant volume for biogas to be transported.

Marek Mysior, Sebastian Koziołek, Bartosz Pryda

Determination of the Bucket Wheel Suspension Stiffness

This article describes the methods adopted for determining the stiffness of the bucket wheel boom of the K45 bucket-wheel excavator. Then, the obtained values of deflection of the bucket wheel boom are presented in an experimental and theoretical manner. In the end, the results obtained with both methods are compared.

Marek Onichimiuk, Marian Wygoda, Adam Bajcar, Damian Pietrusiak, Przemysław Moczko

Numerical Analysis of the Crash-Test Platform

The subject of the work was to carry out numerical analyzes of the structure of the crash-test platform intended for carrying out research on a position enabling the simulation of dynamic phenomena, allowing non-destructive testing of vehicles and their equipment. Dynamic tests consists in accelerating the truck and braking it with the appropriate deceleration. The brake applied to the end of the test track is responsible for braking the platform. The purpose of the platform is to work with large objects, in particular road ambulances in tests for compliance with the PN-EN 1789 standard [8]. The test platform will also be designed for a crash test with a side pole test as part of one of the EuroNCAP tests [9]. The test object is a suitably loaded vehicle body (ambulance) with medical equipment. Strength calculations of the analyzed structure of the crash-test platform were made using the finite element method (FEM). These calculations were based on the exemplar created at the stage of designing the 3D model, on previously verified material data as well as on pre-determined and specified loads resulting from the crash test. The software from the Altair HyperWorks package was used for calculations. The aim of numerical analyzes was to capture critical sites in the frame structure of the test platform (places of stress concentration) as well as the character of deformations of this structure.

Krzysztof Podkowski, Zbigniew Barszcz, Patryk Melańczuk

Head-to-Bonnet Impact Using Finite Element Head Model

The article focusses on the accident reconstruction involving a pedestrian impacting to the bonnet of a sport vehicle. The corresponding simulation has recourse to the YEAHM as a high-detailed FE human head and brain model. Matching thereby the demands of European regulation EC78/2009, the impact scenario is designed in in order to assess the influence of the vehicle’s bonnet design, especially by regarding its stiffening structure underneath the bonnet outer layer in terms of estimated head and brain injuries. The interpretation of the results is based on the injury criteria of H-M-H brain stress and intracranial pressure (ICP). The observation of the results for the affected lobes of the brain revealed an influence of the bonnet design to the severity of the estimated brain injury. Furthermore, the contre-coup phenomenon was noticed in all simulations, which were performed by the authors. The results proved as well, that the finite element method could be used as well as an effective tool in the stage of preliminary part design. In a conclusion, the benefit of taking in this stage of part designing also possible injury severity in expected impact scenarios into account needs to be seen in the possibility of increasing passive safety of vulnerable road users.

Mariusz Ptak, Dorota Czerwińska, Johannes Wilhelm, Fábio A. O. Fernandes, Ricardo J. Alves de Sousa

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Polyethylene Material Compositions for Use in Joint Endoprosthesis

The goal of the present study was determine tribological properties of selected newly developed polymer material compositions for endoprosthesis applications. The focus was on the modification of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. It was proposed to use a new composition of this material - a hybrid was created from irradiated material, which filled the matrix made by materials of much weaker strength parameters. Several models have been proposed that have been numerically tested using the finite element method. The best model was selected for a series of tribological tests. The tests were carried out in the slip-roll motion during lubrication simulating knee joint endoprosthesis work conditions. After the tribological tests were completed, the topography by scanning electron microscope was analyzed. The research has shown impact material modification on the tribological properties. The proposed material compositions can be successfully used in the production of improved sliding elements of implants.

