Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
One hundred years ago, the first hydropower plant started to generate electricity in China. Since then, China has constructed tens of thousands of dams within its borders. While back in 1910, discussions surrounded the question as to whether the Shilongba dam should be financed with national or foreign capital, today, debates about hydropower development touch upon social, environmental, political as well as economic questions. This chapter traces these developments over the past century with a special focus on the changes that have taken place over the past three decades of reform and opening up. This chapter specifically aims to answer the question as to why—despite recent economic and political changes in China—large and socially as well as environmentally unsustainable dams are still being built. To provide an answer, the chapter applies the framework for large-scale development schemes developed by James Scott (Seeing Like A State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed (New Haven: Yale University Press), 1998) and adapts his analysis to the current process of dam construction in China. It shows that despite an increase in political pluralisation, policy in China continues to be driven by statist actors with only limited input from society. The hydropower bureaucracy is powerful both in financial and political terms. While political actors aim to secure clean energy for the country’s growth, China’s hydropower companies seek to increase their profitable business along major domestic and international rivers.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
China Water Conservancy Encyclopaedia 中囯水利百科全书 (1991) China Water Power (Beijing: China Water Power Press).
Energy Information Agency, United States (2010) China Energy Data–Statistics and Analysis– Oil, Gas, Electricity, Coal, www.eia.doe.gov [Accessed 13 January 2011].
Manuscript of China’s Water Resources History 中国水利史稿 (1989) China Water Research (Beijing: China Water Power Press).
New York Times (2011) Special Series: Choking on Growth, www.nytimes.com [Accessed 14 January 2011].
People’s Republic of China, National Development Reform Commission (NDRC) and Ministry of Environmental Protection (2011) ‘河流水电规划报告及规划环境影响报告书审查暂 行办法‘ [Provisional Measures Regarding the River Hydropower Project Report and the Planning of Investigating the Environmental Impact Report], www.sdpc.gov.cn [Accessed 15 July 2012].
Xinhua (2011a) ‘国民经济和社会发展第十二个五年规划纲要(全文)’ [China’s Twelfth Five- Year Plan - Full Text], www.gov.cn [Accessed 3 February 2012].
Xinhua (2011c) ‘China Vows to Curb Environmental Deterioration in Three Gorges Project Areas by 2020,’ www.news.xinhuanet.com [Accessed 1 June 2011].
Xinhua (2012) ‘Full text of Constitution of Communist Party of China,’ www.news.xinhuanet.com [Accessed 18 November 2012].
Yunnan Net (2011) ‘省政府与大唐集团签署战略合作框架协议’ [The Provincial Government and Datang Group Sign a Framework Agreement on Strategic Cooperation], www.yn.yunnan.cn [Accessed 30 March 2011].
Andrews-Speed, P. and Ma, X. (2008) ‘Energy Production and Social Marginalisation in China’ Journal of Contemporary China, 17.
Caijing Magazine (2011a) ‘水电地方帐’ [Local accounts of hydropower], www.magazine.caijing.com.cn [Accessed 29 April 2011].
Caijing Magazine (2011b) ‘水电提速困局’ [Problems surrounding the quick development of hydropower], www.magazine.caijing.com.cn [Accessed 29 April 2011].
China New Energy Net. (2011). 十二五”规划: 水电是能源发展主攻方向之一 [ The 12th Five-Year Plan: Hydroelectric Power is One of the Major Directions of Resource Development]. Retrieved from: http://www.newenergy.org.cn/html/0114/4111139614.html
Habich, Sabrina. (2016) Dams, Migration and Authoritarianism in China: The Local State in Yunnan. London: Routledge.
Cooper, Caroline. M. (2006). “This is Our Way In’: The Civil Society of Environmental NGOs in Southwest China,” Government and Opposition, 41(1), 109–136.
