Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
In previous chapters we have focused on 10 states outside the “European neighborhood” which responded to EU chemical regulation in different ways. However, there are more states affected by REACH which had to act. Some of them are more integrated into international networks and were proactive on the international level from the early beginning (Switzerland, Canada, Australia) while others have similar attitudes like the BRIC countries. In this chapter chemical regulation in some remaining countries will be explored and at which level are they affected by REACH, regardless of their geographic position in order to improve the complete picture about EU chemical regulation on the international level. This chapter deals with the chemical regulation within Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Switzerland including other countries which decided to improve its chemical management.
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Substance may become CEPA-toxic based on a showing of potential harm under the evidence of significant hazard or exposure, not necessarily both. This attitude is similar to REACH precautionary principle (see Denison 2009b).
To the Toxic Substances List are placed chemicals which have or may have an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment or its biological diversity, constitute or may constitute a danger to the environment on which life depends or constitute or may constitute a danger in Canada to human life or health.
This is defined as: „the ultimate reduction of the quantity or concentration of the substance in the release below the level of quantification specified by the Ministers in the List referred to in subsection“ (Section 65).
This is only approximate number as the methodology used may differ (e.g. DG TRADE may consider under chapter chemicals different items of goods than the World Bank).
Swiss authority uses IUCLID 5 format for dossier submission which is another important similarity with EU REACH.
Abelkop ADK, Graham JD (2015) Regulation of chemical risks: lessons for reform of the Toxic Substances Control Act from Canada and the European Union. Pace Environ Law Rev 32(1):108–224
Australian Government (2015) National industrial chemicals notification and assessment scheme. http://www.nicnas.gov.au/regulation-and-compliance/nicnas-handbook/handbook-main-content/which-notification-category-do-i-need-for-a-new-chemical/do-i-apply-for-a- permit-or-an-assessment-certificate. Accessed 29 Nov 2015
Chemical Watch (2008) Switzerland faces tough choices on REACH. https://chemicalwatch.com/592/switzerland-faces-tough-choices-on-reach. Accessed 29 Nov 2015
Chemical Watch (2009) Chemicals regulation in the middle East – an overview. Global business briefing, May 2009. https://chemicalwatch.com/2221/chemicals-regulation-in-the-middle-east-an-overview. Accessed 21 Sept 2015
Chemical Watch (2013) Mexico launches chemical substances inventory. https://chemicalwatch.com/13446/mexico-launches-chemical-substances-inventory. Accessed 21 Nov 2015
Denison RA (2009b) Statement of Richard A. Denison, Ph.D. Senior scientist environmental defense fund before the U.S House of Representatives Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Commerce, Trade, and Consumer Protection at a Hearing on Revisiting the Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976. Washington, 26 February 2009. http://www.edf.org/sites/default/files/9295_Denison_testimony_Toxics_Act_0.pdf. Accessed 12 Dec 2016
DG TRADE (2015b) European union trade in goods with Australia. European Commission http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2006/september/tradoc_113346.pdf. Accessed 29 Nov 2015
EPA (2015a) Persistent organic pollutants: a global issue, a global response. Environmental Protection Agency. http://www2.epa.gov/international-cooperation/persistent-organic-pollutants-global-issue-global-response. Accessed 17 Nov 2015
EPA (2015b) How to determine if a substance is hazardous. Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.epa.govt.nz/hazardous-substances/about/what-is-hs/Pages/default.aspx. Accessed 19 Nov 2015
EPA (2015c) Substances exempt from the HSNO Act. Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.epa.govt.nz/hazardous-substances/about/what-is-hs/Pages/Exempt-substances.aspx. Accessed 29 Nov 2015
FEON (2007) Impact of REACH on Switzerland. Switzerland’s options to Act, and consequences for the environment, health and the economy. Federal office for the environment. environmental studies 33
WITS (2015) World integrated trade solutions. Available at: http://wits.worldbank.org (14 Feb 2016)
Wordsworth A (2007) Chemicals policy in Canada, the European Union and the United States. European and Canadian Environmental Law: Best Practices and Opportunities for Co-operation. Canadian Environmental Law Association
- REACH and “the Rest of the World”
- Chapter 9