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Über dieses Buch

This second edition reveals how the resilient city characteristics have been achieved in communities around the globe. The authors offer stories, insights, and inspiration for urban planners, policymakers, and professionals interested in creating more sustainable, equitable, and, eventually, regenerative cities. Most importantly, the book is about overcoming fear and generating hope in our cities. Cities will need to claim a different future that helps us regenerate the whole planet–this is the challenge of resilient cities.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Introduction: Urban Resilience: Cities of Fear and Hope

Resilience in our personal lives is about lasting, about making it through crises, about inner strength and strong physical constitution. Resilience is destroyed by fear, which causes us to panic, reduces our inner resolve, and eventually debilitates our bodies. Resilience is built on hope, which gives us confidence and strength. Hope is not blind to the possibility of everything getting worse, but it is a choice we can make when faced with challenges. Hope brings health to our souls and bodies.
Peter Newman, Timothy Beatley, Heather Boyer

Chapter 1. Invest in Renewable and Distributed Energy

In the first edition of this book, we wrote about a group of cities showing how to experiment with solar energy and wind power. They were proudly and bravely stepping into a largely unknown world, passionate about starting a journey that had to be embarked on no matter what it cost. These included Masdar City in the United Arab Emirates; Freiburg and Kronsberg in Germany; Malmö in Sweden; Perth, Adelaide, Melbourne, and Sydney in Australia; Cape Town in South Africa; Daegu in South Korea; Barcelona in Spain; London in the United Kingdom; Toronto in Canada; and Seattle, Chicago, San Francisco, Sacramento, Austin, Atlanta, and Honolulu in the United States. Today most of these cities are ramping up their commitments and countless others are joining them, as doing so is no longer an economic burden but an economic necessity. This chapter is about the rise of renewable energy and how it is providing new opportunities for resilient cities.
Peter Newman, Timothy Beatley, Heather Boyer

Chapter 2. Create Sustainable Mobility Systems

Most of the oil consumed in the world is for transport. But transport can phase out oil rapidly, just as power systems are phasing out fossil fuels, as shown in chapter 1. As with power systems, this change will be driven by the world’s cities through advances in technology and strategic changes in the way cities are designed, planned, and operated. A new system of sustainable mobility is already emerging rapidly, as we show in this chapter.
Peter Newman, Timothy Beatley, Heather Boyer

Chapter 3. Foster Inclusive and Healthy Cities

A city is only as resilient as its most vulnerable residents. A resilient city provides access to healthy food, clean water and air, safe transportation infrastructure, healthy buildings, and health services for all citizens. But as the economic divide increases between the haves and have-nots, the health disparities increase, leaving the neediest with the fewest resources to face any type of disruption. “The gap between the rich and the poor in most countries is at its highest levels since 30 years,” according to the report prepared by the United Nations’ 2016 Habitat III Conference in Quito, Ecuador, which created the New Urban Agenda referred to in this chapter’s opening quotation. In cities in much of the developed world, air pollution levels have lowered as cars and industry have been regulated to reduce their emissions, while air pollution is rising in many of the worlds’ poorest cities. In the United States, as markets have responded to the demand for walkable, transit-oriented neighborhoods, those with access are increasingly upper-class residents, while lower-income residents retreat to the more affordable areas, where they are often left with limited access to jobs and few healthy transportation options. Todd Litman, executive director of the Victoria Transport Policy Institute, reports: “On average, the lowest income quintile (fifth of households) spends 40% of its budget on housing and 15% on transportation, leaving little money for other important goods. If lower-income households cannot afford healthy food or healthcare, the actual cause is usually high housing and transportation costs, since for each dollar spent on food and healthcare they typically spend three to five dollars on housing and transport.” While many reports of the resurgence of urban centers are largely stories of success, they reflect only part of the picture of these urban regions, where different zip codes may reflect very disparate health realities. If the global knowledge economy is creating new jobs in dense urban centers, then how do we manage the growing loss of jobs and access to jobs on the fringes of our cities as they become fringes of the economy?
Peter Newman, Timothy Beatley, Heather Boyer

Chapter 4. Shape Disaster Recovery for the Future

Every city has a disaster at some time in its history. A few may have been mild, as in Perth, which has experienced only mild earthquakes and flooding, but urban history is dotted with disasters. The ancient city of Megiddo in the Middle East—after which the word “armageddon” was derived to mean “a dramatic and catastrophic conflict, especially one seen as likely to destroy the world or the human race”—is now just a large archaeological mound. Those working on the site have found twenty-two cities buried beneath the surface that were built and destroyed at some point in history. Megiddo’s problem was that it lay in the path of invading armies from the east and west.
Peter Newman, Timothy Beatley, Heather Boyer

Chapter 5. Build Biophilic Urbanism in the City and Its Bioregion

Biophilic urbanism is based on the knowledge that humans have an innate connection with nature that should be expressed in our daily lives, especially in cities. This has not been a strong feature of architectural principles (even though there is a long tradition of landscape architecture), yet potentially it offers great rewards if it is implemented in the structure of the built environment. This chapter looks at the multiple co-benefits of biophilic urbanism within the city and how it can help in overcoming fossil fuel dependence and making a more resilient city.
Peter Newman, Timothy Beatley, Heather Boyer

Chapter 6. Produce a More Cyclical and Regenerative Metabolism

As we approach the end of this book, we look toward some more visionary unfinished agendas for resilient cities that are also related to overcoming fossil fuel dependence. In recent years there has been a focus on the nine “planetary boundaries” that show how human activities, mostly in cities, are setting up limits to our growth. The constraints are dominated by climate change and biophysical integrity, which we have addressed so far, but the main agenda is that more focus is needed on the metabolism of our cities. How can we reduce the flow of nutrients and materials that end up in wastewater and landfill and also reduce the flow of fossil fuels into greenhouse gases and waste heat? Can cities take up the urban metabolism agenda in new and creative ways, maybe even creating a regenerative metabolism?
Peter Newman, Timothy Beatley, Heather Boyer

Conclusion: Growing Regeneratively

The driving force for global resilience will continue to be cities. This book has suggested six principles to create resilient cities and, perhaps, even regenerative cities. We need to create cities that rapidly accelerate the process of decoupling economic growth from fossil fuels. We need to use the knowledge and creative force of cities to build rooftop solar systems and utility-scale solar and wind farms instead of continuing with coal and gas power stations. We need to use the innovative skills of urban design to create walkable, transit-oriented cities with new and exciting ways of using solar-based electric transport instead of using oil. We need to use integrated co-design and partnerships with business, government, and civil society to make cities more inclusive, healthy, disaster ready, biophilic, waste-free with more circular metabolism, and regenerative.
Peter Newman, Timothy Beatley, Heather Boyer

Backmatter

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