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Programming demands mastery, on a massive scale, of fine grained complexity springing from a network of constraints: some logical, some stylistic and some an ill-defined combination. Principles of program style and structured programming – such as, modularity, encapsulation, and localization of scope – minimize complexity and so facilitate program understanding through flow-structure visualization. Principles of program style, naturally developed through stepwise refinement, are made manifest through layout conventions, and can significantly facilitate understanding of the all-important flow structure. Poor, incomplete and outdated stylistic aids, a natural consequence of the Happy Hacker Syndrome, can seriously misdirect program understanding. IT-system documentation, such as design diagrams and notes, can similarly assist program understanding, or misdirect it. Programming in the small is totally different from large IT system development – size really does matter. Whiz-kid hackers are the worst IT-system developers. IT-system maintenance is first introduced as a further aggravation in our quest for high-quality IT systems. A lot of IT-system maintenance is debugging, i.e., finding and fixing errors.
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