Anita Ptak, Piotr Kowalewski, Żaneta Michalska

Numerical Simulation of a Motorcycle to Road Barrier Impact

Motorcycle crashes are an increasing road safety problem in the world, as this mean of transport has become a popular way to avoid traffic congestion, as well as a way to reduce the overall transportation cost, especially in developing countries. Currently, riding a motorcycle is also a lifestyle for many people. This publication presents a numerical approach to the subject of traffic accident involving a motorcyclist impacting a new on the market roadside barrier. Currently, there are still not explored construction solutions. The focus of the research is the determination of risk and potential consequences of motorcycle injuries using finite element method (LS-DYNA) coupled with multibody dummy model (MADYMO). Among many crash-tests carried out, there are still few simulations with the participation of motorcycles. The research conducted by authors is intended to draw attention on danger, to which some of the vulnerable road users are exposed. The paper points also on the overall complex motion and specific head-to-barrier impact – especially when neck injuries are concerned.

Mariusz Ptak, Johannes Wilhelm, Olga Klimas, Grzegorz Reclik, Leszek Garbaciak

Use of Radiography to Identify the Gangue

The article presents a method of detecting undesirable objects on a conveyor belt. In this paper problem of distinguishing coal from gangue is described. The method which is presented in this article is based on the x-ray phenomenon. The tested objects will be distinguished on the basis of the density difference. This method is very important for mining industry because a stone or another undesirable object which gets to belt conveyor can damage it, and output transport will have stopped.

Agnieszka Pustułka, Tadeusz Leśniewski

Qualitative Evaluation of Modeling the Aramid Fabric Elementary Cell in the Piercing Process with a 9 mm Full Metal Jacket Projectile

The authors simulated the piercing of a loose aramid fabric. The analysis was carried out in the ABAQUS environment with the use of the Explicit method. The fabric was modeled in two ways: the first one as a surface, with the parameters and nature of aramid fibers considered, while the second as single bands in the fabric. The qualitative and quantitative results of the deformation of the tested material were compared. In addition, the deformation of the 9 × 19 mm Parabellum FMJ projectile was compared with a real object.

Dariusz Pyka, Joanna Pach, Miroslaw Bocian, Krzysztof Jamroziak

Development of Auxiliary Gas Protection During Laser Cladding on the Axisymmetric Ti6Al4V Component

The paper presents results of simulation based study of auxiliary shielding nozzle in the laser cladding process. The thermal surface treatment of titanium aviation components requires high purity around cladding area otherwise undesirable hard phases in material will occur. To understand and optimize the gas shielding, especially for non-flat surfaces, a CFD simulation model in COMSOL multiphysics was developed. Computations of fluid flow and gas diffusion were evaluated for different nozzle constructions. A prototype of the optimized clamping shielding nozzle was experimentally verified and proved better surface properties.

Przemysław Radkiewicz, Piotr Koruba, Jacek Reiner

Structural Analysis of Composite Scooter Monocoque

The subject of the analysis is the monocoque frame of a conceptual compressed air - powered scooter. It is made out of epoxy-carbon composite. The structural analysis of the structure is presented. Issues such as stack up of fibers and composite-metal connections are described. Forces and load cases provided by authors are performed in finite element analysis software.

Igor Rogacki, Eugeniusz Rusiński, Marek Sawicki

Analysis of Material Properties Base on Fluid Structure Interaction Simulation

Paper presents results of dynamic FSI simulation of unmanned aerial vehicle, where for first case, a typical linear material was used, and for second case, a composite material was used. The simulations were performed with the objective of studying model reaction with forces indicated by flow which were defined by initial conditions. Secondary objective was to evaluate critical flutter speed. Simulations provided interesting results: for linear case, applied flow speed resulted with occurrence of flutter phenomena, while composite case exhibited damping of vibration in designated points along the wing. Presented simulations were performed within an environment using loosely-coupled approach. CFD simulations were carried out with use of parallel code DLR-Tau. FSI computations were executed with applied modal approach for structural model and full data exchange between fluid and structure as well as mesh deformation.