Yang, Guobin. (2005). “Environmental NGOs and Institutional Dynamics in China,” The China Quarterly, 181, 46–66. doi: 10.1017/S0305741005000032. Bragg, C. K. (2003) ‘“Crossing a River by Groping for Stones”: Factors reshaping the Policy Innovation Process for Chinese Water Policies,’ Public Administration Quarterly, 27(3/4).
Ho, Peter. (2007). “Embedded Activism and Political Change in a Semiauthoritarian Context,” China Information, 21(2), 187–209.
Büsgen, Michael. (2006). “NGOs and the Search for Chinese Civil Society: Environmental Non-Governmental Organisations in the Nujiang Campaign.” Working Paper Series No. 422, Institute of Social Studies, ORPAS.
Bragg, C. K. (2003) ‘“Crossing a River by Groping for Stones”: Factors reshaping the Policy Innovation Process for Chinese Water Policies,’ Public Administration Quarterly, 27(3/4).
Cherni, J. A. and Kentish, J. (2007) ‘Renewable Energy Policy and Electricity Market Reforms in China,’ Energy Policy, 35(7).
Dai, Q. (1998) ‘The Three Gorges Project: A Symbol of Uncontrolled Development in the Late Twentieth Century.” In Dai, Q. (ed.) The River Dragon Has Come: The Three Gorges Dam and the Fate of China’s Yangtze River and Its People (New York: M.E. Sharpe).
Deng, G. Kennedy, S. (2010) Big Business and Industry Association Lobbying in China: The Paradox of Contrasting Styles, The China Journal, 63,101–125.
Fu, S (1998) ‘A Profile of Dams in China.’ In Qing, D. (ed.) The River Dragon Has Come: The Three Gorges Dam and the Fate of China’s Yangtze River and Its People (New York: M.E. Sharpe).
Hensengerth, O. (2010) ‘Sustainable Dam Development in China between Global Norms and Local Practices,’ Discussion Paper (Bonn: DIE).
Hilton, I. (2012) ‘We should look behind the Curtain,’ The Third Pole, www.chinadialogue.net [Accessed 1 February 2012].
Holbig, H. (2007) ‘Demokratie chinesischer Prägung: Der XVII. Parteitag der Kommunistischen Partei Chinas’ [Democracy, Chinese Style: The 17th Party Congress of the Chinese Communist Party,] China Aktuell - Journal of Current Chinese Affairs.
Hsü, L. (1933) Sun Yat-sen: His Political and Social Ideals (Los Angeles: University of Southern California Press).
Jackson, S. and Sleigh, A. (2000) ‘Resettlement for China’s Three Gorges Dam: Socio-economic Impact and Institutional Tensions,’ Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 33.
Lai, H. (2006) Reform and the Non-State Economy in China: The Political Economy of Liberalization Strategies (New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
Lam, W. (2006) Chinese Politics in the Hu Jintao Era: New Readers, New Challenges (Armonk, NY: Sharpe).
Larson, C. (2008) ‘China’s New Environmental Advocates,’ Yale e360, www.yale.edu [Accessed 28 January 2011].
Lerer, B. and Scudder, T. (1999) ‘Health Impacts of Large Dams,’ Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 19(2).
Li, J. (2009) ‘Hydropower Projects on Jinsha River Ordered to Halt,’ www.china.org.cn [Accessed 13 January 2011].
Lieberthal, K. (2003) Governing China: From Revolution to Reform (New York: Norton & Company).
Lieberthal K. and Oksenberg, M. (1988) Policy Making in China: Leaders Structures, Processes (Princeton: Princeton University Press).
Lin, T. (2007) ‘Environmental NGOs and the Anti-Dam Movements in China: A Social Movement with Chinese Characteristics,’ Issues & Studies, 43(4).
Liu, L. (2011) ‘A Fault on the Nu River,’ The Third Pole, www.chinadialogue.net [Accessed 27 March 2011].
Ma, Z. (2000) ‘中国大陆第一座水电站-石龙坝水电站‘ [China’s first Hydropower Station– Shilongba Dam] Zhongguo Dianli Qiye Guanli, 4.