Robert Roszak, Daniela Schob, Holger Sparr, Matthias Ziegenhorn

Structural Analysis of PVC-CF Composite Materials

The article presents study on vacuum-formed carbon fibre, glass fibre and PVC foam composite materials. Experiment and finite elements method calculations are performed to determine material properties. Experiment is done for the materials manufactured in the Institute of Machine Design Fundamentals. Analyzed material is in use in automotive industry. It is used to create vehicle’s structure reinforcement. Material is analyzed for tensile strength and bending strength. In order to fully characterize the properties of the material, research of multilayer composites consisting of separate components are carried out. Research is conducted to characterize complex mechanical behavior in heterogeneous materials. Verification of material properties confirmed possibility to use examined material as a reinforcing element, what lead to construction of “PIAST” vehicle. The main theme of the article is to create mechanical, experimental characteristics and numerical simulation of multilayer foam, glass fibre and carbon fibre composite material. Experimental analysis confirmed extraordinary capabilities of multilayer structure with foam core and resin bonded skins. Using foam as sandwich core infill increases material rigidness and strength. At the same time it reduces mass in comparison to carbon fibre, reinforced with glass fibre composite material. Risk of skin dissection should be taken into account during construction design. In real engineering applications dissection should be eliminated or partially reduced by production technology improvement. The experiment results and numerical simulation results agrement can be achieved by proper constitutive modeling and adequate numerical techniques. Analysis of the location of damages, strains in the core and the formation of the delamination outside the skin can be taken into account using appropriate material models.

Przemysław Rumianek, Piotr Żach, Radosław Nowak, Piotr Kosiński

Selected Problems of Fatigue Testing of Automotive Drive Shafts

The article concerns fatigue testing of drive shafts used in cars. The manufacturers of drive shafts shoulder a great responsibility because the workmanship of the product greatly affects the reliability of the shafts. The durability of a drive shaft is defined by many factors, however, the quality of the material is the most vital one. The paper presents the most occurring causes of fatigue damage of shafts. A series of tests of automotive drive shafts was also conducted.

Eugeniusz Rusiński, Tomasz Dobosz, Fabian Grendysz, Przemysław Moczko

Selected Problems of Strength Calculation of Power Boiler Steam Superheater

The paper discusses the problems of sizing and evaluation of the steam superheater header in the connecting area with a stub pipe superheater III in boiler BB-1150. The basic element of the assessment was strength calculations using numerical methods. The most important element of the work was to develop original computational models for thermal and structural calculations with extended forms of boundary conditions using the finite element method. The developed models of the tested object were subjected to the analysis of the state of deformation in a steady state and transient state. The results of computer simulations of the welded connection between the header and the coil spigot are presented in details [1].

Eugeniusz Rusiński, Artur Górski, Michał Attinger, Jerzy Czmochowski, Michał Paduchowicz

Simulation of Cavitation Participation in the Water Treatment

The use of cavitation for water and wastewater treatment is a well-known procedure. Cavitation can be used alone or in combination with other phenomena. Cavitation is, however, a “chimeric” phenomenon. As a rule, it is difficult to call it if it is a useful phenomenon, but it is easily created when it is undesirable. Therefore, various activities are necessary for the development of cavitation devices operating according to assumptions. Such activities include various types of simulations. In this work, a cavitation was simulated in which the outlet water undergoes a full evaporation process due to cavitation. Simulations are carried out using the FLUENT software version 6.3.36, The use of theoretical assumptions (resulting from earlier research work) recalled in this work is also particularly important here. It seems that it would be expedient to use hybrid computational methods. For example, FLUENT simulations could be combined with the use of the Monte Carlo mathematical method to actively determine the values of coefficients occurring in the model. This will be the subject of further work.

Lech J. Sitnik

Modeling of Liquid Exchange Process in a Hydraulic Cylinder Chamber in the Aspect of Power System Design

The results of verification performed on the numerical models of liquid flow in the chambers of a hydraulic cylinder, as reported in this paper, constitute a part of a larger research and development project carried out by the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, in cooperation with WM Engineering S.A. The project involved designing an innovative experimental set-up for testing hydraulic cylinders. The new test stand significantly improved the research potential of Research and Development Center of PONAR Wadowice S.A. – a company which cooperates with the above mentioned project leaders. The original test program and the new test equipment allowed the verification of the accuracy of the numerical model which was generated in the Ansys CFX environment and which describes the process of mixing fluid from two different domains, having different initial temperatures, during the operation of the cylinder. The data obtained during the tests confirmed that it is reasonable to modify the cylinder supply system in accordance with the patent application filed by Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. This paper presents sample results of both actual tests and computational simulations performed on the analyzed phenomenon of liquid exchange in the piston chamber of the hydraulic cylinder. It also describes the proposed method for the comparative analysis of the results. The obtained results fully confirm that research in this area was justified and provide a basis for further research, development and deployment works on the design of hydraulic cylinders and their power supply systems.

Tomasz Siwulski, Urszula Warzyńska, Łukasz Moraś, Piotr Rosikowski, Paweł Pac

Assessment of Atmospheric Air Quality in the Area of the Legionow Square in Wroclaw

The paper presents the application of mathematical models: the emission model and the model of dispersion of pollutants to the analysis of the impact of road transport on the quality of atmospheric air in the urban agglomeration. The calculations were made on the example of the crossroad at Legionow Square in Wroclaw, which is characterized by compact buildings (street canyons) and high traffic volume. The NEMO model was used to estimate the emission of pollutants from motor vehicles. In turn, the Lagrange model GRAL, belonging to CFD-class, was used to calculate the dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere. Examples of simulation results are presented, and the summary also presents problems that may arise from the use of mathematical models to assessment the impact of road transport on the quality of atmospheric air.

Maria Skretowicz, Anna Galas-Szpak

Application of Multi-vector Iteration to Identification of Load Distribution in Slewing Bearing of Excavator

Equilibrium aspect of complex assemblies is important problem to deal with, because such systems are statically indeterminate with usage of classic mechanical methods. In this paper method of solving assembly of this type using numerical computation is shown. The aim of article is to present possibility of using optimization methods such as Newton-Raphson method to finding equilibrium of forces and torques as well as presenting description of object in terms of mechanic, which is need to properly define equation systems to solve. Described method is finally applied to slewing bearing of crawling excavator. Load distribution for every rolling element and change in contact angle is presented.

Michał Smolnicki, Tadeusz Smolnicki

Numerical Modelling of Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Construction Elements in a Heat Storage Unit with Phase Change

This paper presents the results of simulations of thermal stresses occurring in a thermal energy storage unit with a phase-change material. The simulations have been performed for a smooth tube and two different airflow velocities. The thermal stresses occurring in the thermal energy storage unit are caused by the heating of the material of the tubes and a change in the volume of the phase-change material. It has been shown that the greatest thermal stresses occur during the initial heating of the thermal energy storage unit, while the location of potential damage depends on whether the stresses come from the temperature gradient in the material of the tube or from the expansion of the phase-change material.

Daniel Smykowski, Tomasz Tietze, Piotr Szulc, Kazimierz Wójs

Thermal Evaluation of Operation of Disc Brakes Made of Selected Materials

Disc brakes play a fundamental role in reliability and safety of vehicles. Because of that a coupled thermal and mechanical analyses of operation of those parts made of three common materials were performed: steel, cast iron and aluminum alloy. The best thermal properties were observed in aluminum alloy disc. On the other hand values of temperature of both steel and cast iron were significantly higher but still below permissible level.

Justyna Sokolska, Piotr Sokolski

Problems of Strength Estimation of the Vulnerable Zones in the Tools of Hydraulic Hammers for Mining

Reliability of hydraulic hammers depends to a large extent on the strength and durability of their main components. This remark applies in particular to tools of hammers that are subjected to extremely high loads. Degradation of these tools usually occurs in a few characteristic areas, i.e. in the impact zone, retainer zone, tool shank zone and tool tip zone. The causes and mechanism of the most frequent damage in the tools are explained. The numerical simulations of stress distribution in the impact zone and retainer zone were performed. Then, the strength of these zones was estimated and on this basis the maximum permissible impact velocity was determined.