Magee, D. (2006) ‘Powershed Politics: Yunnan Hydropower under Great Western Development,’ The China Quarterly, 185.
McCully, P. (2001) Silenced Rivers: The Ecology and Politics of Large Dams (London: Zed Books).
Meng, S. (2011) Is hydropower exploitation of the Nu river in China ‚a must‘? China Dialogue, 14 February 2011, Retrieved from: https://www.chinadialogue.net/article/4105-Hydropower-s-green-excuse.
Mertha, A.et al., (2006) Unbuilt Dams: Seminal Events and Policy Change in China, Australia, and the United States. Comparative Politics 39(1),1–20.
Mertha, A. (2008) China’s Water Warriors: Citizen Action and Policy Change (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press).
Mertha, A. (2009) ‘“Fragmented Authoritarianism 2.0”: Political Pluralization in the Chinese Policy Process,’ The China Quarterly, 200.
OECD. (2006) China’s Power Sector Reform: Where to Next? Paris: OECD/IEA.
People’s Daily (2010) China to lift installed hydropower capacity by 50%, www.english.peopledaily.com.cn.
Pietz, D. A. (2002) Engineering the State: The Huai River and Reconstruction in Nationalist China, 1927–1937 (London: Routledge).
Rosen, D.H. and Houser, T. (2007) ‘China Energy, a Guide for the Perplexed,’ China Balance Sheet, www.petersoninstitute.org [Accessed 24 September 2010].
Schwartz, L. (2004) ‘Environmental NGOs in China: Roles and Limits,’ Pacific Affairs, 77(1).
Scott, J. C. (1998) Seeing Like A State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed (New Haven: Yale University Press).
Shapiro, J. (2001) Mao’s War Against Nature: Politics and the Environment in Revolutionary China (New York: Cambridge University Press). CrossRef
Sun, Y. (1922) The International Development of China (New York and London: The Knickerbocker Press).
Sun, Y. and Zhao, D. (2007) ‘Multifaceted State and Fragmented Society: Dynamics of Environmental Movement in China.’ In Yang, D. L. (ed.) Discontented Miracle: Growth, Conflict, and Institutional Adaptations in China (Singapore: World Scientific Publishing).
Wang, H. (2006) China’s New Order: Society, Politics and Economy in Transition (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).
Xu, Jianchu. et al., (2005) Integrating Sacred Knowledge for Conservation: Cultures and Landscapes in Southwest China, Ecology and Society 10(2):7.
Ye, Z. (2010) Big is Modern: The Making of Wuhan as a Mega-City in Early Twentieth Century China, 1889–1957. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.
Yeh, E. T. and Lewis, J. I. (2004) ‘State Power and the Logic of Reform in China’s Electricity Sector,’ Pacific Affairs, 77: 3.
Zhang, L. (2000) ‘Social Impacts of Large Dams: The China Case.’ In Adams, William (ed.) The Social Impact of Large Dams: Equity and Distribution Issues (Cape Town: World Commission on Dams).
Zheng, C., Zhao, W., and Jing, P. (1970) 中国水利史 [China Water Resources History] (Taipei: Taiwan Shangwu Yinshuguan.)
Zhou, J. 周竞红 (2010) ‘走向各民族共同繁荣–民族地区大型水电资源开发研究’ [Moving Towards Common Prosperity of Every Ethnic Group] (Beijing: Waterpub).
Zhu, X. (2008) ‘Government Advisors or Public Advocates? Roles of Think Tanks in China from the Perspective of Regional Variations,’ The China Quarterly, 207.
Zhu, X. (2011) ‘Strategy of Chinese policy entrepreneurs in the third sector: challenges of “Technical Infeasibility,”’ Policy Sciences, 41.
- Reasons to Dam: China’s Hydropower Politics and Its Socio-Environmental Consequences
- Palgrave Macmillan US
- Chapter 5
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, digitale Transformation/© Maksym Yemelyanov | Fotolia