Marek Sokolski, Piotr Sokolski

Thermo-Mechanical Material Modelling for Cyclic Loading a Generalized Modelling Approach to Different Material Classes

The paper presents a modelling approach for thermo-mechanically coupled problems and an experimental concept for a material law validation. The approach is generally applicable to a variety of material classes. The main objective is to integrate viscoplasticity as one major aspect in cyclic loading of high-performance polymers at small deformation gradients. After a classification of the subject a brief outline of the theoretical framework is given, which is then followed by the description of the experimental setup and some specifics to be accounted for. The Paper continues with some results of the numerical analysis on how to validate the applied material law.

Holger Sparr, Daniela Schob, Matthias Ziegenhorn

Kinematic Analysis of a Mobile Robot While Overcoming Curb

This paper proposes a simplified formulation of the kinematic model of wheeled mobile robot while negotiating threshold obstacle. Wheel angular velocity analysis has been presented to avoid wheel slip while articulated limbs are changing configuration. In order to simplify the task, a constraint to maintain level of the platform relative to the ground is assumed. Permissible velocities of robot’s actuator has been analysed. Based on the resulted limb’s motion times configuration of the robot has been obtained to accelerate the robot motion. Numerical simulation of the model of presented robot, validates wheel speed model, described in the paper.

Przemysław Sperzyński, Bogusz Lewandowski

The Impact of Piston Design on Thermal Load of Internal Combustion Engine

This article presents an analysis of piston design into thermal parameters of internal combustion engine. To improve the overall efficiency and reduction of cost, evaluation of different materials and piston crown shape were prepared. The simulation process composed of two steps. First of them was engine design in Diesel-RK Software, where operational and thermal parameters of engine were calculated. The next step was using temperatures inside combustion chamber for three types of piston (Mitsubishi, Pan and Hesselman) in ANSYS Software. Simulations were prepared in Transient – Thermal analysis module for each case. For most efficient piston design the various types of materials (Aluminum alloys, Magnesium alloys, Titanium alloys, Low-alloyed steel) were explored to investigate thermal properties of design. Despite the fact, that the maximum values of total heat flux and convection were lowest for Mitsubishi piston crown design, this construction is stable and deviations of values are lower. Additionally, from Diesel-RK Mitsubishi design is most efficient in heat flow through engine parts. Magnesium alloys can be applied as piston material because of their high thermal conductivity and titanium alloys could be used thanks to low thermal conductivity, which results in higher performance of the engine.

Zbigniew J. Sroka, Kacper M. Kot

Analysis of the Influence of Leaf Geometry on Stiffness and Effort of the Heavy-Duty Spring

The article discusses how the basic geometrical parameters of the leaf have an effect on a spring effort. On the example of a selected leaf of a parabolic spring with a length of 1800 mm, stress distributions in the leaf were shown at a given deflection. The influence of the rolling rate of a parabolic leaf on its stiffness and effort was analysed.

Mariusz Stańco

Failure Analysis of a Damaged U-Bolt Top Plate in a Leaf Spring

The article discusses the causes of fatigue cracking of the top cap plate in the leaf spring used in heavy-duty vehicles. The results of the experimental studies conducted on the special test stand are presented. Next, the results of the numerical analysis of the top plate were discussed and finally compared with the results of the experiment.

Mariusz Staco, Paulina Działak, Maciej Hejduk

Development of Measuring Points for Experimental Tests of Loads on the Driving Axle of a City Bus

The article presents the method of selection of measuring points on the elements of the rear drive axle in order to identify the maximum loads occurring when the bus is both empty and filled with passengers. Selected waveforms recorded during measurements are also presented.

M. Stańco, A. Górski, D. Derlukiewicz

Static and Dynamic Tests of Suspension System Heavy Off-road Vehicle

In paper are presented results of static and dynamic tests conducted on 4 axles heavy off-road vehicle, which crossing over 300 mm height obstacle. During test was measured stress state and deformation when vehicle drive through obstacle for different velocities. The aim of work was determination of maximum stress state and deformations in mounted parabolic springs.

M. Stańco, A. Iluk, M. Sawicki

Studies of Resistances of Natural Liquid Flow in Helical and Curved Pipes

The main aim of this research was to determine in two ways, i.e. experimentally and by means of numerical modelling, the resistances of the flow of a natural liquid in a helical pipe and in curved pipe. The analyses were carried out for two pipes: one helical pipe and one curved pipe. Each of the pipes was 2 m long and its inside diameter was 4 mm.The experiment was carried out on a test stand making it possible to measure the rate of the flow of the liquid, the temperature at the pipe’s inlet and outlet and the pressure at the pipe’s inlet and outlet. Moreover, numerical modelling was performed using the finite volume element method.

Michał Stosiak, Maciej Zawiślak, Bohdan Nishta

Designing Gear Pump Bodies Using FEM

Gear pump make the largest and the most frequently applied group of fluid power energy generators [1]. It results from a number of the pumps’ qualities.

J. Stryczek, K. Biernacki, J. Krawczyk

Modal Analyses of Small Wind Turbine

This paper is based on the previously described optimisation algorithm applied to a small wind turbine [1]. The considered optimisation procedure, includes static and buckling cases although modal analyses aspect has not been taken under consideration. The aim of this work is to evaluate how the optimisation procedure affects modal frequencies of the turbine structure and to determine whether a modal criterion should be included in the definition of the optimisation process.

Tomasz Szafranski, Jerzy Malachowski, Krzysztof Damaziak

Force Measurement Module for Mechatronic Nordic Walking Poles

The article presents the investigations on force measuring system designed for mechatronic Nordic Walking poles. The purpose of the work is to develop special Nordic Walking (NW) poles that would provide the basic kinematic and dynamic parameters of gait to perform investigation the effect of walking with NW poles in the rehabilitation. In particular, a dedicated measuring module is presented using resistance strain gauges, measuring circuit and the results obtained on a dedicated rig.

Jaroslaw Szrek, Artur Muraszkowski, Jacek Bałchanowski, Slawomir Wudarczyk, Ryszard Jasiński, Tadeusz Niebudek, Marek Woźniewski

Modelling of Thermal and Flow Processes in a Thermal Energy Storage Unit with a Phase-Change Material

This paper presents results of the studies on the impact of different variants of the internal design of a thermal energy storage unit on the heat exchange process in a model, representative segment of the thermal energy storage unit filled with phase-change material (PCM). The influence of different configuration of fins on the heat exchange process was analysed. The results obtained from calculations were compared with the results for the design of the thermal energy storage unit with a smooth pipe. There were analysed parameters such as the temperature distribution in the phase-change material, the temperature of the charging medium at the outlet of the thermal energy storage unit, as well as the position and shape of the liquid-solid interface during the phase transition process.

Piotr Szulc, Daniel Smykowski, Tomasz Tietze, Kazimierz Wójs

FEM Analysis of Mini-Plate for Osteosynthesis of Mandibular Fractures Dedicated for Future Manufacturing with Additive Technologies (AM)

The purpose of this study was to design a 3D geometry of mini-plate for mandibular angle fracture, based on biomechanical properties, that will be possible to manufacture with additive technologies (AM). Three types of internal structures (lattice, cross and honey comb) were selected and compare the results of displacement and von Mises stress distributions based on Finite Element Method (FEM). The results show that the mini-plate with optimal structure (cross-shaped) for which the thickness of struts was applied at the level of 0.5 mm is characterized with best properties can be fabricated with use of AM to satisfy the urgent time requirements for treatment.

Patrycja Szymczyk, Małgorzata Rusińska, Grzegorz Ziółkowski, Beata Łoś, Edward Chlebus

Correlation of Hydraulic and Pneumatic Tightness for Brake Fluid Reservoir Non Return Valve

The tightness and leakage of the fluid vessel used in automotive industry is a factor important for safety of the car users. In the paper an alternative method of calculation and test of leakage in Non-Return Valves (NRV) in brake fluid reservoirs was presented. The valves were designed to keep hydraulic tightness in case of connection loss between the reservoir and a pump, i.e. during crash of a car. The factory hydraulic tightness tests are problematic and time consuming. A research of a possibility of testing valves with air instead of brake fluid was presented in the paper.

Maciej Wnuk, Artur Iluk

Linked a Priori and a Posteriori Models of Composite Manufacturing Process Chain

Efficient production process chains are a prerequisite for a novel automated process for the large-volume production of lightweight structures. The authors demonstrated that by combining high-strength steel, continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic (organic sheet) and long fiber reinforced thermoplastic molding compound (LFT), components can be produced efficiently in “3D-Hybrid” technology with high lightweight potential. To reach this goal - by reason of the complexitivity of these technologies - the development of novel simulation methods was required, which formed a link between the previous standalone solutions for process simulations and an interface to the structure simulation. Pure ‘a priori’ simulation models did not meet requirements for accuracy of obtained results. Furthermore, online quality assurance system in component manufacturing was developed, which enabled continuous data measurement of the production parameters in all process steps. Outcomes from experiments and simulations are collected in a database and analyzed with stochastic methods. An effective linked ‘a priori’ and ‘a posteriori’ design of a complex manufacturing process chain was investigated and described in the article.

J. Wollmann, D. R. Haider, M. Krahl, A. Langkamp, M. Gude

Simulation of a System for Controlling Atmosphere in Furnace Used to Heating of Blanks

In the paper is presented an example of the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) system to control of air humidity inside chamber of the furnace used for heating of blanks made from 22MnB5 steel in process of hot-stamping. Such systems are installed in the furnaces to eliminate a hazard of so called hydrogen embrittlement occurring in produced workpieces. The simulation was performed for a single segment of chamber of vertical furnace. Parameters of the simulation have been defined and results of the simulation have been presented and discussed. Conclusions and recommendations have been formulated.

Ireneusz Wróbel, Krzysztof Sikora

Kinematic Design of the Drilling Rig Boom

Drilling rigs are widely used in mining and road tunnel construction. An important requirement for these machines is maintain the drill orientation constantly parallel to the main axis of the machine. In the work the problems of designing the kinematics of the drill boom mechanisms are considered. The paper presents selected aspects of designing the kinematics of the boom. For the representative solution the results were verified by simulations in the multibody system.

Sławomir Wudarczyk, Jacek Bałchanowski, Jarosław Szrek

Modeling of Energy Recovery from Lowering the Fork Carriage Using the Adams System

The paper discusses a model of energy consumption of a forklift equipped with an innovative fork carriage lifting system. This solution is protected by patent right [16] and may be employed in typical forklifts. The concept of recovering potential energy in the forklift’s lifting mechanism is effected by employing ball screw instead of a hydraulic actuator with chain strand. This solution ensures the best conditions for recuperation and allows to extend the machine’s battery life without a need for loading. Hereinafter presented is a three-dimensional model developed with the use of Autodesk Inventor, as well as a simulation of that solution developed in MSC Adams program. The principle and the conditions required for that solution were determined. The amount of recovered energy is dependent on the potential energy of the lowered load and the energy recovery efficiency. This issue will be subject to further work.

P. Zajac, S. Kwasniowski

Modeling of the Energy Consumption of a Forklift Truck Using the Matlab Simulink System

Forklifts used in warehouse logistics systems are used for reloading and/or handling works. This paper discusses the subject of handling work, i.e. the overcoming of straight routes by forklifts, with load placed on its forks, or without load, in alleys (corridors) arranged around storage racks. After collecting or putting the cargo away, they must reach the reloading terminal or other operating places in the warehouse, and then they have to make another turn left or right. These turns are usually sharp, at a 90° angle. The calculations in the paper were performed at time-minimized travels, with the use of Matlab Simulink package.

P. Zajac, P. Skorupski

Brown Coal – Today and in the Future

The article presents the characteristic of Polish lignite mining industry against the European and global backdrop. Issues related to defined limitations for the future development of the lignite mining industry have been raised, both in terms of formal, legislative and investment aspects. Moreover, the potential that we currently own for maintaining the strategic role of lignite in Polish energetic mix after 2030 has been indicated. It ensures stable, socially and environmentally friendly as well as cheap electricity for the country’s economy and society. Therefore, the retention of potential of the lignite mining industry after 2030 on the level 20–25% seems to be necessity rather than possibility.

Sławomir Zawada

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